Preprint Hypothesis Version 3 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

The Driving Force and Progressive Mechanisms of Evolution Deduced from Thermodynamics

Version 1 : Received: 30 September 2020 / Approved: 1 October 2020 / Online: 1 October 2020 (08:53:19 CEST)
Version 2 : Received: 2 October 2020 / Approved: 2 October 2020 / Online: 2 October 2020 (14:36:24 CEST)
Version 3 : Received: 3 November 2020 / Approved: 3 November 2020 / Online: 3 November 2020 (12:46:41 CET)
Version 4 : Received: 19 November 2020 / Approved: 20 November 2020 / Online: 20 November 2020 (11:30:48 CET)
Version 5 : Received: 27 November 2020 / Approved: 27 November 2020 / Online: 27 November 2020 (16:45:19 CET)

How to cite: Chen, J. The Driving Force and Progressive Mechanisms of Evolution Deduced from Thermodynamics. Preprints 2020, 2020100004 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202010.0004.v3). Chen, J. The Driving Force and Progressive Mechanisms of Evolution Deduced from Thermodynamics. Preprints 2020, 2020100004 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202010.0004.v3).

Abstract

Studies on evolution have made significant progress in multiple disciplines, but evolutionary theories remain scattered and controversial. Here we deduce that, thermodynamically, many carbon-based entities (CBEs) on the Earth tend to absorb energy from widespread relatively temperate heat streams on the Earth flowing from the solar, geothermal, and other energy sources, to form higher-hierarchy CBEs (HHCBEs). This has been the driving force of evolution leading to accumulation of HHCBEs for billions of years. We further deduce three progressive mechanisms of evolution including natural selection from the driving force. We hence establish the CBE evolutionary theory (CBEET) which reinterprets the major aspects of evolution in a comprehensive and comprehensible way. The CBEET provides novel explanations for natural selection, origin of life (abiogenesis), macroevolution, sympatric speciation, and evolutionary tempos. It suggests that evolution is driven hierarchy-wise by thermodynamics and favors fitness and diversity. It elucidates that altruism, collaboration, and obeying rules with balanced freedom are important throughout the CBE evolution which includes chemical evolution, biological evolution, and animal group evolution. The CBEET refutes several erroneous views including negative entropy and survival of the fittest. It integrates with research advances in multiple disciplines and links up laws of physics, evolution in biology, and harmonious development of human society.

Subject Areas

driving force; energy; evolution; fitness; mechanism; natural selection; speciation; thermodynamics; theory

Comments (1)

Comment 1
Received: 3 November 2020
Commenter: Ji-Ming Chen
Commenter's Conflict of Interests: Author
Comment: Compared with Version 2, Version 3 of this article maintains the major deduction processes and the major conclusions, and has been optimized in expression throughout from the abstract to the conclusion section, including the two figures and the one table. The deduction from thermodynamics has been simplified (using the second law of thermodynamics to replace the formula of Gibbs  free energy). Meanwhile,  a supplementary file is added to detail the deduction from thermodynamics and refute the notion of negative entropy.
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