Preprint Hypothesis Version 11 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

The Carbon-Based Evolutionary Theory (CBET)

Version 1 : Received: 30 September 2020 / Approved: 1 October 2020 / Online: 1 October 2020 (08:53:19 CEST)
Version 2 : Received: 2 October 2020 / Approved: 2 October 2020 / Online: 2 October 2020 (14:36:24 CEST)
Version 3 : Received: 3 November 2020 / Approved: 3 November 2020 / Online: 3 November 2020 (12:46:41 CET)
Version 4 : Received: 19 November 2020 / Approved: 20 November 2020 / Online: 20 November 2020 (11:30:48 CET)
Version 5 : Received: 27 November 2020 / Approved: 27 November 2020 / Online: 27 November 2020 (16:45:19 CET)
Version 6 : Received: 8 December 2020 / Approved: 9 December 2020 / Online: 9 December 2020 (11:01:03 CET)
Version 7 : Received: 27 January 2021 / Approved: 28 January 2021 / Online: 28 January 2021 (12:25:54 CET)
Version 8 : Received: 10 May 2021 / Approved: 10 May 2021 / Online: 10 May 2021 (10:21:15 CEST)
Version 9 : Received: 17 June 2021 / Approved: 17 June 2021 / Online: 17 June 2021 (11:56:15 CEST)
Version 10 : Received: 26 July 2021 / Approved: 26 July 2021 / Online: 26 July 2021 (12:02:52 CEST)
Version 11 : Received: 18 August 2021 / Approved: 18 August 2021 / Online: 18 August 2021 (09:57:59 CEST)
(This article belongs to the Research Topic Quantum Computing)

How to cite: Chen, J. The Carbon-Based Evolutionary Theory (CBET). Preprints 2020, 2020100004 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202010.0004.v11). Chen, J. The Carbon-Based Evolutionary Theory (CBET). Preprints 2020, 2020100004 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202010.0004.v11).

Abstract

Evolution is fundamental to natural sciences and social sciences. Existing evolutionary theories are incomplete and unable to explain multiple evolutionary issues. To establish a comprehensive and comprehensible evolutionary theory, we employ the concept carbon-based entities (CBEs), which include methane, glucose, proteins, organisms, and other entities chemically containing carbon atoms. We deduce the steps, driving forces, and mechanisms of evolution of CBEs, through integration of geology, physics (particularly the second law of thermodynamics), chemistry (particularly chemical reactions of CBEs), and biology (particularly the essence of reproduction, genomes, and natural selection). We hence establish the Carbon-Based Evolutionary Theory (CBET), which suggests that evolution is the increase in the amount, diversity, and fitness of higher-hierarchy CBEs under natural selection and driven by the organic synthesis tendency on the Earth from the thermodynamic features of the Earth. It provides better explanations for various evolutionary issues (e.g. life origin, neutral mutation, speciation, and evolutionary tempos) than existing evolutionary theories. It reveals the physiochemical roots of biological evolution and the evolutionary roots of multiple social notions important to harmonious development of human society. It refutes from a novel respect some incorrect thermodynamic notions regarding evolution (e.g. negative entropy). It hence removes contradictions between physiochemistry, biology, and social sciences, and bridges them through evolution. The CBET is reliable as per its deduction and applications. Therefore, the CBET is more scientific and comprehensive than existing evolutionary theories, and could have great significance in natural sciences and social sciences. Meanwhile, the CBET is open to optimization and extension.

Keywords

carbon-based entity; driving force; energy; evolution; fitness; mechanism; natural selection; speciation; thermodynamics; theory

Comments (1)

Comment 1
Received: 18 August 2021
Commenter: Ji-Ming Chen
Commenter's Conflict of Interests: Author
Comment: This version (version 11) is a minor revision of version 10 without changes of its viewpoints. Some sentences,  Figure 1, Figure 4, the abstract, and the Supplementary File were revised. The original Section 6 was integrated with Section 4.
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