Preprint Hypothesis Version 6 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

A Comprehensive Evolutionary Theory Deduced from Thermodynamics

Version 1 : Received: 30 September 2020 / Approved: 1 October 2020 / Online: 1 October 2020 (08:53:19 CEST)
Version 2 : Received: 2 October 2020 / Approved: 2 October 2020 / Online: 2 October 2020 (14:36:24 CEST)
Version 3 : Received: 3 November 2020 / Approved: 3 November 2020 / Online: 3 November 2020 (12:46:41 CET)
Version 4 : Received: 19 November 2020 / Approved: 20 November 2020 / Online: 20 November 2020 (11:30:48 CET)
Version 5 : Received: 27 November 2020 / Approved: 27 November 2020 / Online: 27 November 2020 (16:45:19 CET)
Version 6 : Received: 8 December 2020 / Approved: 9 December 2020 / Online: 9 December 2020 (11:01:03 CET)

How to cite: Chen, J. A Comprehensive Evolutionary Theory Deduced from Thermodynamics. Preprints 2020, 2020100004 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202010.0004.v6). Chen, J. A Comprehensive Evolutionary Theory Deduced from Thermodynamics. Preprints 2020, 2020100004 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202010.0004.v6).


Studies on evolution have made significant progress in multiple disciplines, but evolutionary theories remain incomplete, controversial, and inadequate in explaining origin of life and macroevolution. Here we create the concept of carbon-based entities (CBEs) which include methane, amino acids, proteins, bacteria, animals, plants, and other entities containing carbon atoms. We then deduce the driving force, the progressive mechanisms, and the major steps of CBE evolution from thermodynamics. We hence establish a comprehensive evolutionary theory termed the CBE evolutionary theory (CBEET), which suggests that evolution is driven hierarchy-wise by thermodynamics and favors fitness and diversity. The CBEET provides novel explanations for origin of life (abiogenesis), macroevolution, natural selection, sympatric speciation, and animal group evolution in a comprehensive and comprehensible way. It elucidates that collaboration, altruism, obeying rules with properly increased freedom are important throughout the CBE evolution. It refutes thoroughly the notion that negative entropy (negentropy) leads to biological order which is distinct from thermodynamic order. It integrates with research advances in multiple disciplines and links up laws of physics, evolution in biology, and harmonious development of human society.

Subject Areas

carbon-based entity; driving force; energy; evolution; fitness; mechanism; natural selection; speciation; thermodynamics; theory

Comments (1)

Comment 1
Received: 9 December 2020
Commenter: Ji-Ming Chen
Commenter's Conflict of Interests: Author
Comment: As compared with Version 5, we shortened the abstract, changed two sites in Figure 1, revised some sentences in main text, and added a figure (Figure 2) and two boxes. 
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