Preprint Hypothesis Version 10 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

The Carbon-Based Evolutionary Theory (CBET)

Version 1 : Received: 30 September 2020 / Approved: 1 October 2020 / Online: 1 October 2020 (08:53:19 CEST)
Version 2 : Received: 2 October 2020 / Approved: 2 October 2020 / Online: 2 October 2020 (14:36:24 CEST)
Version 3 : Received: 3 November 2020 / Approved: 3 November 2020 / Online: 3 November 2020 (12:46:41 CET)
Version 4 : Received: 19 November 2020 / Approved: 20 November 2020 / Online: 20 November 2020 (11:30:48 CET)
Version 5 : Received: 27 November 2020 / Approved: 27 November 2020 / Online: 27 November 2020 (16:45:19 CET)
Version 6 : Received: 8 December 2020 / Approved: 9 December 2020 / Online: 9 December 2020 (11:01:03 CET)
Version 7 : Received: 27 January 2021 / Approved: 28 January 2021 / Online: 28 January 2021 (12:25:54 CET)
Version 8 : Received: 10 May 2021 / Approved: 10 May 2021 / Online: 10 May 2021 (10:21:15 CEST)
Version 9 : Received: 17 June 2021 / Approved: 17 June 2021 / Online: 17 June 2021 (11:56:15 CEST)
Version 10 : Received: 26 July 2021 / Approved: 26 July 2021 / Online: 26 July 2021 (12:02:52 CEST)
Version 11 : Received: 18 August 2021 / Approved: 18 August 2021 / Online: 18 August 2021 (09:57:59 CEST)
(This article belongs to the Research Topic Quantum Computing)

How to cite: Chen, J. The Carbon-Based Evolutionary Theory (CBET). Preprints 2020, 2020100004 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202010.0004.v10). Chen, J. The Carbon-Based Evolutionary Theory (CBET). Preprints 2020, 2020100004 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202010.0004.v10).

Abstract

To establish a comprehensive and comprehensible evolutionary theory, and to use this theory to bridge physics, biology, and social sciences, we employ the concept carbon-based entities (CBEs), which include methane, glucose, proteins, organisms, and other entities chemically containing carbon atoms. We deduce the steps, driving forces, and mechanisms of evolution of CBEs through integration of geology, physics, chemistry, and biology. We hence establish the Carbon-Based Evolutionary Theory (CBET), which suggests that evolution is the increase in the amount, diversity, and fitness of higher-hierarchy CBEs under natural selection and driven by the organic synthesis tendency on the Earth from the thermodynamic features of the Earth. It provides better explanations for various evolutionary issues and social issues (e.g. life origin, natural selection, neutral mutation, diversity importance, and altruism) than previous theories. It refutes some incorrect views (e.g. negative entropy) in thermodynamics on evolution. The CBET could have great significance in various sciences.

Keywords

carbon-based entity; driving force; energy; evolution; fitness; mechanism; natural selection; speciation; thermodynamics; theory

Comments (1)

Comment 1
Received: 26 July 2021
Commenter: Ji-Ming Chen
Commenter's Conflict of Interests: Author
Comment: This version (version 10) made major revisions in multiple aspects, but the main views of this theory change not that significantly. We elucidated how lower-hierarchy CBEs evolved to higher-hierarchy CBEs step by step, and we highlighted the organic synthesis tendency from thermodynamics. The original figure and table have been greatly revised and we added two more figures. Also we added the discussion of Maxwell's demon in this version.
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