REVIEW Download: 57| View: 173| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0344.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Veterinary Medicine Keywords: horses; spermatozoa; ROS; oxidative stress; redox regulation; equine
Online: 30 September 2019 (08:06:46 CEST)
Redox regulation and oxidative stress have become areas of major interest in spermatology. Alteration of redox homeostasis is recognized as a significant cause of male factor infertility and is behind the damage that spermatozoa experience after freezing and thawing or conservation in a liquid state. While for a long time, oxidative stress was just considered an overproduction of ROS, nowadays it is considered as a consequence of redox deregulation. Many essential aspects of spermatozoa functionality are redox regulated, with reversible oxidation of thiols in cysteine residues of key proteins acting as an “on-off” switch controlling spermatic function. However, if deregulation occurs, these residues may experience irreversible oxidation and oxidative stress leading to spermatic malfunction and ultimately death. Stallion spermatozoa are “professional producers” of ROS due to their intense mitochondrial activity, and thus sophisticated systems to control redox homeostasis are also characteristic of this species. As a result, combined with the fact that embryos can easily be collected in this species, horses are a good model for the study of redox biology in the spermatozoa and its impact on the embryo.
Sun, 29 September 2019
ARTICLE Download: 42| View: 116| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0323.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Veterinary Medicine Keywords: clade 126.96.36.199c h5n1 virus; immunity evasion; ha trimer stability; thermostability; mammalian pathogenicity
Online: 29 September 2019 (05:21:52 CEST)
Since 2007, highly pathogenic clade 2.3.2 H5N1 avian influenza A [A(H5N1)] viruses have evolved to clade 188.8.131.52a, b and c, and currently only 184.108.40.206c A(H5N1) viruses circulate in wild birds and poultry. During antigenic evolution, clade 220.127.116.11a and c A(H5N1) viruses acquired both S144N and V223I mutations around the receptor binding site of hemagglutinin (HA), with S144N generating an N-glycosylation sequon. We introduced single or combined reverse mutations, N144S and/or I223V, into the HA gene of clade 18.104.22.168c A(H5N1) virus and generated PR8-derived, 2 + 6 recombinant A(H5N1) viruses. When we compared replication efficiency in embryonated chicken eggs, mammalian cells and mice, the recombinant virus containing both N144S and I223V mutations showed increased replication efficiency in avian and mammalian hosts and pathogenicity in mice. The N144S mutation significantly decreased avian receptor affinity and egg white inhibition, but not all mutations increased mammalian receptor affinity. Interestingly, the combined reverse mutations dramatically increased the thermostability of HA. Therefore, the adaptive mutations possibly acquired to evade avian immunity may decrease viral thermostability as well as mammalian pathogenicity.
Thu, 29 August 2019
ARTICLE Download: 38| View: 205| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0308.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Veterinary Medicine Keywords: horse; equine; Polo; GPS; horse welfare
Online: 29 August 2019 (08:37:57 CEST)
Polo is an equestrian team sport, consisting of Open and Women’s only handicapping systems. As cumulative player handicap increases in Open Polo, distance covered, average speeds and high intensity work performed per chukka also increase. These activities may differ in terms of distribution of, and their affect upon, match outcome in Women’s Polo, and thus have implications for equine preparation and management. This study aimed to quantify spatiotemporal differences between Open and Women’s Polo when matched for handicap and assess their affect upon chukka and match outcome using a prospective cohort design. Distance, speed and high intensity activity data were collected via player worn global positioning system (GPS) units during 16-goal Open and Women’s Polo tournaments. Notational analysis quantified chukka duration and chukka and game outcomes. Between group differences were assessed by independent samples t-tests, and two factor mixed effects ANOVA for within group analyses. Between group differences were analysed using an independent samples t-test with alpha defined a priori as p<0.05. Open and Women’s Polo differed by a small to large extent (ES: 0.54 – 1.81) for all spatiotemporal metrics. In Open Polo, players covered moderately more distance (429.0m; 238.9m to 619.0m), with small to large increases in high intensity activities performed in games won. Whereas in Women’s Polo, moderately higher maximum speeds were attained in games won (17.13 km/h; 11.86 km/h to 22.40 km/h) and a small increase in accelerations performed (5.1; 0.2 to 10.0). Open and Women’s Polo, when matched for handicap, present with small to large spatiotemporal differences that are likely of practical significance, and influence game outcome differently between codes. These differences do not necessarily mean that Polo ponies need to be trained differently for each code.
Sun, 28 July 2019
ARTICLE Download: 45| View: 136| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0322.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Veterinary Medicine Keywords: ceftiofur sodium; pharmacokinetics; NLME; beagle dogs
Online: 28 July 2019 (17:09:01 CEST)
Ceftiofur (CEF) sodium is a third-generation broad-spectrum cephalosporin commonly used in an extra-label manner in dogs for the treatment of respiratory and urinary system infections. To contribute to the literature supporting CEF use in companion animals, we have developed a compartmental, nonlinear mixed-effects (NLME) model of CEF pharmacokinetics in dogs (PK). We then used the mathematical model to predict (via Monte Carlo simulation) the duration of time for which plasma concentrations of CEF and its pharmacologically active metabolites remained above minimum inhibitory concentrations (respiratory tractEscherichia coli spp). Twelve healthy beagle dogs were administered either 2.2 mg/kg ceftiofur-sodium (CEF-Na) intravenously (I.V) or 2.2 mg/kg CEF-Na subcutaneously (S.C). Plasma samples were collected over a period of 72 hours post-administration. To produce a measurement of total CEF, both CEF and CEF metabolites were derivatized into desfuroylceftiofur acetamide (DCA) before analysis by UPLC-MS/MS. No adverse effects were reported after I.V or S.C dosing. The NLME PK models were parameterized using the stochastic approximation expectation maximization algorithm as implemented in Monolix 2018R2. A two-compartment mamillary model with first-order elimination and first-order S.C absorption best described the available kinetic data. Final parameter estimates indicate that CEF has a low systemic clearance (0.25 L/h/kg) associated with a low global extraction ratio E = 0.02) and a moderate volume of distribution (2.97 L/kg) in dogs. The absolute bioavailability after S.C administration was high (93.7%). Gender was determined to be a significant covariate in explaining the variability of S.C absorption. Our simulations predicted that a dose of 2.2 mg/kg CEF-Na S.C would produce median plasma concentrations of CEF of at least 0.5 µg/mL (MIC50) for approximately 30 hours.
Wed, 26 June 2019
REVIEW Download: 204| View: 249| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0262.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Veterinary Medicine Keywords: endocannabinoid system; anandamide; 2-AG; cannabis; cannabinoid receptor 1; cannabinoid receptor 2; PPARSa, b; Ht1a; TRPV1; GPR55; cannabidiol; CBD; THC; CBG; CBC; tetrahydrocannabinol
Online: 26 June 2019 (07:28:52 CEST)
The endocannabinoid system has been found to be pervasive in mammalian species. It has also been described in invertebrate species primitive as the Hydra. Insects apparently are devoid of this otherwise ubiquitous system that provides homeostatic balance to the nervous and immune systems, as well as many other organ systems. The endocannabinoid system (ECS) has been defined to consist of three parts: 1. Endogenous ligands, 2. G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs), and 3. Enzymes to degrade and recycle the ligands. Two endogenous molecules have been identified as ligands in the ECS to date. These are the endocannabinoids: Anandamide (arachidonoyl ethanolamide) and 2-AG (2-arachidonoyl glycerol). Two G-coupled protein receptors have been described as part of this system, with other putative GPC being considered. Coincidentally, the phytochemicals produced in large quantities by the Cannabis sativa L plant, and in lesser amounts by other plants, can interact with this system as ligands. These plant-based cannabinoids are termed, phytocannabinoids. The precise determination of the distribution of cannabinoid receptors in animal species is an ongoing project, with the canine cannabinoid receptor distribution currently receiving the most interest in non-human animals.
Fri, 5 April 2019
ARTICLE Download: 78| View: 183| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0062.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Veterinary Medicine Keywords: BCG; Eudragit, oral vaccine; tuberculosis; in vitro viability
Online: 5 April 2019 (11:59:53 CEST)
Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine is the only licensed vaccine against tuberculosis (TB) in humans and animals. It is most commonly administered parenterally but oral delivery is highly advantageous for immunisation of cattle and wildlife hosts of TB in particular. Since BCG is susceptible to inactivation in the gut, vaccine formulations were prepared from suspensions of Eudragit L100 copolymer powder and BCG in PBS, containing Tween 80, with and without the addition of mannitol or trehalose. Samples were frozen at -20oC, freeze-dried and the lyophilised powders were compressed to produce BCG-Eudragit matrices. Production of the dried powders resulted in a reduction in BCG viability. Substantial losses in viability occurred at the initial formulation stage and at the stage of powder compaction. Data indicated that the Eudragit matrix protected BCG against simulated gastric fluid (SGF). The matrices remained intact in SGF and dissolved completely in SIF within three hours. The inclusion of mannitol or trehalose in the matrix provided additional protection to BCG during freeze-drying. Control needs to be exercised over BCG aggregation, freeze-drying and powder compaction conditions to minimise physical damage of the bacterial cell wall and maximise the viability of oral BCG vaccines prepared by dry powder compaction.
Wed, 6 March 2019
ARTICLE Download: 140| View: 227| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201903.0082.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Veterinary Medicine Keywords: RAAS; Canine Congestive Heart Failure; Therapeutics
Online: 6 March 2019 (13:33:08 CET)
Congestive heart failure (CHF) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality with an increasing prevalence in human and canine populations. Similar to humans, overactivation of the renin-angiotensin aldosterone system is involved in the pathophysiology of CHF in dogs. Current therapeutic strategies for the management of canine CHF include the use of RAAS inhibitors, diuretics and inodilators. The present review summarizes data from our own research on the modulation of the renin-angiotensin cascade in dogs in dogs, together with new findings (including novel therapeutic targets) from the veterinary and the human literature.
Thu, 31 January 2019
ARTICLE Download: 111| View: 504| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0317.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Veterinary Medicine Keywords: Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever; nucleocapsid; Bovine herpesvirus type 4; IFNAR-/- mice; lethal dose
Online: 31 January 2019 (05:26:35 CET)
Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) is the causative agent of a tick-borne infection with significant mortality rate of up to 40% in the endemic areas, with evidence for geographical expansion. Lacking effective therapeutics and control measures, the development of protective CCHFV vaccine remains a crucial public health task. This manuscript describes, for the first time, a Bovine herpesvirus type 4 (BoHV-4) based viral vector (BoHV4-∆TK-CCHFV-N) and its immunogenicity and protection potential in BALB/c and IFNAR-/- mice models in comparison with Adenovirus type 5 (Ad5-N) and pCDNA3.1 myc/His A (pCD-N1), two widely used vaccine platforms. All constructs expressing viral nucleocapsid (N) protein successfully elicited cytokine and total/specific antibody responses in BALB/c mice. BoHV4-∆TK-CCHFV-N and Ad5-N constructs further produced 100% protection in IFNAR-/- mice during CCHFV Ank-2 strain lethal challenge. Despite elevated specific antibody responses in both animal models, the produced antibodies were unable to neutralize the virus in vitro. A comparison of delivery platforms was not possible, due to similar protection rates in IFNAR-/- mice. In conclusion, vector-based CCHFV N protein expression proved to constitute an effective approach for the vaccine development pipeline and BoHV-4 emerged as a strong alternative to previously-used virus vectors.
Wed, 16 January 2019
ARTICLE Download: 57| View: 554| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0157.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Veterinary Medicine Keywords: Cetacean Morbillivirus; Canine Distemper Virus; Rinderpest Virus; viral phylogeny; viral evolution; Host-pathogen interactions; cetaceans; aquatic mammals
Online: 16 January 2019 (08:38:32 CET)
Cetacean Morbillivirus, the most relevant pathogen impacting the health and conservation of cetaceans worldwide, has shown in recent years an increased tendency to cross “interspecies barriers”, thereby giving rise to disease and mortality outbreaks in free-ranging dolphins and whales. The present article deals with the evolutionary “trajectories” of this viral pathogen, likely originating from Rinderpest Virus, along with its “journey” from land to sea (and viceversa), mimicking that of cetaceans' terrestrial ancestors.
Tue, 15 January 2019
REVIEW Download: 152| View: 321| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0144.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Veterinary Medicine Keywords: portal system; portal vein; portosystemic shunt; portal hypertension; computed tomography
Online: 15 January 2019 (08:46:21 CET)
This article offers an overview of congenital and acquired vascular anomalies involving the portal venous system in dogs and cats, as determined by multidetector-row computed tomography angiography. Congenital absence of the portal vein, portal vein hypoplasia, portal vein thrombosis and portal collaterals are described. Portal collaterals are further discussed as high- and low-flow connections, and categorized in hepatic arterioportal malformation, arteriovenous fistula, end-to-side and side-to-side congenital portosystemic shunts, acquired portosystemic shunts, cavoportal and porto-portal collaterals. Knowledge of different portal system anomalies helps understand the underlying physiopathological mechanism and is essential for surgical and interventional approaches.
Fri, 11 January 2019
ARTICLE Download: 83| View: 178| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0111.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Veterinary Medicine Keywords: Zoonoses, food-borne, disease control, public health, domestic livestock, pigs, One health
Online: 11 January 2019 (10:59:03 CET)
Non-typhoid salmonellosis is a common and problematic foodborne zoonotic disease in which pork and pork products can be an important potential source of infection. In order to prevent this disease important efforts to monitor the situation in the main source, livestock, are conducted in most developed countries. In the European Union EFSA and ECDC compile information at the member state level, even though important differences in production systems and surveillance systems exist. Here, Salmonella surveillance systems in one of the main sources of foodborne salmonellosis, swine, and humans in Spain were reviewed to identify potential gaps and discuss potential ways of integration under a One Health approach. Despite the extensive information generated through the surveillance activities source attribution can be only routinely performed through ad-hoc outbreak investigations, and national reports on human outbreaks do not provide sufficiently detailed information to gain a better understanding of the epidemiology of the pathogen. Human and animal monitoring of Salmonella would benefit from a better exchange of information and collaboration. Analysis of spatio-temporal trends in livestock and humans could help to identify likely sources of infection and to target surveillance efforts in areas with higher prevalence or where specific strains are found.
Wed, 26 September 2018
ARTICLE Download: 132| View: 99| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0504.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Veterinary Medicine Keywords: Customer satisfaction, customer loyalty, attitudinal loyalty, behavioral loyalty, relationship between satisfaction and loyalty, communication, trust, commitment, perceived value, value co-creation, veterinarian, veterinary medicine, pet-owner
Online: 26 September 2018 (09:27:13 CEST)
Loyalty is one of the greatest intangible assets that any organization can possess and improving client loyalty is a primary marketing goal that can have a significant financial impact on any business. This quantitative study examined the mediating role of communication on the relationship between satisfaction and loyalty (attitudinal and behavioral) in veterinary clinics, along with the moderating roles of trust, commitment, perceived value, and relational characteristics. Responses collected from 351 pet-owners through social media were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. The results show that attitudinal loyalty (AL) has a strong positive relationship with communication at multiple points in a veterinary clinic whereas the relationship with behavioral loyalty was not as clear. Additional findings suggest that AL, which is influenced by trust in the veterinarian, communication from staff members and commitment, has a strong positive relationship with behavioral intentions, increases the number of products and services that a pet-owner consumes at his or her primary veterinary clinic, and attenuates the role of cost in receiving veterinary care. These findings can help veterinary clinic owners and managers in developing and implementing relationship strategies that improve pet-owner loyalty. The article that follows is a synopsis of the author’s dissertation.
Thu, 6 September 2018
CASE REPORT Download: 199| View: 225| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0117.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Veterinary Medicine Keywords: Siberian sturgeon; CNS signs; Acipenser iridovirus European; viral nervous necrosis; Acipenser herpesvirus; gas bubble disease; Polymerase chain reaction
Online: 6 September 2018 (14:16:37 CEST)
Background: Infectious disease is a major challenge in aquaculture and poses a constraint for development of farming of new species. In 2017, Siberian sturgeon (Acipenser baerii) juveniles were imported from Italy to a Swedish farm. Due to stressful conditions, 30% died during transport and in the first days after arrival. Ten days after arrival, mortalities started to occur again. Within two months, only 5% of the juveniles were still alive. Methods: Diseased fish were transported live to the National Veterinary Institute (SVA) for necropsy and further analysis. Pathological and histopathological investigation was conducted. Virology was performed on gills and internal organs by cell culture isolation and specific PCR protocols. Results: The juveniles displayed neurological signs such as lethargy, inability to maintain upright position and erratic swimming. Body condition was low. Gills were pale. One fish had petechial hemorrhage on the abdomen and the snout. The ventricles were air-filled with, but swim bladders were deflated. One specimen had intestinal hemorrhage. Viral cell cultures were negative, but PCR of gills and internal organs detected the presence of Acipenser Iridovirus European (AcIV-E). Conclusions: AcIV-E was associated with disease and high mortality in the sturgeon juveniles. Stress probably aggravated the course of the infection.
Thu, 30 August 2018
ARTICLE Download: 121| View: 130| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0529.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Veterinary Medicine Keywords: orcine epidemic diarrhea virus; coronavirus; spike protein; virulence; gnotobiotic piglets; reverse genetics
Online: 30 August 2018 (14:35:03 CEST)
Base on the sequence of S genes, which encode spike proteins, we previously identified three different types (North American, S INDEL and S large-DEL types) of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) that have re-emerged in Japan since 2013. Base on experimental infections with the North American and S large-DEL types, we also hypothesized that PEDV virulence may be linked to the S1 subunit of the S protein. To test this hypothesis, we have now assayed in gnotobiotic piglets various recombinant PEDVs generated by reverse genetics. Piglets inoculated with CV777 maintained in National Institute of Animal Health, along with piglets infected with a recombinant form of the same virus, developed subclinical to mild diarrhea. In contrast, severe watery diarrhea, dehydration, weight loss, astasia, and high mortality were observed in piglets inoculated with recombinant strains in which the S gene was partially or fully replaced with corresponding sequences from the highly virulent Japanese PEDV isolate OKN-1/JPN/2013. Indeed, symptoms resembled those in piglets inoculated with the OKN-1/JPN/2013, and were especially pronounced in younger piglets. Collectively, the data demonstrate that the S1 subunit of the S protein is an important determinant of PEDV virulence, and advance development of new vaccine candidate.
Thu, 9 August 2018
ARTICLE Download: 122| View: 188| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0187.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Veterinary Medicine Keywords: Porcine rotavirus H; Porcine rotavirus C; Full genome; Classification; Genotype; Non-structural protein 3; Gene rearrangement
Online: 9 August 2018 (11:38:44 CEST)
Rotavirus species H (RVH) has been detected in pigs, humans and bats. Moreover, porcine RVHs have been recently identified in several swine-producing countries. Despite their zoonotic impact, genome information of RVHs is still limited. This study aimed to establish a tentative complete genome-based genotyping system for RVHs, by appending genomic sequences from 12 porcine RVHs identified in Japan between 2013 and 2015 to those from human and other porcine RVHs reported in previous studies. Phylogenetic analysis of 11 RNA segments indicated that porcine RVHs could be classified into multiple genotypes. Consequently, the genotype classification for RVHs revealed the existence of genotypes 10G, 6P, 6I, 3R, 4C, 7M, 6A, 2N, 4T, 6E, 3H for the genes VP7, VP4, VP6, VP1, VP2, VP3, NSP1, NSP2, NSP3, NSP4 and NSP5, respectively. Surprisingly, two distinctive types in NSP1 and NSP3 genes were identified from among the twelve porcine RVHs. Our data suggest a potentially novel gene rearrangement event between porcine RVH and rotavirus species C in the NSP3 gene. These findings would provide a new insight in understanding for evolution of RV.
Thu, 26 April 2018
ARTICLE Download: 263| View: 272| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0342.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Veterinary Medicine Keywords: apoptosis; breast cancer; E. coli O157:H7; necrosis; Shiga-like toxin
Online: 26 April 2018 (10:41:36 CEST)
Apoptosis and cell cycle arrest induction are targeted in the strategy of cancer therapy. Furthermore, bacterial toxin such as shiga-like toxin producing Escherichia coli has been suggested to be used as novel therapeutic agent against tumor malignancies either as independent anti-neoplastic agents or in combination treatment with chemo or radiotherapy. The aim of study was to investigate the potency of shiga-like toxin originated from local strains of E. coli O157:H7 as a new cancer therapy. As many as 10 culture cells T47D cell line were subjected by crude extract Shiga like toxin originated from five local isolates of E. coli O157:H7 i.e. KL-48(2), SM-25(1), SM-7(1), DS-21(4), and one isolate ATCC 43894 as a control with IC50 doses, respectively. The treatment was observed for 24 h, with two replications. An FITC-Annexin V and PI assay was used to observe apoptosis and necrosis effect, and simultaneously with cell cycle analysis using propidium iodide (PI) staining. Results of study showed T47D cell treated with Shiga-like toxin from local strain KL-48 (2) show the lowest viable cell, followed by SM 7(1), ATCC 43894, SM-25(1), DS-21(4) and contrary with control with each percentages as 15.20, 16.36, 22.17, 22.64, 33.86, and 94.36%, respectively. The results were also confirmed by the induction of the cell cycle arrest in phase G0-G1 as inactive phase, i.e. 66.41, 63.37, 61.52, 55.36 and 47.28% for T47D cell treated with toxin of KL-48(2), ATCC 43894, SM 25(1), SM 7(1), and DS 21(4), respectively. These results show tendency deleterious effect of Shiga-like toxin from local isolates on T47D cell, so that concluded they have potency as a good anticancer drug in Gb3-expressing breast cancer.
Mon, 8 January 2018
ARTICLE Download: 495| View: 1155| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0063.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Veterinary Medicine Keywords: spider venom; wound repair; loxoscelism.
Online: 8 January 2018 (10:49:36 CET)
We studied the efficacy of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC), either alone or associated with dapsone (DAP) in the treatment of dermonecrotic wounds caused by Loxosceles laeta spider venom. Twenty-five male adult rabbits were distributed into five groups, of which four groups received an intradermal injection of 20 μg of L. laeta venom and only one received ultrapure water (negative control). After 4 hours, each group that received venom, was treated with MSC, DAP, MSC + DAP and Phosphate-buffered saline – PBS (positive control). Photographic records were made for analysis of the wound area evolution by morphometry. Twelve days after treatment, the skin samples around the lesion were removed for subsequent histological analysis. Concerning the rate of wound contraction, we observed that DAP showed the best percentage of contraction at day 3. In the treatments using MSCs, a negative value of wound contraction was observed for the isolated MSCs, as well as a lower contraction value for the association of the MSC + DAP when compared to PBS group. Histopathological analysis showed diminished tissue lesion and less intense inflammation in MSCs and DAP groups. This could indicated potential use of stem cells in regenerative therapies after loxoscelic accidents.
Thu, 7 December 2017
REVIEW Download: 623| View: 424| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201708.0084.v2
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Veterinary Medicine Keywords: euthanasia; veterinary ethics; medical ethics; end-of-life; assisted suicide; palliative care; assisted dying
Online: 7 December 2017 (05:20:50 CET)
Not a lot is known about either death or the dying process. Politicians and many in the medical profession in the UK tend to shy away from interfering with it by not allowing euthanasia as an end of life option for the patient. This is the first paper in a series of two, comparing the situation in human medicine and veterinary medicine, in which euthanasia is well practiced for relieving suffering at the end of an animal’s life. This first part takes the form of a literature review including best practice around end of life care, its deficiencies and the need for assisted dying. Veterinary surgeons are well trained in the ethics of euthanasia and put it to good use in the best interest of their animal patients. In countries which have legalized physician assisted suicide for the terminally ill reporting indicates that it works well, without increases in involuntary euthanasia and most importantly without intimidation of the vulnerable. However, there is still an ever increasing tendency to overuse sedation and opioids at the end of life, which merits further investigation. With advances in medical science able to significantly prolong the dying process, patient autonomy demands a review of the law in the UK.
Fri, 1 December 2017
ARTICLE Download: 324| View: 436| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201708.0094.v2
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Veterinary Medicine Keywords: euthanasia; veterinary ethics; medical ethics; end-of-life; assisted suicide; palliative care; assisted dying; moral stress
Online: 1 December 2017 (16:58:27 CET)
This is the second of a series of two papers comparing the end of life issues in human and veterinary medicine. We outline the main differences between human and animal patients such as patient communication, finance and ‘conflicts of interest’ between animal, owner and veterinarian. We discuss striking similarities between human and veterinary issues such as assessing quality of life and the primary role of the attending veterinarian or doctor being the welfare and care of the patient. This paper takes the form of an ethical argument in favour of allowing euthanasia in human medicine, by providing insights into end of life issues for humans from an independent veterinary perspective. Veterinary surgeons are well trained in the ethics of euthanasia and put it to good use in the best interest of their animal patients. Doctors in the UK are limited and unwilling to put forward a case for the option of euthanasia for those patients who face a slow and agonizing death. With advances in medical science being able to significantly prolong the dying process, autonomy for the patient demands a review of the law regarding patient choice in the UK.
Sun, 27 August 2017
ARTICLE Download: 629| View: 617| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201708.0094.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Veterinary Medicine Keywords: euthanasia; veterinary ethics; medical ethics; end-of-life; assisted suicide; palliative care; assisted dying; moral stress
Online: 27 August 2017 (11:31:12 CEST)
This is the second part of a series of two papers comparing the end of life issues in human and veterinary medicine. This paper adds to the review with additional new references, taking the form of an ethical argument from an independent veterinary perspective. There are some fundamental differences outlined such as patient communication, finance and ‘conflicts of interest’ between animal, owner and veterinarian but many striking similarities between human and veterinary issues such as assessing quality of life and the primary role of the attending veterinarian or doctor being the welfare and care of the patient. Clinical veterinarians are well trained in the ethics of euthanasia and are experienced in its use on a daily basis in the best interest of their animal patients. Doctors in the UK are limited and unwilling to put forward a case for the option of euthanasia for those patients who could face a slow and agonizing death due to refractory symptoms. With advances in medical science being able to significantly prolong the dying process, autonomy for the patient demands a review of the law regarding patient choice in the UK at the end of life.
Fri, 25 August 2017
REVIEW Download: 879| View: 588| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201708.0084.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Veterinary Medicine Keywords: euthanasia; veterinary ethics; medical ethics; end-of-life; assisted suicide; palliative care; assisted dying
Online: 25 August 2017 (04:32:26 CEST)
Not a lot is known about either death or the dying process. Politicians and the medical profession in the UK tend to shy away from interfering with it by not allowing euthanasia as an end of life option for the patient. This is the first paper in a series of two, comparing the situation in human medicine and veterinary medicine, in which euthanasia is well practiced for relieving suffering at the end of life. This first part takes the form of a literature review including best practice around end of life care, its deficiencies and the need for assisted dying. Veterinary surgeons are well trained in the ethics of euthanasia and put it to good use in the best interest of their animal patients. In countries which have legalized physician assisted suicide for the terminally ill reporting indicates that it works well, without increases in involuntary euthanasia and most importantly without intimidation of the vulnerable. However, there is still an ever increasing tendency to overuse sedation and opioids at the end of life, which merits further investigation. With advances in medical science able to significantly prolong the dying process, patient autonomy demands a review of the law in the UK.
Mon, 3 July 2017
REVIEW Download: 586| View: 745| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201707.0003.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Veterinary Medicine Keywords: prion, cervids, PMCA, RT-QuIC, diagnosis
Online: 3 July 2017 (17:34:35 CEST)
Since chronic wasting disease (CWD) was first identified nearly 50 years ago in a captive mule deer herd in the Rocky Mountains of the United States, it has slowly spread across North America through the natural and anthropogenic movement of cervids and their carcasses. As the endemic areas have expanded, so has the need for rapid, sensitive, and cost effective diagnostic tests – especially those which take advantage of samples collected antemortem. Over the past two decades, strategies have evolved from the recognition of microscopic spongiform pathology and associated immunohistochemical staining of the misfolded prion protein to enzyme-linked immunoassays capable of detecting the abnormal prion conformer in postmortem samples. In a history that parallels the diagnosis of more conventional infectious agents, both qualitative and real-time amplification assays have recently been developed to detect minute quantities of misfolded prions in a range of biological and environmental samples. With these more sensitive and semi-quantitative approaches has come a greater understanding of the pathogenesis and epidemiology of this disease in the native host. Because the molecular pathogenesis of prion protein misfolding is broadly analogous to the misfolding of other pathogenic proteins, including Aβ and α-synuclein, efforts are currently underway to apply these in vitro amplification techniques towards the diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, and other proteinopathies. Chronic wasting disease – once a rare disease of Colorado mule deer – now represents one of the few naturally occurring protein misfolding disorders which might allow continued development and implementation of novel diagnostic strategies in an animal model.
Fri, 24 March 2017
ARTICLE Download: 807| View: 929| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0186.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Veterinary Medicine Keywords: veterinary; allergic dermatitis; low level laser therapy
Online: 24 March 2017 (10:32:49 CET)
Background: The prevalence of atopic dermatitis in domestic animals is one of the problems of modern veterinary. Treating with standard techniques using chemotherapeutic agents not always leads to a positive result of therapy; moreover, many drugs produce adverse side effects. Methods: Low level laser therapy, in particular, intravenous laser blood illumination (ILBI) has a pronounced and long-lasting impact on the immune system of animals. The combined technique including ILBI-635 (635 nm, 2 mW, 5 min) and LUVBI® (365 nm, 2 mW, 3 min) every other day provides a positive change in clinical status of cats with allergic dermatitis after the 3rd-4th treatment session. Results: The increased level of erythrocytes and hemoglobin was identified in the course of treatment, and it indirectly indicates increased blood transport activity, which improves trophic provision and microcirculation. A double reduction of leukocytes and a significant decrease of neutrophil cells indicate the immunomodulatory effect of LILI (low-intensity laser illumination). The increase in the percentage of lymphocytes and the decrease of eosinophils and monocytes against the background of basophil concentrations deviations within physiological concentration result in the reduction of inflammatory mediators expression that induce itching. The reduction of total IgE concentration 32 times against control on the 7th day of treatment correlates with the decrease in the quantitative content of peripheral blood eosinophils, indicating the decrease in severity of an allergic process. Conclusion: LLLT is recommended against the background of standard drug therapy to achieve quick clinical outcome together with a long-lasting prolonged effect.
Sat, 12 November 2016
REVIEW Download: 1293| View: 1051| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201611.0067.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Veterinary Medicine Keywords: vancomycin; broad view; veterinary use at a glance; rational use; alternatives
Online: 12 November 2016 (11:09:37 CET)
Vancomycin is one of the ‘last-line’ classes of antibiotics used in the treatment of life-threatening infections caused by Gram-positive bacteria. Even though vancomycin was discovered in 1950s it was widely used after 1980s for the treatment of infections caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococci as prevalence of such strains were increased. However, currently it is evident that vancomycin resistant Staphylococcusaureusandvancomycin-resistant Enterococci have been developed as a result of various reasons including use of avaparcin, which is an analog of vancomycin, as feed additive in livestock. In present day context, more attention should be paid on prevention of emergence of resistance for the antibiotics in order to keep antibiotics effective. In order to prevent emergence of resistance, proper guidance for the responsible use of antimicrobials is indispensable. Therefore, almost all stakeholders who use antibiotics should have in depth understanding on the antibiotic they use. As such, it is imperative to be aware of the important aspects of vancomycin. In the present review, efforts have been made to discussthe pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, indications, emergence of resistance, control of resistance, adverse effects and alternative therapy for vancomycin.
Tue, 20 September 2016
ARTICLE Download: 1373| View: 757| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201609.0066.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Veterinary Medicine Keywords: antibody titre; vaccination; dog; canine distemper virus; Jos
Online: 20 September 2016 (10:14:26 CEST)
Determination of antibody titre of dogs vaccinated against canine distemper in Jos North and South local Government Areas of Plateau State was carried out by collection of sera of vaccinated dogs and administration of well-structured questionnaires to dog owners. The samples collected were analyzed using the immune-blot ELISA Kit to determining the antibody titre (immunoglobulin G). It indicated that dogs vaccinated against the disease mounted adequate protective immunity. The result revealed that 54 (90.0%) of the sampled dogs have protective immunity, with those given more than one dose having higher level of protective antibody. Statistically, the result showed that the antibody titre did not differ significantly in relation to immunity and sex, breed, age and location but significant difference was seen in relation to number of primary vaccination. The result also revealed that those dogs that received booster doses (secondary vaccination) had more protective antibody. The study was aimed at evaluating the antibody titre of dogs vaccinated against canine distemper in Jos, Plateau State.
Fri, 19 August 2016
ARTICLE Download: 1025| View: 1080| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0175.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Veterinary Medicine Keywords: Synergistic effect; Flos Lonicerae; Trimethoprim
Online: 19 August 2016 (09:22:06 CEST)
Observe the synergistic effect and dose-effect relationship of Trimethoprim (TMP) on bactericidal activity with Flos Lonicerae in vitro. Microamount chessboard dilution method was conducted to determine the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of Trimethoprim, Flos Lonicerae, as well as the combination of Trimethoprim and Flos Lonicerae separately against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli in vitro and Salmonella. The pour plate count method was used to determine the combined bactericidal activity of Flos Lonicerae combined with Different concentrations TMP. The results showed that the MIC values of the combination of Flos Lonicerae with TMP was much less than the MIC values of the independent use of Flos Lonicerae or TMP, The FIC values of the combination of Flos Lonicerae with TMP were between 0.5 and 1, there was additive effect between them. The bactericidal rates were fitted with least square method, the 95% confidence intervals of the optimal blending quantity about the combination of Flos Lonicerae with TMP on the test organisms were 231μg·mL-1-249μg·mL-1, 237μg·mL-1-259μg·mL-1, and 235 -259μg·mL-1
Tue, 9 August 2016
REVIEW Download: 1596| View: 1083| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0090.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Veterinary Medicine Keywords: intestinal organoids; dog; practical applications
Online: 9 August 2016 (11:38:04 CEST)
Recent technical advances in the stem cell field have enabled the in vitro generation of complex structures resembling whole organs termed organoids. Most of these approaches employ culture systems that allow stem cell-derived or tissue progenitor cells to self-organize into three-dimensional (3D)-structures. Since organoids can be grown from various species, organs and from patient-derived induced pluripotent stem cells, they create significant prospects for modelling development and diseases, for toxicology and drug discovery studies, and in the field of regenerative medicine. Here, we report on intestinal stem cells, organoid culture, organoid disease modeling, transplantation, current and future uses of this exciting new insight model to veterinary medicine field.