REVIEW Download: 100| View: 331| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0037.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Cardiology Keywords: second-hand smoke; cardiovascular disease; third-hand smoke; passive vaping; electronic cigarettes; heated tobacco; water pipe; myocardial infarction; stroke; diabetes
Online: 3 April 2019 (10:07:13 CEST)
In deaths and diseases attributed to tobacco smoke cardiovascular events exceed cancer and respiratory diseases. Second hand smoke (SHS) promotes the development of arteriosclerosis and can also trigger acute changes of endothelial function and of blood coagulability. Indoor smoking bans reduced coronary syndrome and myocardial infarction 10-20% within one year and were followed by sustainable decreases of stroke and diabetes. With a smoke-free hospitality industry people recognized tobacco smoke as an air pollutant, smoking in public was denormalized and social acceptance of smoking in front of children and pregnant women decreased also in homes and in cars. Combined effects with ambient air pollution are proven for active smoking and suspected for SHS. Contamination with third hand smoke (THS, “cold smoke”) persists for months in homes and cars, creating secondary pollutants that in some cases are more toxic (e.g., tobacco-specific nitrosamines). Remnants found in air, dust, and on surfaces (carpets, wallpapers, upholstery, soft toys) were associated with their metabolites in saliva and urine of children and with elevated levels of nicotine on hands and cotinine in urine of nonsmokers residing in homes previously occupied by smokers. In animal experiments effects of THS were found on thrombogenesis, insulin resistance through oxidative stress, on the developing immune system, lipid metabolism and alterations in liver, lung, skin and behavior. Much less is known about health effects for bystanders from the aerosols exhaled during “vaping” of e-cigarettes, but nicotine and other toxins from e-cigarettes are certainly a hazard, which should be prevented by the use of dermal and oral nicotine products, which are safer for nicotine replacement and without risk for bystanders.
Mon, 4 February 2019
REVIEW Download: 52| View: 398| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0030.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Cardiology Keywords: biomarkers; miRNAs; heart failure; system biology
Online: 4 February 2019 (11:44:17 CET)
Heart failure (HF) has several etiologies including myocardial infarction (MI) and left ventricular remodeling (LVR), but its progression remains difficult to predict in clinical practice. Systems biology analyses of LVR after MI predict molecular insights of this event such as modulation of microRNA (miRNA) that could be used as a signature of HF progression. To define a miRNA signature of LVR after MI, we use 2 systems biology approaches integrating either proteomic data generated from LV of post-MI rat induced by left coronary artery ligation or multi-omics data (proteins and non-coding RNAs) generated from plasma of post-MI patients from the REVE-2 study. The first approach predicts 13 miRNAs and 3 of these miRNAs were validated to be associated with LVR in vivo: miR-21-5p, miR-23a-3p and miR-222-3p. The second approach predicts 24 miRNAs among 1310 molecules and 6 of these miRNAs were selected to be associated with LVR in silico: miR-17-5p, miR-21-5p, miR-26b-5p, miR-222-3p, miR-335-5p and miR-375. We identified a signature of 7 microRNAs associated with LVR after MI that support the interest of integrative systems biology analyses to define a miRNA signature of HF progression.
Thu, 17 January 2019
ARTICLE Download: 25| View: 394| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0172.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Cardiology Keywords: contrast media; troponin; Pro-BNP; interference
Online: 17 January 2019 (03:10:04 CET)
Background and objectives: The fact that the results of troponin and Nt-proBNP interfere from biotin caused some commercial firms to update their measurement methods. In particular, the clinical incompatibility of cardiac test results may affect the risk of morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study is to investigate the interference effects of 7 different contrast agents on cardiac markers (Troponin-I, Nt-proBNP, Mass CK-MB, CK, AST, LDH) and coagulation tests (PT, APTT). Materials and Methods: Seven different contrast medias were added into control materials by using interference protocol. Concentration of PT, APTT, CK, AST, LDH, Mass CK-MB, Troponin-I, Nt-proBNP were measured by Sysmex CS-2100, Abbott c16000, Siemens Centaur XP and AFİAS-6 analyzer. The amount of deviations from target values were calculated. Results: 7 different contrast medias caused negative interference in troponin levels between 57.43% and 62.87%. It was found that different contrast medias produced false negativity in the pro-BNP test ranging from 6.11% to 96.01%. Enzymes and coagulation tests have been less affected. Conclusions: Different contrast medias may cause false negative cTnI and pro-BNP. Therefore, the contrast medias which causes the least interference should be preferred. The results of samples taken in the first hour of contrast imaging should be interpreted with care.
Fri, 28 December 2018
ARTICLE Download: 51| View: 237| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0338.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Cardiology Keywords: severe aortic stenosis; longitudinal axis strain; late gadolinium enhancement; cardiac magnetic resonance imaging
Online: 28 December 2018 (07:12:57 CET)
To analyze the predictive ability and incremental value of left ventricular longitudinal axis strain (LAS) and late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) using standard cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging for the diagnosis and prognosis of severe aortic stenosis (AS) in patients with an indication for aortic valve replacement. We conducted a prospective study on 128 patients with severe AS and 52 volunteers. The evaluation protocol included standard biochemistry tests, novel biomarkers of myocardial fibrosis, 12-lead electrocardiograms and 24-hour Holter, the 6-minute walk test and extensive echocardiographic and CMR imaging studies. Outcomes were defined as the composite of major cardiovascular events (MACEs). Among AS patients, most (n = 17, 77.2%) of those who exhibited LGE at CMR imaging had MACEs during follow-up. Kaplan-Meier curves for event-free survival showed a significantly higher rate of MACEs in patients with LGE (p < 0.01) and decreased LAS (p < 0.001). In Cox regression analysis, only reduced LAS [hazard ratio 1.33, 95%CI (1.01 to 1.74), p < 0.01] and the presence of LGE [hazard ratio 11.3, 95%CI (1.82 to 70.0), p < 0.01] were independent predictors for MACEs. The predictive value increased if both LGE and reduced LAS were added to LVEF. None of the biomarkers of increased collagen turnover exhibited any predictive value for MACEs. LAS by CMR is an independent predictor of outcomes in patients with AS and provides incremental value beyond the assessment of LVEF and the presence of LGE.
Mon, 19 November 2018
ARTICLE Download: 56| View: 62| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0454.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Cardiology Keywords: perioperative goal-directed fluid therapy; haemodynamics monitoring; fluid management; kidney transplantation; major postoperative complications; outcome of surgery
Online: 19 November 2018 (10:57:00 CET)
Background: Kidney transplantation is considered the first-choice therapy in ESRD patients. Despite recent improvements in terms of outcomes and graft survival in recipients, postoperative complications still concern health-care providers involved in the management of those patients. Particularly challenging are cardiovascular complications. Perioperative goal-directed fluid-therapy (PGDT) and hemodynamic optimization are widely used in high-risk surgical patients, and are associated with a significant reduction in postoperative complication rates and length of stay (LOS). The aim of this work is to compare the effects of perioperative goal-directed therapy (PGDT) with conventional fluid therapy (CFT), and to determine whether there are any differences in major postoperative complications rates and delayed graft function (DGF) outcomes. Methods: Prospective study with historical controls. Two groups, a PGDT- and a CFT- group were used: the stroke volume (SV) optimization protocol was applied in PGDT group throughout the procedure. Conventional fluid therapy with fluids titration at a central venous pressure (CVP) 8-12 mmHg and mean arterial pressure (MAP) >80mmHg was applied to the control-group. Postoperative data collection including vital signs, weight, urinary output, serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, serum potassium, and assessement of volemic status and the signs and symptoms of major postoperative complications occurred at 24h, 72h, 7 days and 30 days after transplantation. Results: Among the 66 patients enrolled, 33 were in each group and both groups had similar physical characteristics. Good fuctional recovery was evident in the 94% of patients. The statistical analysis has showed a difference in postoperative complications as follows: significant reduction of cardiovascular complications, DGF episodes (p<0.05) and surgical complications (p<0.01). There were no significant differences in pulmonary or other complication. Conclusions: PGDT and SV optimization effectively influenced the rate of major postoperative complications, reducing the overall morbidity and thus the mortality in patients receiving kidney transplantation.
Fri, 16 November 2018
REVIEW Download: 77| View: 69| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0389.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Cardiology Keywords: adverse remodeling; aldosterone; cardiac myocyte; crosstalk; G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR); GPCR-kinase (GRK); heart failure; inflammation; mineralocorticoid receptor; myocardial infarction; oxidative stress; signal transduction
Online: 16 November 2018 (07:54:04 CET)
The mineralocorticoid hormone aldosterone regulates sodium and potassium homeostasis but also adversely modulates the maladaptive process of cardiac adverse remodeling post-myocardial infarction. Through activation of its mineralocorticoid receptor (MR), a classic steroid hormone receptor/transcription factor, aldosterone promotes inflammation and fibrosis of the heart, the vasculature, and the kidneys. This is why MR antagonists reduce morbidity and mortality of heart disease patients and are part of the mainstay pharmacotherapy of advanced human heart failure. A plethora of animal studies using cell type–specific targeting of the MR gene have established the importance of MR signaling and function in cardiac myocytes, vascular endothelial and smooth muscle cells, renal cells, and macrophages. In terms of its signaling properties, the MR is distinct from nuclear receptors in that it has, in reality, two physiological hormonal agonists: not only aldosterone but also cortisol. In fact, in several tissues, including in the myocardium, cortisol is the primary hormone activating the MR. There is a considerable amount of evidence indicating that the effects of the MR in each tissue expressing it depend on tissue- and ligand-specific engagement of molecular co-regulators that either activate or suppress its transcriptional activity. Identification of these co-regulators for every ligand that interacts with the MR in the heart (and in other tissues) is of utmost importance therapeutically, since it can not only help elucidate fully the pathophysiological ramifications of the cardiac MR`s actions but also help design and develop novel better MR antagonist drugs for heart disease therapy. Among the various proteins the MR interacts with are molecules involved in cardiac G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) signaling. This results in a significant amount of crosstalk between GPCRs and the MR, which can affect the latter`s activity dramatically in the heart and in other cardiovascular tissues. This review summarizes the current experimental evidence for this GPCR-MR crosstalk in the heart and discusses its pathophysiological implications for cardiac adverse remodeling as well as for heart disease therapy. Novel findings revealing non-conventional roles of GPCR signaling molecules, specifically of GPCR-kinase (GRK)-5, in cardiac MR regulation are also highlighted.
Fri, 5 October 2018
ARTICLE Download: 78| View: 187| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0105.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Cardiology Keywords: 1; brain protection 2; HTK 3; cardiac arrest 4; hypoxic injury 5; HIF-1α
Online: 5 October 2018 (15:45:43 CEST)
Ischemic neuron loss contributes to brain dysfunction in patients with cardiac arrest (CA). Histidine–tryptophan–ketoglutarate (HTK) solution is a preservative used during organ transplantation. Can HTK also protect neurons from severe hypoxia (SH) following CA? We isolated rat primary cortical neurons and induced SH with or without HTK. Changes in caspase-3, hypoxia-inducible factor 1-alpha (HIF-1α), and NADPH oxidase-4 (NOX4) expression were evaluated at different time points till 72 h. Using a rat asphyxia model, we induced CA-mediated brain damage and then completed resuscitation. HTK or sterile saline was administered into the left carotid artery. Neurological deficit scoring and mortality were evaluated for 3 days. Then the rats were sacrificed for evaluating NOX4 and H2O2 level in blood and brain. In the in vitro study, HTK attenuated SH- and H2O2-mediated cytotoxicity in a volume- and time-dependent manner, associated with persisted HIF-1α expression, reductions in procaspase-3 activation and NOX4 expression. The inhibition of HIF-1α abrogated HTK’s effect on NOX4. In the in vivo study, neurological scores were significantly improved by HTK. H2O2 level, NOX4 activity and NOX4 gene expression were all decreased in the brain specimen of HTK-treated rats. Our results suggest that HTK acts as an effective neuroprotective solution.
Tue, 2 October 2018
ARTICLE Download: 77| View: 177| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0028.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Cardiology Keywords: Hypertension; Blood pressure; Genetics; Pharmacogenetics; Pharmacotherapy; Treatment
Online: 2 October 2018 (15:02:46 CEST)
Several common and functional genes are known to contribute to responsiveness to blood pressure (BP) therapy. BP therapy is typically guided by algorithms that do not include a patient’s genetic information. This study aimed to determine the impact of a multi-organ genetic panel on BP response to pharmacotherapy. Eighty-six patients completed one study visit consisting of a buccal swab collection, measurement of office BP, and a medical chart review for BP history. Genes analyzed included those that encode for one drug metabolizing enzyme, renal Na+ handling, vascular, and cardiac function. Relationships between genotype and control of BP (<140/<90), ∆ systolic BP, ∆ diastolic BP, and ∆ mean arterial BP were assessed. SLC12A3 resulted in a significant association between the target drug and the functional genotype for BP control (<140/<90 cut off) (p<0.05). Conversely, three of five renal genotypes were associated with BP control using 120/80 as a cut-off (p<0.05). Three of four cardiac genotypes were associated with the BP control at <140/<90, with one being statistically significant (position 49 of ADRB1). Only one vascular genotype was predictive of blood pressure control at <140/<90. We found a significant drop in mean BP from baseline in six genes, three important in the diuretic response and three in β-blockade (p<0.05 on target drug vs. not). These results demonstrate that a multi-gene panel for renal Na+ handling, vascular function, and cardiac output may influence the BP response to therapy, but larger studies with more statistical power are needed.
Mon, 17 September 2018
ARTICLE Download: 100| View: 85| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0313.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Cardiology Keywords: cardiogenesis, endocardial cushions, neural crest, hemodynamics, shear stress, semilunar valve, outflow tract septum, Klf2, growth factors, Transforming growth factor
Online: 17 September 2018 (13:45:32 CEST)
The beating heart is subject to intrinsic mechanical factors, exerted by contraction of the myocardium (stretch and strain) and fluid forces of the enclosed blood (wall shear stress). The earliest contractions of the heart occur already in the 10-somite stage in the tubular as yet unsegmented heart. With development the looping heart becomes asymmetric providing varying diameters and curvatures resulting in unequal flow profiles. These flow profiles exert various wall shear stresses and as a consequence different expression patterns of shear responsive genes. In this paper we investigate the morphological changes of the heart after changes the blood flow by ligation of the right vitelline vein in a model chicken embryo and analyze the extended expression in the endocardial cushions of the shear responsive gene Tgfbeta receptor III. A major phenomenon is the diminished endocardial-mesenchymal transition resulting in hypoplastic (even absence of) atrioventricular and outflow tract endocardial cushions, that might be lethal in early phases. The surviving embryos exhibit several cardiac malformations including ventricular septal defects and malformed semilunar valves related to a malposition of the aortopulmonary septum and the enclosed neural crest cells. We discuss the results in the light of the interactions between several shear stress responsive signaling pathways including Vegf, Notch, Pdgf, Klf2, eNos, Endothelin and Tgfβ/Bmp/Smad.
REVIEW Download: 94| View: 103| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0110.v2
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Cardiology Keywords: Sonic Hedgehog; endothelial cells; endothelial progenitor cells; canonical signaling; non-canonical signals; extracellular vesicles
Online: 17 September 2018 (08:45:16 CEST)
The Hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway plays an important role in embryonic and postnatal vascular development and in maintaining the homeostasis of organs. Under physiological conditions, Sonic Hedgehog (Shh), a secreted protein belonging to the Hh family, regulates endothelial cell growth, promotes cell migration, and stimulates the formation of new blood vessels. The present review highlights recent advances made in the field of Shh signaling in endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs). The canonical and non-canonical Shh signaling pathways in EPCs and endothelial cells (ECs) related to homeostasis, Shh signal transmission by extracellular vesicles (EVs) or exosomes containing single-strand non-coding miRNAs, and impaired Shh signaling in cardiovascular diseases are discussed. As a promising therapeutic tool, the possibility of using the Shh signaling pathway for the activation of EPCs in patients suffering from cardiovascular diseases is further explored.
Mon, 10 September 2018
ARTICLE Download: 94| View: 113| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0165.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Cardiology Keywords: extracorporeal membrane oxygenation; cardiopulmonary resuscitation; extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation; Charlson comorbidity index; age-adjusted Charlson comorbidity index
Online: 10 September 2018 (10:12:11 CEST)
Background: Extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation (ECPR) has gradually come to be regarded as an effective therapy, but the hospital mortality rate after ECPR is still high and unpredictable. The present study tested whether age-adjusted Charlson comorbidity index (ACCI) can be used as an objective selection criterion to ensure the most efficient utilization of medical resources. Methods: Adult patients (age ³ 18 years) receiving ECPR at our institution between 2006 and 2015 were included. Data regarding ECPR events and ACCI characteristics were collected immediately after extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) setup. Adverse events during hospitalization were also prospectively collected. The primary endpoint was survival to hospital discharge. The second endpoint was short-term (2-year) follow-up outcome. Results: A total of 461 patients included in the study were grouped into low ACCI (ACCI 0–3) (240, 52.1%) and high ACCI (ACCI 4–13) (221, 47.9%) groups. The median ACCI was 2 (IQR: 1–3) and 5 (IQR: 4–7) for the low and high ACCI groups, respectively (P < 0.001). Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR)-to-ECMO duration was comparable between the groups (42.1 ± 25.6 and 41.3 ± 20.7 min in the low and high ACCI groups, respectively; P = 0.754). Regarding hospital survival rate, 256 patients (55.5%) died on ECMO support. A total of 205 patients (44.5%) were successfully weaned off ECMO, but only 138 patients (29.9%) survived to hospital discharge (32.1% and 27.6% in low and high ACCI group, P = 0.291). Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed CPR-to-ECMO duration and CPR cause of septic shock as significant risk factors for hospital survival after ECPR (P = 0.043 and 0.014, respectively), whereas age and ACCI were not (P = 0.334 and 0.164, respectively). The 2-year survival rate after hospital discharge for the 138 hospital survivors was 96% and 74% in the low and high ACCI groups, respectively (P = 0.002.)Conclusions: High ACCI before ECPR does not predict poor outcome of hospital survival. Therefore, ECPR should not be rejected solely due to high ACCI. However, high ACCI in hospital survivors is associated with a higher 2-year mortality rate than low ACCI, and patients with high ACCI should be closely followed up.
Wed, 5 September 2018
ARTICLE Download: 120| View: 164| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0082.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Cardiology Keywords: atherosclerosis; coronary aortic disease; gene set enrichment analysis; heart disease; Apoe mouse; transcriptomics; RNA-seq analysis; pathway enrichment analysis; mouse; precision medicine; New Zealand White rabbit
Online: 5 September 2018 (04:49:40 CEST)
The central promise of personalized medicine is individualized treatments that target molecular mechanisms underlying the physiological changes and symptoms arising from disease. We demonstrate a bioinformatics analysis pipeline as a proof-of-principle to test the feasibility and practicality of comparative transcriptomics to classify two of the most popular in vivo diet-induced models of coronary atherosclerosis, apolipoprotein E null mice and New Zealand White rabbits. Transcriptomics analyses indicate the two models extensively share dysregulated genes albeit with some unique pathways. For instance, while both models have alterations in the mitochondrion, the biochemical pathway analysis revealed, Complex IV in the electron transfer chain is higher in mice, whereas the rest of the electron transfer chain components are higher in the rabbits. Several fatty acids anabolic pathways are expressed higher in mice, whereas fatty acids and lipids degradation pathways are higher in rabbits. This reflects the differences between two translational models of atherosclerosis. This study validates transcriptome analysis as a potential method to precisely identify altered cellular and molecular pathways in atherosclerotic disease, which can be used to individualize treatment even in the absence of genetic data.
Mon, 3 September 2018
REVIEW Download: 172| View: 197| Comments: 1 | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0040.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Cardiology Keywords: Triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells, DNAX-activating protein 12, cardiovascular diseases, atherosclerosis, coronary arteries diseases, acute myocardial infract, endocarditis
Online: 3 September 2018 (14:50:17 CEST)
Cardiovascular Diseases (CVDs) are still menacing and killing adults worldwide, notwithstanding the tremendous effort, to decrease their related mortality and morbidity. Lately, a growing body of evidences indicated that inflammation plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis and complications of CVDs. A receptor of the immunoglobulin superfamily, triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells -1 (TREM-1) was shown to induce and to amplify the inflammation in both acute and chronic diseases pathogenesis and progression and hence it is one of the important factors that complicates CVDs. Thus, studies endeavored to investigate the role played by TREM-1 in CVDs with respect to their etiologies, complications and possible therapeutics. We examined here, for the first time, the most relevant studies regarding TREM-1 involvement in CVDs. We summarized the finding after critically analyzing them and made some suggestions for furtherance of the investigations with the aim to utilize TREM-1 and its pathways for diagnostic, management and prognosis of CVDs. Overall, TREM-1 was found to be involved in the pathogenesis of acute and chronic cardiovascular conditions like Acute myocardial infraction (AMI) and atherosclerosis as well. Although most therapeutic approaches are yet to be elucidated, present research outcome displays a promising future to utilize TREM-1 pathway as potential target to understand and manage CVDs.
Thu, 9 August 2018
ARTICLE Download: 164| View: 180| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0178.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Cardiology Keywords: alcohol drinking; health knowledge; physician attitudes; standard drink; wine
Online: 9 August 2018 (08:07:39 CEST)
Despite epidemiological findings of improvements in cardiovascular risk factors with a light-to-moderate intake of alcohol, many misconceptions remain regarding alcohol intake and the risks and benefits of consumption. We sought to examine physician attitudes and recommendations regarding alcohol intake in a cohort of Argentine physicians and to establish their sources of knowledge. An online national survey was distributed through the Argentine Federation of Cardiology (FAC) to cardiologists, internal medicine specialists, general and other subspecialty physicians in Argentina. The survey was completed by 745 physicians, of whom 671 (90%) were cardiologists. In total, 35% of physicians viewed moderate alcohol intake to be beneficial for cardiovascular health, 36% believed only wine offered such benefits, 24% viewed any intake to be harmful, and 5% had other opinions. More than half (57%) self-reported their knowledge to come from academic sources. Regarding knowledge of drinking guidelines, only 41% of physicians were aware of the concept of ‘standard drink’. Physicians were generally not comfortable converting ‘standard drinks’ into other metric units, however men tended to be more comfortable than women (p=0.052). Physicians were not satisfied with their knowledge of drinking guidelines (3.01 ± 2.73, on a 0-10 scale). Physicians were generally comfortable in counselling patients regarding safe-limits of consumption (6.22 ± 3.20, on a 0-10 scale). Argentine physicians were not satisfied with their knowledge of alcohol consumption guidelines or their understanding of the reported metrics. Only one-third of study participants viewed moderate alcohol intake as beneficial for cardiovascular health. This study shows the necessity to optimize the sources of knowledge.
Tue, 7 August 2018
REVIEW Download: 211| View: 112| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0149.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Cardiology Keywords: atherosclerosis, mesenchymal stem cells, inflammation
Online: 7 August 2018 (23:22:20 CEST)
Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease which results in thickening of the vessel wall and narrowing of the lumen. It is a leading cause of death worldwide. Preventive treatment is taken into prioritized consideration since currently no effective approaches to cure atherosclerosis are available. These treatments mainly focus on lowering blood cholesterol levels, especially LDL-C, by statins. Even so, lowering lipid levels is not sufficient to reduce the risk of cardiovascular events in all patients. Recently, atherosclerosis has increasingly been recognized as a chronic inflammatory disease involving the immune system, initiating new therapeutic approaches which could alleviate or prevent atherosclerosis by modulating inflammation. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have emerged as a promising option to relieve inflammation and balance immune responses in inflammatory diseases. Several studies including our group also reported that MSCs may be a new therapeutic option for atherosclerosis. This review summarizes the updated state of our knowledge in the administration of MSCs to alleviate atherosclerosis and discusses some of the key unresolved challenges that need to be solved in future studies.
Fri, 3 August 2018
COMMUNICATION Download: 125| View: 171| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0078.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Cardiology Keywords: Lyme disease; Lyme carditis; Atrioventricular block
Online: 3 August 2018 (20:21:23 CEST)
Lyme carditis (LC) is a manifestation of the early disseminated stage of Lyme disease and often presents as high-degree atrioventricular (AV) block. High-degree AV block in LC can be treated with antibiotics, usually resolving with highly favourable prognosis, thus preventing the unnecessary implantation of permanent pacemakers. We present a systematic approach to the diagnosis and management of LC that implements the Suspicious Index in Lyme Carditis (SILC) risk stratification score.
Thu, 19 July 2018
REVIEW Download: 168| View: 192| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0334.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Cardiology Keywords: cardiopulmonary lesions, endocrine disruptors, ID3, vascular dysfunction, vascular remodeling
Online: 19 July 2018 (12:57:32 CEST)
Cardiopulmonary lesions, which manifest from various types of diseases such as pulmonary arterial hypertension, atherosclerosis, pulmonary arteriovenous malformations, lymphangioleiomyomatosis, and peripheral arterial disease, pose a public health problem. Vascular remodeling, which refers to alternations to the structure of the vessel is an important pathophysiological feature of these diseases. The Inhibitor of DNA-binding/Differentiation-3 (ID3), which is part of the ID family of transcriptional regulators, has been demonstrated to contribute to an essential role in the vasculature and therefore may influence the alterations of these lesions. This review will cover the existing understanding of how ID3 may contribute to cardiopulmonary lesion perturbations via involvement in vascular remodeling. Furthermore, based on the accumulative quantity of reports that indicate oxidative stress plays a essential function in the pathophysiology of vascular remodeling, we will also consider the impact of exposure to estrogenic endocrine disruptors (EEDs) such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and bisphenol A (BPA) on ID3 & cardiopulmonary disease. Improved understanding of how ID3 pathways contributes to these molecular mechanisms in the lesion will prospectively deliver beneficial information in the mediation of vascular remodeling associated with ID3 & EED exposure, which may play an essential role in cardiopulmonary disease prevalence.
Thu, 5 July 2018
ARTICLE Download: 123| View: 194| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0093.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Cardiology Keywords: cardiomyopathy; hemodynamic and biochemical parameters; epidemiological and clinical Parameters; phospholamban angiotensin-1-converting enzyme
Online: 5 July 2018 (10:43:43 CEST)
Background: Cardiomyopathy is commonly observed disease that may occurs due to mutations in either susceptible genes or modifier gene. People with broad age group are affected either attributable to spontaneous or inherited mutations of these genes. Various gene mutations are reported so far but only few of them were studied in detail. Methods: In the current study, we evaluated epidemiological variables like age, sex, familial status, parental consanguinity. We also described specific clinical symptoms associated with the cardiomyopathy condition in Indian population. Results: Our studies on mutation screening of phospholamban gene revealed two transitions (4880 C/T, 4887 T/G) in 5’ flanking region which might cause inherited dilated cardiomyopathy with refractory congestive heart failure are We further deliberated the gene polymorphism of renin angiotensin system gene angiotensin-1-converting enzyme as an associated marker/ modifier in cardiomyopathy patients and their family members. Conclusions: Information on epidemiological, clinical statistics, phospholamban gene mutation analysis and angiotensin-1-converting enzyme gene polymorphism is essential to guide the successful execution for future therapies and benefits us to identify those patients at risk for faster disease progression, congestive heart failure, and arrhythmia.
Mon, 25 June 2018
ARTICLE Download: 177| View: 147| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0381.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Cardiology Keywords: coronary tortuosity; myocardial ischemia; coronary artery disease; chronic stable angina.
Online: 25 June 2018 (11:02:03 CEST)
Background: Coronary tortuosity is a common angiographic finding. Scarce data is available on clinical profile of patients with coronary tortuosity (CT) and its relation with coronary artery disease (CAD). Method: A total 224 patients undergoing angiography for suspected CAD were included in the study. CT was defined by the presence of ≥3 consecutive bends of > 45 degree measured at end-diastole in an epicardial artery ≥2 mm in diameter. CT was present in 45(20.08%) patients in the study and another 45 patients without CT was randomly selected as control (NCT group). Clinical profile of CT and NCT group was compared. Results: Incidence of CT was significantly higher in females (p=0.000) and hypertensives (p=0.001) patients. CT was most commonly seen in Left circumflex coronary artery. Incidence of CAD was significantly lower in CT group as compare to NCT group (0.02). Risk factors for CAD was associated with reduced incidence of CT. Majority (88.46%) patient with CT without CAD presented with chronic stable angina out of which (65.21%) had an objective evidence of myocardial ischemia. Conclusion: CT is more commonly seen females and hypertensive patients. It has negative correlation with CAD. Risk factors of CAD do not predict CT. CT itself can lead to myocardial ischemia.
Wed, 20 June 2018
ARTICLE Download: 142| View: 177| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0325.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Cardiology Keywords: heart rate variability, smoking, hypoxia, autonomic dysfunction
Online: 20 June 2018 (15:38:52 CEST)
Background and objectives: Smoking leads to autonomic dysfunction. However, the clinical methods for diagnosing this dysfunction are not sufficient. Since exogenous hypoxia leads to changes in the autonomic cardiac control, the aim of our study was to compare the activity of the autonomic nervous system via heart rate variability (HRV) in young “healthy” smokers and non-smokers before, during and after a short-term exogenous hypoxic exposure. Methods: Twenty-one healthy non-smoking males aged 28.0±7.4 (mean±SD) and fourteen healthy smoking males aged 28.1±4.3 with 9.2±5.6 pack-years were subjected to one-hour hypoxic exposure (FiО2=12.3±1.5%) via hypoxicator (AltiPro 8850 Summit+, Altitude Tech, Canada) with simultaneous recording of electrocardiography and pulse oximetry. HRV data was derived via specific software (Kubios HRV, Finland) by analyzing the pre-hypoxic, hypoxic and post-hypoxic periods. Results: Standard deviation of the intervals between normal beats (SDNN) was higher in non-smokers in the pre-hypoxic period (62.0±32.1 vs 40.3±16.2, p=0.013) but not in hypoxia (75.7±34.8 vs 57.9±18.3, p=0.167). When comparing intragroup HRV changes of shifting from hypoxic to post-hypoxic (normoxic) conditions we found that there is a significant increase in the root mean square of successive RR interval differences (RMSSD) (65.9±40.2 vs 75.1±45.9, p=0.011) and in the high frequency (lnHF) (6.8±1.4 vs 7.2±1.3, p=0.014) and a decrease in LF/HF (3.0±2.3 vs 1.9±1.5, p<0.001), but these changes were observed only in the group of non-smokers. Conclusions: Smoking likely impairs autonomic regulation in young healthy males and may lead to a decreased HRV even before subjective clinical signs and symptoms. Hypoxic exposure test could be applied in clinical practice for early detection of autonomic dysfunction in smokers, because their parasympathetic reactivation is blunted when shifting from hypoxic to normoxic ambient conditions measured by HRV.
Fri, 8 June 2018
REVIEW Download: 262| View: 282| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0135.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Cardiology Keywords: cardiovascular risk assessment; postmenopausal women; cardiovascular risk factors; emerging risk factors; hormone replacement therapy
Online: 8 June 2018 (12:46:31 CEST)
Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are rising rapidly among the postmenopausal woman but they are less likely to identify their risk by an appropriate risk assessment tool. This review evaluates available literature on cardiovascular risk assessment among postmenopausal women to provide a concise view of risk factors and disease burden among them, present risk assessment systems including their drawbacks, emergence of new risk factors and their role in risk prediction, and finally use of hormone replacement therapy during menopause. Results demonstrate that menopause is a transition point for developing CVD not due to physiological changes only but psychosocial factors like depression and marital stress are also responsible. Both conventional and emerging risk factors burden are high among postmenopausal women. Though data regarding CVD risk assessment among postmenopausal population is lacking but existing evidences claimed underestimation or overestimation of risk among women. Moreover application of different tools on same population has revealed significant variation in result. In this regard, recalibration of conventional tools with local data and new risk factors has showed improvement of risk prediction. Hormone replacement therapy during early menopause has reported beneficial to prevent CVD but in secondary prevention it has no role. All of these findings demand further studies on cardiovascular risk assessment, especially in developing countries where women after menopause are not in consideration of health strategy makers.
Thu, 10 May 2018
REVIEW Download: 257| View: 398| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0154.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Cardiology Keywords: miRNA; cardiomyocytes; cardiovascular diseases
Online: 10 May 2018 (05:44:24 CEST)
Study of micro-RNA regulatory networks (known as miRNA’s or miR’s), during development and in known pathologies have been the basis of study over the past decades. Herein, we recapitulate these findings in order to highlight the best underlying mechanisms found to date. We also seek to elucidate how miRNA dysregulation can be associated with many cardiovascular diseases. Furthermore, we discuss miR regulation mechanism during in early development in vivo and invitro. Since many of the miR’s are precursors to transcriptional regulation, we relate back to their molecular control as we can then look together at the fundamental disease they might be exacerbating by this dysregulation.
Thu, 3 May 2018
ARTICLE Download: 259| View: 337| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0050.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Cardiology Keywords: chronic diseases; cardiovascular; renal; endocrine; diabetes; therapeutic advances; tobacco
Online: 3 May 2018 (05:08:44 CEST)
Despite needs for new therapies and improvements in existing approaches in cardiovascular, pulmonary, endocrine, and renal disease, investment in these areas is lagging relative to other specialties. This article summarizes a meeting of key stakeholders of U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) officials, representatives from academia, national organizations, and patients and caregivers. The purpose was to identify and discuss high-priority issues, establish areas of common interest, and explore opportunities for collaboration. During the meeting (September 2016), the construct of a “multimorbidity continuum” emerged, in which chronic diseases are understood as their effects on the whole rather than individual organ systems. Cross-disciplinary priorities included: 1) the need to generate greater high-quality evidence at lower cost; 2) the imperative to develop and implement patient-centered approaches to clinical investigations; 3) the importance of trial participation in under-represented populations, particularly with comorbid conditions, and 4) the need for progress in tobacco regulation. Representatives from each therapeutic area reported on their consensus priorities, and FDA representatives discussed the agency’s role in facilitating broader approaches to therapeutic development and evaluation of disease as linked across organ systems rather than in isolation, and emphasized the importance of patient engagement, collaboration and communication across stakeholders.
Fri, 20 April 2018
REVIEW Download: 508| View: 377| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0260.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Cardiology Keywords: conventional heart anatomy; helical ventricular myocardial band; mitral valve opening; isovolumic relaxation time; RV function; diastolic dysfunction
Online: 20 April 2018 (08:10:46 CEST)
Cardiac dynamics are traditionally linked to a left ventricle, right ventricle and septum morphology, a topography that differs from the heart’s 5-century-old anatomic description of containing a helix and circumferential wrap architectural configuration. Torrent Guasp’s helical ventricular myocardial band (HVMB) defines this anatomy and its structure, explains why the heart’s 6 dynamic actions of narrowing, shortening, lengthening, widening, twisting and uncoiling happen. This database raises questions about deductions behind “accepted cardiac mechanics”, and its functional aspects will challenge and overturn them. These suppositions include the LV, RV, and septum description, timing of mitral valve opening, isovolumic relaxation period, reasons for torsion/twisting, untwisting, reasons for longitudinal and circumferential strain, echocardiographic sub segmentation, resynchronization, RV function dynamics, and diastolic dysfunction’s cause and unrecognized septum impairment. Torrent Guasp’s revolutionary contributions may alter future understanding of the diagnosis and treatment of cardiac disease.
Mon, 16 April 2018
ARTICLE Download: 202| View: 200| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0190.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Cardiology Keywords: NADPH oxidases; apocynin; VAS2870; aged heart; cardiomyocytes; isoproterenol; TBARS
Online: 16 April 2018 (06:17:57 CEST)
Cardiac aging is characterized by alterations in contractility and intracellular calcium ([Ca2+]i) homeostasis. It has been suggested that oxidative stress may be involved in this process. We and others have reported that in cardiomyopathies the NADPH oxidase (NOX)-derived superoxide is increased, with a negative impact on [Ca2+]i and contractility. We tested the hypothesis that in the aged heart, [Ca2+]i handling and contractility are disturbed by NOX-derived superoxide. Contractility was evaluated isolated hearts, challenged with isoproterenol. To assess [Ca2+]i, isolated cardiac myocytes were field-stimulated and [Ca2+]i was monitored with fura-2. Cardiac concentration-response to isoproterenol was depressed in aged compared to adults hearts (p < 0.005), but was restored by NOX inhibitors apocynin and VAS2870. In isolated cardiomyocytes, apocynin increased the amplitude of [Ca2+]i in aged myocytes (p < 0.05). Time-50 [Ca2+]i decay was increased in aged myocytes (p < 0.05) and reduced towards normal by NOX inhibition. In addition, we found that myofilaments Ca2+ sensitivity was reduced in aged myocytes (p < 0.05), and further reduced by apocynin. Finally SERCA levels but not phospholamban were reduced in aged hearts (p < 0.05). In conclusion, β-adrenergic‒induced contractility was depressed in aged hearts, and NOX inhibition restored back to normal. Moreover, altered Ca2+ handling in aged myocytes was also improved by NOX inhibition. These results suggest a NOX-dependent effect in aged myocytes at the level of Ca2+ handling proteins and myofilaments.
Fri, 6 April 2018
ARTICLE Download: 233| View: 281| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0077.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Cardiology Keywords: clopidogrel; pharmacogenetics; Puerto Ricans; genotypes; allele frequency
Online: 6 April 2018 (11:31:00 CEST)
Background: Variations in several clopidogrel-pharmacogenes have been linked to clopidogrel response variability and clinical outcomes. We aimed to determine the frequency distribution of major polymorphisms on CYP2C19, PON1, ABCB1 and P2RY12 pharmacogenes in Puerto Ricans. Methods: This was a cross-sectional, population-based study of 200 unrelated “Guthrie” cards specimens from newborns registered in the Puerto Rican Newborn Screening program (PRNSP) between 2004 and 2014. Taqman® SNP assay techniques were used for genotyping. Results: Minor Allele Frequencies (MAF) were 46% for PON1 (rs662), 41% for ABCB1 (rs1045642), 14% for CYP2C19*17, 13% for CYP2C19*2, 12% for P2RY12-H2 and 0.3% for CYP2C19*4. No carriers of the CYP2C19*3 variants were detected. All alleles and genotype proportions were found to be in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE). Overall, there were no significant differences between MAFs of these variants in Puerto Ricans and the general population (n=453) of the 1,000 Genome project, except for the Yoruba in Ibadan from Nigeria (YRI, West-African ancestry; p<0.05). As expected, the prevalence of these markers in Puerto Ricans most resembled those in the 181 subjects from reference populations of the Americas. Conclusions: These prevalence data provide a necessary groundwork for future clinical studies of clopidogrel pharmacogenetics in Caribbean Hispanics.
Wed, 4 April 2018
REVIEW Download: 249| View: 335| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0051.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Cardiology Keywords: atherosclerosis; cardiovascular disease; chaos theory; non-coding RNAs; Alu-elements; NF-κB; miRNA; miRNA sponges
Online: 4 April 2018 (06:36:55 CEST)
Atherosclerosis (ATH) and Coronary Artery Disease (CAD) are chronic inflammatory diseases with an important genetic background which derive from the cumulative effect of multiple common risk alleles, most of them located in genomic non-coding regions. These complex diseases behave as non-linear dynamical systems that show a high dependence on their initial conditions, so that long-term predictions of disease progression are unreliable. One likely possibility is that the non-linear nature of ATH could be dependent on non-linear correlations in the structure of the human genome. In this review we show how Chaos theory analysis highlighted genomic regions that shared specific structural constraints that could have a role in ATH progression. These regions were shown to be enriched in repetitive sequences of the Alu family, genomic parasites which colonized the human genome, which show a particular secondary structure and have been involved in the regulation of gene expression. We also review the impact of Alu elements on the mechanisms that regulate gene expression, especially highlighting the molecular mechanisms by which the Alu elements could alter the inflammatory homeostasis. We devise especial attention to their relationship with the lncRNA ANRIL, the strongest risk factor for ATH, their role as miRNA sponges, and their ability to interfere with the regulatory circuitry of the NF-kB response. We aim to characterize ATH as a non-linear dynamic system in which small initial alterations in the expression of a number of repetitive elements are somehow amplified to reach phenotypic significance.
Sat, 24 February 2018
ARTICLE Download: 245| View: 304| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201710.0034.v2
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Cardiology Keywords: pharmacokinetics; radiotracers; hypoxia; nuclear imaging; [123I]IAZA
Online: 24 February 2018 (07:21:45 CET)
The objective of this work is to evaluate the potential effect of cardiac stress exercise on the accumulation of [123I]IAZA, a radiopharmaceutical used to image focal tissue hypoxia, in otherwise normal myocardium in healthy volunteers, and to determine the impact of exercise on [123I]IAZA pharmacokinetics. The underlying goal is to establish a rational basis and a baseline for studies of focal myocardial hypoxia in cardiac patients using [123I]IAZA. Three healthy male volunteers ran the ‘Bruce’ treadmill protocol, a clinically-accepted protocol designed to expose myocardial ischemia in patients. The ‘Bruce’ criterion heart rate is 85% of [220 – age]. Approximately one minute before reaching this level, [123I]IAZA (5.0 mCi/0.85 mg) was administered as a slow (1–3 min) single intravenous (i.v.) injection via an indwelling venous catheter. The volunteer continued running for an additional 1 min before being transferred to a gamma camera. Serum samples were collected from the arm contralateral to the administration site at pre-determined intervals from 1 min to 45 h post injection and were analyzed by radio HPLC. Pharmacokinetic (PK) parameters were derived for [123I]IAZA and total radioactivity (total[123I]) using compartmental and noncompartmental analyses. Whole-body planar scintigraphic images were acquired from 0.75 to 24 h after dosing. PK data and scintigraphic images were compared to previously published [123I]IAZA data from healthy volunteers rest. Following exercise stress, both [123I]IAZA and total[123I] exhibited bi-exponential decline profiles, with rapid distribution phases [half-lives (t1/2α) of 1.2 and 1.4 min, respectively], followed by slower elimination phases [t1/2β of 195 and 290 min, respectively]. Total body clearance (CLTB) and the steady state volume of distribution (Vss) were 0.647 L/kg and 185 mL/min, respectively, for [123I]IAZA and 0.785 L/kg and 135 mL/min, respectively, for total[123I]. The t1/2β, CLTB and Vss values were comparable to those reported previously for rested volunteers. The t1/2α was approximately 4-fold shorter for [123I]IAZA and approximately 3-fold shorter for total[123I] under exercise relative to rested subjects. The heart region was visualized in early whole body scintigraphic images, but later images showed no accumulated radioactivity in this region, and no differences from images reported for rested volunteers were apparent. Minimal uptake of radiotracer in myocardium and skeletal muscle was consistent with uptake in non-stressed myocardium. Whole-body scintigrams for [123I]IAZA in exercise-stressed healthy volunteers were indistinguishable from images of non-exercised volunteers. There was no evidence of hypoxia-dependent binding in exercised but otherwise healthy myocardium, supporting the conclusion that exercise stress at Bruce protocol intensity does not induce measurable myocardial hypoxia. Effects of exercise on PK parameters were minimal; specifically, the t1/2α was shortened, reflecting increased cardiac output associated with exercise. It is concluded that because [123I]IAZA was not metabolically bound in exercise-stressed myocardium, a stress test will not create elevated myocardial background that would mask regions of myocardial perfusion deficiency. [123I]IAZA would therefore be suitable for the detection of viable, hypoxic myocardium in patients undergoing stress-test-based diagnosis.
Mon, 12 February 2018
REVIEW Download: 395| View: 409| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201802.0084.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Cardiology Keywords: dual anti platelet therapy; acute coronary syndrome; stents
Online: 12 February 2018 (05:13:18 CET)
Percutaneous coronary intervention(PCI) with stenting for the treatment of acute coronary syndrome(ACS) is the contemporary standard of care. Such treatment is followed by Dual anti-platelet therapy(DAPT) comprising of aspirin and a P2Y12 inhibitor. The efficacy of this therapy has been well established but the optimal duration of DAPT remains elusive, and has thus far attracted a prodigious deal of scientific attention. Decision regarding DAPT duration can be challenging clinically in the modern era with the evolution of newer stents, more potent antiplatelet agents and novel anticoagulant drugs in addition to an older patient population with multiple comorbidities. Major societal guidelines have emphasized comprehensive assessment of ischemic and bleeding risk, in turn recommending individualization of DAPT duration, thus encouraging "shared decision making". The following review is aimed at critically evaluating the available evidence to help make these crucial clinical decisions regarding duration of DAPT and triple therapy.
Thu, 8 February 2018
ARTICLE Download: 397| View: 681| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201802.0066.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Cardiology Keywords: cardiovascular diseases; risk factors; nutrition; ecological study
Online: 8 February 2018 (03:22:54 CET)
The aim of this study was a large-scale ecological analysis of nutritional and other environmental factors potentially associated with the incidence of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) in the global context. Indicators of CVDs from 158 countries were compared with the statistics of mean intake (supply) of 60 food items between 1993 and 2011, obesity rates, health expenditure and life expectancy. This comparison shows that the relationship between CVD indicators (raised blood pressure, CVD mortality, raised blood glucose) and independent variables in the global context is influenced by various factors such as short life expectancy, religiously conditioned dietary customs, the imprecision of some statistics and undernutrition. However, regardless of the statistical method used, the results always show very similar trends and identify high carbohydrate consumption (mainly in the form of cereals and wheat in particular) as a dietary factor most consistently associated with the risk of CVDs. These findings are in line with the changing view of the causes of CVDs. Because only the statistics of raised blood glucose include people using medications and reflect true prevalence that is independent of healthcare, more objective data on the prevalence of CVDs are needed to confirm these observed trends.
Sun, 7 January 2018
ARTICLE Download: 445| View: 742| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0041.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Cardiology Keywords: biomarkers; heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF); cBIN1; cBIN1 Score (CS)
Online: 7 January 2018 (13:49:49 CET)
Objective: We determined, in stable ambulatory heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) subjects and matched controls, the capability of a novel blood based cardiac-specific cBIN1 Score (CS) to diagnose heart failure and prognosticate future hospitalization. Background: Heart failure (HF) poses a costly health care burden worldwide with rising prevalence. Abnormal calcium signaling is intrinsic to HF pathophysiology and correlates with reduced expression of a cardiac membrane scaffolding protein, cardiac bridging integrator 1 (cBIN1). We hypothesize that CS, a numerical score derived from plasma cBIN1 concentration, is a diagnostic and prognostic biomarker of HF. Methods: Plasma cBIN1 is quantified by an ELISA test, and CS is calculated as the natural log of the normalized reciprocal of plasma cBIN1 concentration. We determined CS among 52 clinically stable individuals with HFpEF (LVEF ≥ 50%) (mean age 57 ± 15 years old, 63% men) and 104 age and sex matched volunteers with no known history of HF. We obtained plasma concentrations of NT-proBNP, a marker of volume status, as comparison. Baseline co-morbidities and one year longitudinal clinical information were obtained through electronic medical records. Results: Median CS is 0 (IQR -0.4 – 0.6) in the control cohort and is increased to 1.8 in the HFpEF cohort (IQR 1.5 – 2.3, p < 0.0001). For HFpEF diagnosis, CS has a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) area under the curve (AUC) of 0.94 (95% CI 0.95 – 0.99) and NT-proBNP of 0.89 (95% CI 0.83 – 0.95). Kaplan-Meier analysis of one year cardiovascular hospitalizations reveals that HFpEF patients with CS ≥ 1.8 have a hazard ratio (HR) of 4.0 (95% CI 1.4 – 11.2, p=0.009). Combining CS ≥ 1.8 with NT-proBNP ≥ 300 pg/mL, increases HR to 21.4 (95% CI 2.7 – 171.6, p=0.004). Conclusions: In a cohort of stable ambulatory HF patients with cardiomyopathies of multiple etiologies and preserved ejection fraction, a positive CS correlates with worsening myocardial health and predicts future hospitalization. CS, a marker of cardiac muscle health, provides a novel index to informing the management of stable ambulatory HF patients.
ARTICLE Download: 388| View: 742| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0040.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Cardiology Keywords: biomarker; heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF); cBIN1; cBIN1 Score (CS)
Online: 7 January 2018 (12:51:36 CET)
Objective: We determined, in stable ambulatory heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) subjects and matched controls, the capability of a novel blood based cardiac-specific cBIN1 Score (CS), which assesses the health of cardiac muscle, to identify patients with known heart failure (HF) and to prognosticate future hospitalization. Background: Limited clinical tools are available in assessing cardiac muscle health in stable ambulatory patients. Cardiac bridging integrator 1 (cBIN1) is a cardiomyocyte t-tubule membrane scaffolding protein which regulates calcium signaling in cardiomyocytes, decreases in failing muscle, and is present in plasma in levels that correlate with cardiac content. We hypothesize that CS, a normalized index of plasma cBIN1 concentration, can function as a diagnostic and prognostic biomarker of HF. Methods: Plasma cBIN1 concentration is measured by an ELISA test, and CS is calculated as the natural log of the ratio of a constant population mean cBIN1 to measured cBIN1 concentration. We determined CS among 125 clinically stable individuals with HFrEF (LVEF ≤ 40%) (mean age 56 ± 10 years old, 79% men) and 125 age, sex matched volunteers with no known history of HF. We obtained plasma concentrations of NT-proBNP, a marker of volume status, as comparison. Baseline co-morbidities and 18-month longitudinal clinical information were obtained through electronic medical records. Results: CS follows a normal distribution with a median of 0 in the control population and median is significantly increased among HFrEF patients to 1.8 (IQR 1.4 – 2.1, p < 0.0001). CS diagnosed HFrEF with a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) area under the curve (AUC) of 0.93 (AUC is 0.98 for NT-proBNP, and combined CS and NT-proBNP AUC is 0.99). Unlike NT-proBNP, CS does not correlate with body mass index (BMI) in either the control or HFrEF population (Pearson’s r = -0.15, p = 0.12; Pearson’s r = 0.003, p = 0.97, respectively). NT-proBNP significantly correlates with renal function (Pearson’s r = -0.37, p = 0.001), while CS also has no correlation (Pearson’s r = 0.03, p = 0.71). During an 18-month follow-up, a high CS ≥ 1.8 at the initial visit predicted future cardiovascular hospitalizations (38% vs. 21%, p = 0.04, hazard ratio 2.0). NT-proBNP did not predict future cardiovascular hospitalizations. Conclusions: Plasma cBIN1 based CS is insensitive to BMI and renal function and differentiates myocardial health between patients with HFrEF versus matched controls. An abnormally high CS reflected poor intrinsic myocardial health and can predict future 18-month cardiac hospitalization in stable ambulatory patients.
Wed, 22 March 2017
REVIEW Download: 399| View: 617| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0177.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Cardiology Keywords: sildenafil; phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors; chronic heart failure; meta-analysis
Online: 22 March 2017 (18:12:47 CET)
Background: In patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension, substantial clinical benefits have been reported with the use of phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors(PDE5i) . Moreover, some studies would have proven useful effects of PDE5i also on the clinical picture of the pulmonary hypertension(PH) secondary to left-sided chronic heart failure(CHF). Methods: We performed a meta-analysis comprising randomized controlled trials ( RCTs) which had compared PDE5i ( mostly sildenafil) with placebo in CHF patients. Results: 14 studies, including 928 patients overall , were admitted to the meta-analysis. In heart failure with reduced left ventricular ejection fraction(HFREF), PDE5i, compared to placebo, significantly improved the composite of death and hospitalization (OR= 0.28; 95% CI: 0.10 to 0.74). They also improved peak VO2 (difference in means[MD]: 3.76; 95% CI: 3.27 to 4.25), six-minutes walk distance ( (6MWD)( MD, 22.7 meters ; 95% CI, 8.19 to 37.21) and pulmonary arterial systolic pressure (MD: -11.52 mmHg; 95% CI: -15.56 to -7.49). Conversely, in CHF with preserved left ventricular ejection fraction ( HFpEF), PDE5i were shown not to yield any beneficial effect concerning the investigated endpoints. Conclusions: In HFREF, PDE5i were shown to improve the composite of death and hospitalization, as well as exercise capacity and pulmonary hemodynamics. Conversely, in HFpEF, no significant clinical, ergospirometric or hemodynamic betterment was achieved using PDE5i treatment.
Mon, 13 February 2017
REVIEW Download: 733| View: 886| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201702.0036.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Cardiology Keywords: pulmonary arterial hypertension; prostacyclin; nanoparticle; drug delivery system
Online: 13 February 2017 (09:27:09 CET)
Nanoparticles have been used as a novel drug delivery system. Drug-incorporated nanoparticles for local delivery might optimize the efficacy and minimize the side effects of drugs. The efficacy and safety of intratracheal administration of prostacyclin analog (beraprost)-incorporated nanoparticles and imatinib, a PDGF-receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor, -incorporated nanoparticles in Sugen-hypoxia-normoxia or monocrotaline rat models of PAH and in human PAH-pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells have been reported. The use of inhaled drug-incorporated nanoparticles might be a novel approach for treatment of PAH.
Tue, 13 December 2016
ARTICLE Download: 692| View: 753| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201612.0066.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Cardiology Keywords: ventricular transmural heterogeneity; cellular mechanics; load dependency; calcium transient; mechano-calcium feedback
Online: 13 December 2016 (09:49:15 CET)
Mechanical properties of cardiomyocytes from different transmural regions are heterogeneous in the left ventricular wall. The cardiomyocyte mechanical environment affects this heterogeneity because of mechano-electric feedback mechanisms. In the present study, we investigated the effects of load upon transmural differences in contraction of subendocardial (ENDO) and subepicardial (EPI) single cells isolated from the murine left ventricle. Various loads were applied to the cells using carbon fiber techniques for single myocytes. To simulate experimentally obtained results and to predict mechanisms underlying the cellular response to change in load, our mathematical models of the ENDO and EPI cells were used. Extent of the transmural gradient in the time course of contractions was independent of the loading conditions where unloaded and heavy loaded (isometric) contractions were examined, but the regional gradient of the relaxation time characteristics tended to decrease when the load decreased. Under auxotonic contractions, time to peak contraction (Tmax) was significantly longer in ENDO cells than in EPI cells at low preload. An increase in preload (axial stretch) prolonged Tmax in both cell types; however, the prolongation was greater in EPI cells, resulting in a decrease in transmural gradient in Tmax at high preload. The [Ca2+]i transient decay time constant was consistent with the greater preload dependency in Tmax of EPI cells. Our modified mathematical models reproduced experimental results, suggesting that differences in cooperativity of cross bridges and calcium troponin C complex interactions between the ENDO and EPI cardiomyocytes may contribute to the different cellular responses to stretch, which may provide a decrease in transmural dispersion of cellular shortening in the intact heart.
Fri, 23 September 2016
ARTICLE Download: 1086| View: 819| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201609.0078.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Cardiology Keywords: thin film nitinol; electrostatic cell seeding; biocompatibility; endovascular devices
Online: 23 September 2016 (03:45:59 CEST)
Electrostatic endothelial cell seeding has evolved as an exceptional technique to improve the efficiency of cell seeding in terms of frequency of attached cells and the amount of cell adhesion for the treatment of vascular diseases. In the recent times, both untreated and superhydrophilic thin film nitinol (TFN) have exhibited strong prospect as substrates for creation of small-diameter endovascular grafts due to their hallmark properties of superelasticity, ultra low-profile character, grown hemocompatible oxide layer with the presence of a uniform endothelial layer on the surface. The purpose of the current study is to understand the effects of endothelial cell seeding parameters (i.e., applied voltage, incubation time, substrate chemistry and cell suspension solution) to investigate the cell seeding phenomenon and to improve the cell adhesion and growth on the TFN surface under electrostatic transplantation. Both parallel plate and cylindrical capacitor models were used along with the Taguchi Design of Experiment (DOE) methods to design in vitro test parameters. A novel in vitro system for cylindrical capacitor model was created using a micro flow pump, micro incubation system, and silicone tubings. The augmented endothelialization on thin film nitinol was developed to determine the effect of cell seeding and deployed in a 6 Fr intravascular catheter setup. Cell viability along with morphology and proliferation of adhered cells were evaluated using fluorescent and scanning electron microscopy. Our results demonstrated that the maximum number of cells attached on STFN in the catheter was observed in 5V with the 2 hr exposure of in the cell culture medium (CCM) solution. The condition showed 5V voltage with 0.68×10-6 µC electrostatic charge and 5.11 V·mm-1 electric field. Our findings have first demonstrated that the electrostatic endothelialization on the superhydrophilic thin film nitinol endograft within the catheter prior to the endovascular procedure could enhance the biocompatibility for low-profile endovascular applications.
Mon, 29 August 2016
ARTICLE Download: 1287| View: 951| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0225.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Cardiology Keywords: circular RNAs (circRNAs); circulating circRNA; type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM); pre-diabetes; microarray analysis; biomarker
Online: 29 August 2016 (13:37:38 CEST)
The purpose of current study was to investigate the expression characteristic of circular RNAs (circRNAs) in peripheral blood of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients and their potentials as diagnostic biomarkers for pre-diabetes and T2DM. In present study, the circRNAs in the peripheral blood from 6 healthy individuals and 6 T2DM patients were collected for microarray analysis. The results indicated that there were 489 differentially expressed circRNAs, of which 78 were upregulated and 411 were downregulated in the T2DM group. Then we selected 5 circRNAs as the candidate biomarkers under a stricter screening criteria and further verified them in another cohort (control group, n=20; pre-diabetes group, n =20; T2DM group; n=20). 3 of the 5 circRNAs presented upregulated expression in the experimental groups, including 2 circRNAs of the T2DM group that had higher expression than the pre-diabetes group. Hsa_circ_0054633 was identified to have the largest area value under the carve (AUC). In another independent cohort (control group, n=60; pre-diabetes group, n=63; T2DM group, n=64), the diagnostic capacity of hsa_circ_0054633 was tested. The results showed that the AUC for the diagnosis of pre-diabetes was 0.751(95% confidence interval=[0. 666-0.835], P＜0.001) while it was 0.793 ([0.716-0.871], P＜0.001) for the diagnosis of T2DM. After including the risk factors of T2DM, the AUC increased to 0.841 ([0.773-0.910], P <0.001) and 0.834 ([0.762-0.905], P <0.001), respectively. Hsa_circ_0054633 presented a certain diagnostic capability for pre-diabetes and T2DM.
Wed, 17 August 2016
ARTICLE Download: 1093| View: 922| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0164.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Cardiology Keywords: vitamin B12; coronary tortuosity; coronary angiography
Online: 17 August 2016 (10:51:56 CEST)
Background: Vitamin B 12 deficiency has been implicated in endothelial dysfunction and cardiovascular disease via hyperhomocysteinemia. Coronary tortuosity (CorT) is a common coronary angiography finding. The etiology, clinical implication and long term prognosis are still not well clarified. This study was conducted with the aim to evaluate the relationship between CorT and vitamin B12. Subjects and Method: The medical records of consecutive patients, who underwent coronary angiography, were retrospectively reviewed. The study group consisted of 1624 patients. Taking into consideration the inclusion criteria, 212 patients with CorT and 210 patients with normal coronary angiographies (control group) were included in the study. Vitamin B12, other biochemical parameters, clinical and echocardiographic parameters, and CorT score were evaluated in all patients. CorT is defined as fixed 3 bends during both systole and diastole, with each bend ≥45 °. Results: Patients with CorT had higher prevalence of older, female gender, hypertension, current smoking. Vitamin B12 was significantly decreased in patient with CorT (134.7±47.8 vs 239.6±53.8 p<0.001). On multivariate analysis age, female gender, hypertension, diabetes mellitus and vitamin B12 were independent predictors for CorT (OR 1.56; 95% CI: 1.247–1.962; p < 0.001, OR 1.628; 95% CI: 1.376-2.048; p<0.001, OR 1.865; 95% CI: 1.387-2.695; p<0.001, OR 1.362; 95% CI: 1.184-1.726; p<0.001, OR 1.862; 95% CI: 1.486-2.674; p<0.001, respectively). Conclusion: In our study, we have founded a significant relationship between vitamin B12 deficiency and CorT.
Tue, 9 August 2016
ARTICLE Download: 1006| View: 908| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0100.v1
Online: 9 August 2016 (14:31:47 CEST)
Background and objectives: The correlation of cardiac troponin I with early in-hospital outcomes in acute myocardial infarction is not well established. This study aims to assess the role of troponin I in predicting in-hospital outcomes and early left ventricular systolic dysfunction in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). Patients and methods: In a prospective study, 116 patients (74males and 42 females), with STEMI who had been admitted to the Coronary CareUnit from March 2015 to September 2015 were enrolled. Patients were divided according to the level of troponin I on admission into 3 groups (low, medium and high elevation). Results: The mean age (+ SD) of the patients was 60+11.4 years. The troponin level of 66.2% of males was high compared with 52.4% of females (p=0.002). The incidence of acute pulmonary edema (21.1%), cardiogenic shock (7%) and early left ventricular systolic dysfunction (49.3%) was significantly higher among patients with high troponin level compared with (0%, 0% and 16%, respectively) among patients with low troponin level. All deaths and cardiac arrest were of high troponin level. Conclusions: High admission troponin I in STEMI permits early identification of patients at increased risk of major cardiac complications and death.
ARTICLE Download: 1113| View: 932| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0087.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Cardiology Keywords: natriuretic peptides; heart failure; congestion; outcome
Online: 9 August 2016 (11:33:03 CEST)
Background According to some authors, a single isolated measurement of serum BNP executed on hospital admission would not be a sufficiently accurate method to predict the outcome of patients with ADHF. Aims For verifying this assumption, a retrospective study was conducted on patients hospitalized for ADHF. Our main objective was to ascertain whether there was any difference in midterm mortality among patients with rising BNP at discharge as compared to those with decreasing BNP at discharge. Methods Medical records were examined so as to make a partition of the ADHF patient population into two groups, the former characterized by a rise in BNP during hospitalization, and the latter exhibiting a decrease in BNP in the measurement taken at hospital discharge. Results 177 patients were enrolled in a retrospective study. Among them, 53 patients (29.94%) had increased BNPs at the time of discharge, whereas 124 (70.06%) showed decreases in serum BNP during their hospital stay. The group with patients who exhibited BNP increases at the time of discharge had higher degree of congestion evident in the higher frequency of persistent jugular venous distention and persistent orthopnea at discharge. Moreover, patients with increased BNP at the time of discharge had a lower reduction in inferior vena cava maximum diameter [1.58 ± 2.2 mm vs. 6.32 ± 1.82 mm; p (one-way ANOVA)=0.001]. In contrast, there was no significant difference in weight loss when patients with increased BNP at discharge were compared to those with no such increase. A total of 14 patients (7.9%) died during the six-month follow-up period. Cox proportional hazard analysis revealed that BNP increase at the time of discharge was an independent predictor of six-month all-cause mortality after adjustment for age, sodium at discharge, creatinine at discharge and New York Heart Association (NYHA) class at discharge (hazard ratio 34.49; 95% confidence intervals: 4.55–261.06; P =0.001). Conclusions Among patients with history of ADHF, more elevated BNP levels at the time of discharge from the hospital compared to those detected at admission identify a patient subset with higher grade of congestion and higher six-month mortality.