ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0042.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Endocrinology And Metabolism Keywords: aldosterone; transforming growth factor beta1; ventricular cardiac remodelling; transgenic mice; mitogen-activated protein kinases
Online: 3 July 2023 (12:49:54 CEST)
(1) Background: Angiotensin II, a major culprit in cardiovascular disease, activates mediators that are also involved in pathological cardiac remodelling. We aimed at investigating the effects of two of them: aldosterone (Ald) and transforming growth factor-beta-1 (TGF-β1 ), on cardiac remodelling in an in vivo model. (2) Methods: Six-week-old male wild-type (WT) and TGF-β1 -overexpressing transgenic (TGF-β1 -TG) mice were infused with subhypertensive doses of Ald for 2 weeks, and/or treated orally with eplerenone from postnatal day 21. Heart’s ventricles were examined: by morphometry, immunoblotting to assess intracellular signalling pathways, RT qPCR to determine hypertrophy and fibrosis marker genes. (3) Results: TGF-β1 -TG mice spontaneously developed cardiac hypertrophy and interstitial fibrosis, exhibited higher baseline phosphorylation of p44/42 and p38 kinases, fibronectin and ANP mRNA expression. Ald induced a comparable increase in ventricular heart weight-to-body-weight ratio and cardiomyocyte diameter in both strains, but less pronounced increase in interstitial fibrosis in transgenic compared to WT mice (23.6% vs 80.9%, p<0.005). Ald increased phosphorylation of p44/42 and p38 in WT but not TGF-β1 -TG mice. While eplerenone-enriched chow partially prevented Ald-induced cardiac hypertrophy in both genotypes and interstitial fibrosis in WT controls, it completely protected from additional fibrosis in transgenic mice. (4) Conclusions: Ald appears to induce cardiac hypertrophy independently of TGF-β1 , while in case of fibrosis downstream signalling pathways of these two factors probably converge
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: transforming growth factor β3; chitosan sponge; human periodontal ligament cells; osteogenic differentiation
Online: 11 September 2019 (13:42:18 CEST)
Abstract: Periodontal disease is the main reason for tooth loss in adults. Tissue engineering and regenerative medicine are the advanced technologies used to manage soft and hard tissue defects caused by periodontal disease. We developed a transforming growth factor-β3 chitosan sponge (TGF-β3/CS) to repair periodontal soft and hard tissue defects. We investigated the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation behaviors of primary human periodontal ligament stem cells (hPDLSCs) to discuss the bioactivity and application of TGF-β3 in periodontal disease. We separately used Calcein-AM/PI double-labeling or CM-Dil-labeling coupled with fluorescence microscopy to trace the survival and function of the cells after implantation in vitro or in vivo. The mineralization of osteogenic differentiated hPDLSCs was confirmed by measuring ALP activity and calcium content. The levels of COL I, ALPL, TGF-βRI, TGF-βRII, and Pp38/t-p38 were tested using Western blot to explore the mechanism of bone repair prompted by TGF-β3. When hPDLSCs were inoculated with different concentrations of TGF-β3/CS (62.5–500 ng/mL), ALP activity was the highest in TGF-β3 (250 ng/mL) group after seven days (P < 0.05 vs. control); the calcium content in each group increased significantly after 21 and 28 days (P < 0.001 vs. control). The best result was achieved in the TGF-β3 (500 ng/mL) group. All results showed that TGF-β3/CS can promote osteogenic differentiation of hPDLSC and may be involved in the p38 MAPK signaling pathway. TGF-β3/CS has the potential for application in the repair of incomplete alveolar bone defects.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0157.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Cell And Developmental Biology Keywords: blood cells; differentiation; myeloid leukemia; monocytes; lymphocytes; transcription factors; all-trans-retinoic acid; interleukin 2; transforming growth factor β
Online: 12 December 2018 (15:51:17 CET)
FoxP3 is a transcription factor essential for the differentiation and function of T regulatory cells (Tregs). There are two major subsets of Tregs: natural Tregs (nTregs) generated in thymus and inducible Tregs (iTregs) produced in peripheral immune system. It has been documented that iTreg development is dependent on soluble mediators including interleukin 2 (IL2), transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) and all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA). In our experiments we performed a gene expression array, followed by Real-time PCR experiments, to study the expression of genes regulated by 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25D) or ATRA in cells of myeloid origin. Our experiments revealed that ATRA alone, but also a cocktail of mediators consisting of IL2, TGFβ and ATRA, upregulate the expression of FOXP3 gene in lymphoid cells, but also in normal and leukemic myeloid cells. The FoxP3 expression is followed by a phenotypic changes in cells of myeloid origin. Our results indicate that signaling pathways which are used in the late stages of T cell differentiation, are also active in the cells of myeloid lineage
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0017.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Cell And Developmental Biology Keywords: minicircle; induced pluripotent stem cells; chondrogenesis; chondrocyte; bone morphogenetic proteins; transforming growth factors
Online: 2 April 2018 (09:59:50 CEST)
The human degenerative cartilage has low regenerative potential. Chondrocyte transplantation offers a promising strategy for cartilage treatment and regeneration. Currently chondrogenesis using human pluripotent stem cells are accomplished using human recombinant growth factors. Here, we differentiated human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) into chondrocytes and cartilage pellet using minicircle vectors. Minicircles are used as a non-viral gene delivery system for gene therapy in various diseases. Non-viral gene delivery can produce growth factors without integrating into the host genome. Minicircle vectors containing bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2) and transforming growth factor, beta 3 (TGFβ3) were successfully generated and delivered to hiPSC-derived outgrowth (OG) cells. Cell pellets generated using minicircle-transfected OG cells successfully differentiated into chondrogenic lineage. Chondrogenic pellets transfected with growth factor-encoding minicircles effectively recovered osteochondral defect in rat models. Taken together, this work shows the potential application of minicircles in cartilage regeneration using hiPSCs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201712.0138.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: multiple sclerosis; spinal cord; transforming growth factor beta 1; active plaques
Online: 20 December 2017 (07:04:10 CET)
We recently reported that in the spinal cord of PPMS or SPMS patients, large areas of periplaque demyelinating lesions extend distance away from plaque borders. Such lesions are characterized by a progliotic TGF-beta 1 signature accompanied by: i) a low-grade inflammatory reaction, ii) an extensive astrocytosis and iii) a process of incomplete demyelination. It was proposed that, while efficiently dampening inflammation in MS spinal cords, TGF-beta 1 could promote astrocytosis, prevent remyelination and possibly trigger alterations of myelin synthesis. In light of these findings, a re-interpretation of two large neuropathological studies performed on MS brains and spinal cords is provided here. While results from these studies clearly showed that active plaques do not display any region-specific distribution, an important point was apparently overlooked and not discussed by the authors: a significantly higher percentage of inactive plaques was found in MS spinal cords as compared to brains and, conversely, the percentage of slowly-expanding (or smoldering) lesions was significantly lower in the spinal cord as compared to the brain. These data indicate that the spinal cord environment may be more favorable to the resolution of inflammation. Downstream of the autoimmune process leading to plaque formation, region-specific mechanisms may thus drive the outcome of active plaques. While inflammation triggers tissue destruction, inflammation may also be needed for effective tissue repair and an inappropriate dampening of inflammatory events may possibly translate into a poor level of remyelination in MS spinal cords. It is proposed here that TGF-beta 1 is involved in such a brain-spinal cord dissociation of active plaques outcome.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0171.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dermatology Keywords: ulmus parvifolia; wound healing; matrix metalloproteinase; transforming growth factor; skin rejuvernation
Online: 15 November 2019 (04:05:45 CET)
Ulmus species have been widely used in Korean folk medicine because of their anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial properties. We intended to investigate the wound healing effect of the powder of Ulmus parvifolia (UP) root bark in a mouse wound healing model. We also determined the mechanisms of effects of Ulmus parvifolia (UP) in skin and skin wound healing effect using keratinocyte model. in vivo experiments showed that the wound lesions in the mice decreased by U. parvifolia with 200 mesh size of root bark powder and significantly reduced by treatment with UP, compared with those treated with U. macrocarpa (UM). Results from in vitro experiments also revealed that UP extract promoted the migration of human skin keratinocytes. UP powder treatment upregulated the expression of the matrix metalloproteinase-2 and -9 protein and significantly increased transforming growth factor (TGF)-β levels. We confirmed that topical administration of the bark powder of exerted a significant effect on skin wound healing by upregulating the expression of MMP and transforming growth factor-β. TGF-β In, Our study suggests that U. parvifolia may be a potential candidate for skin wound healing including epidermal skin rejuvernation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1332.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: Transforming growth factor beta; YAP; SMAD3; Heart Valve; Extracellular matrix
Online: 20 October 2023 (12:22:01 CEST)
Abstract: The transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ) and Hippo signaling pathways are evolutionarily conserved pathways that play a critical role in cardiac fibroblasts during embryonic development, tissue repair, and fibrosis. TGFβ and Hippo signaling is also important for cardiac cushion remodeling and septation during embryonic development. Loss of TGFβ2 in mice causes cardiac cushion remodeling defects resulting in congenital heart disease. In this study, we used in vitro molecular and pharmacologic approaches in the cushion mesenchymal cell line (tsA58-AVM) and investigated if Hippo pathway acts as a mediator of TGFβ2 signaling. Immunofluorescence staining showed that TGFβ2 induced nuclear translocation of activated SMAD3 in the cushion mesenchymal cells. In addition, the results indicated increased nuclear localization of Yes associated protein 1 (YAP1) following a similar treatment of TGFβ2. In collagen lattice formation assays, TGFβ2 treatment of cushion cells resulted in an enhanced collagen contraction compared to the untreated cushion cells. Interestingly, verteporfin, a YAP1 inhibitor, significantly blocked the ability of cushion cells to contract collagen gel in absence or presence of by exogenously added TGFβ2. To confirm the molecular mechanisms of verteporfin induced inhibition of TGFβ2-dependent extra-cellular matrix (ECM) reorganization we performed gene expression analysis of key mesenchymal genes involved in ECM remodeling in heart development and disease. Our results confirmed that verteporfin significantly decreased the expression of α-smooth muscle actin (Acta2), collagen 1a1 (Col1a1), Ccn1 (i.e., Cyr61), and Ccn2 (i.e., Ctgf). Western blot analysis indicated that verteporfin treatment significantly blocked TGFβ2-induced activation of SMAD2/3 in cushion mesenchymal cells. Collectively, these results indicate that TGFβ2 regulation of cushion mesenchymal cell be-havior and ECM remodeling is mediated by YAP1. Thus, TGFβ2 and Hippo pathway integration represents an important step in understanding the etiology of congenital heart disease.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0342.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: Glioblastoma; blood brain barrier; transforming growth factor beta; NMR metabolomics
Online: 20 December 2022 (01:19:48 CET)
The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a selectively permeable boundary that separates the circulating blood from the extracellular ﬂuid of the brain and is an essential component for brain homeostasis. In glioblastoma (GBM), the BBB of peritumoral vessels is often disrupted. Pericytes, being important to maintain the BBB integrity, can be functionally modified by GBM cells by inducing proliferation and cell motility via the TGF-β-mediated induction of central epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) factors., We demonstrate that pericytes strengthen the integrity of the BBB in primary endothelial cell/pericyte co-cultures as in vitro BBB model, using TEER measurement of the barrier integrity. In contrast, this effect was abrogated by TGF-β or conditioned medium from TGF-β secreting GBM cells, finally leading to the disruption of a so far intact and tight BBB. TGF-β dramatically changed the metabolic behavior of pericytes, such as shutting down the TCA cycle, driving energy generation from oxidative phosphorylation towards glycolysis, and by shifting the cells towards the activation of pathways that are necessary to produce molecules used for proliferation and cell division. Furthermore, combined metabolomics and RNASeq analyses indicated that the observed functional changes of TGF-β-treated pericytes are closely connected with their behavior.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1790.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: TAp73; PDAC; RAC1b; Biglycan; SMAD3; SMAD4; transforming growth factor-β; epithelial-mesenchymal transition; cell migration
Online: 26 September 2023 (11:48:58 CEST)
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is a fatal disease due to early metastatic spread, late diagnosis and the lack of efficient therapies. A major driver of cancer progression and hurdle to successful treatment is the desmoplastic reaction of the tumor stroma, the formation of which is orchestrated by transforming growth factor (TGF)-β. Recent data from pancreatic cancer mouse models have shown that the TGF-β pathway is controlled by transcriptionally active p73 (TAp73) through secretion of biglycan (Bgn) via intermittent expression of the TGF-β signaling intermediates, Smad3 and Smad4. Genetic knockout of TP73, and, as a consequence, deficient induction of Smad3/Dpc4 and secretion of Bgn led to activation of TGF-β signaling through a (Smad-independent) ERK pathway, favoring epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and cell motility. Except for BGN, these functions of TAp73 have recently been shown to also operate in human PDAC cells and are reminiscent of what we previously observed for the small GTPase, RAC1b. This prompted us to hypothesize that TAp73 and RAC1b are part of the same tumor-suppressive pathway in human PDAC cells. The two objectives of this study, therefore, were to reveal i) if the regulatory interactions between TAp73 and Bgn previously discovered in murine PDAC-derived cells also operate in their human counterparts, and ii) if RAC1b collaborates with TAp73 in these tumor-suppressive activities in human PDAC cells. Using a variety of experimental approaches, including mutual rescue experiments, we were able to show that the previously proposed tumor-suppressive TAp73-Smad4-Bgn signaling also operates in human cells and that RAC1b is as an upstream activator of this pathway. Our findings highlight the complex role of TGF-β in pancreatic tumorigenesis and might have implications for therapeutic approaches targeting this growth factor for inhibition.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0548.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Gastroenterology And Hepatology Keywords: non-alcoholic steatohepatitis; hepatocellular carcinoma; farnesyltransferase inhibitor; hypoxia-inducible factor-1α; anti-inflammatory response; nuclear factor-κB; transforming growth factor-β; Warburg effect; reactive oxygen species; interleukin-6
Online: 7 June 2023 (12:05:28 CEST)
Inflammatory processes play major roles in carcinogenesis and progression of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) derived from non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). But there are no therapies for NASH related HCC, especially focusing on these critical steps. Previous studies reported that farnesyltransferase inhibitors (FTIs) have anti-inflammatory and anti-tumor effects. However, the influence of FTIs on NASH-related HCC has not been elucidated. In HCC cell lines, HepG2, Hep3B, and Huh-7, we confirmed expression of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α, an accelerator of tumor aggressiveness and the inflammatory response. We established NASH-related HCC models under inflammation and free fatty acid burden and confirmed that HIF-1α expression was increased under both conditions. Tipifarnib, which is an FTI, strongly suppressed increased HIF-1α, inhibited cell proliferation, and induced apoptosis. Simultaneously, intracellular interleukin-6 as an inflammation marker was increased under both conditions and significantly suppressed by tipifarnib. Additionally, tipifarnib suppressed expression of phosphorylated nuclear factor-κB and transforming growth factor-β. Finally, in a NASH-related HCC mouse model burdened with diethylnitrosamine and a high fat diet, tipifarnib significantly reduced tumor nodule formation in association with decreased serum interleukin-6. In conclusion, tipifarnib has anti-tumor and anti-inflammatory effects in a NASH-related HCC model and may be a promising new agent to treat this disease.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0674.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: osteoarthritis; articular cartilage; degeneration; regeneration; therapeutic protein; growth factor; protein production platform; protein packaging cell line; transforming growth factor β (TGF-β); GP2-293 cells; TissueGene-C
Online: 28 July 2020 (10:16:51 CEST)
This review article focuses on the current state-of-the-art in the area of cellular and molecular biotechnology for over-production of clinically relevant therapeutic and anabolic growth factors. We discuss how the currently available tools and emerging technologies can be used for the regenerative treatment of osteoarthritis (OA). Transfected protein packaging cell lines such as GP-293 cells may be used as “cellular factories” for large-scale production of therapeutic proteins and pro-anabolic growth factors, particularly in the context of cartilage regeneration. However, when irradiated with gamma or x-rays, these cells lose their capacity for replication, which actually makes them safe for use as a live cell component of intra-articular injections. This innovation is already here, in the form of TissueGene-C, a new biological drug which consists of normal allogeneic primary chondrocytes combined with transduced GP2-293 cells that overexpress the growth factor transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1). TissueGene-C has revolutionized the concept of cell therapy, allowing drug companies to develop live cells as biological drug delivery systems for direct intra-articular injection of growth factors whose half-lives are in the order of minutes. Therefore, in this paper, we discuss the potential for new innovations in regenerative medicine for degenerative diseases of synovial joints using mammalian protein production platforms, specifically protein packaging cell lines, for over-producing growth factors for cartilage tissue regeneration and give recent examples. Mammalian protein production platforms that incorporate protein packaging eukaryotic cell lines are superior to prokaryotic bacterial expression systems and are likely to have a significant impact on the development of new humanized biological growth factor therapies for treating focal cartilage defects and more generally for the treatment of degenerative joint diseases such as OA, especially when injected directly into the joint.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0234.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: osteoarthritis; articular cartilage; degeneration; regeneration; therapeutic protein; growth factor; protein production platform; protein packaging cell line; transforming growth factor β (TGF-β); GP2-293 cells
Online: 23 August 2019 (03:33:49 CEST)
This article focuses on the current state-of-the-art in the area of cellular and molecular biotechnology for over-production of clinically relevant therapeutic growth factors and how the technology can be used for the treatment of osteoarthritis (OA). Transfected and irradiated protein packaging cell lines may be used as “cellular factories” for large-scale production of therapeutic proteins and pro-anabolic growth factors, particularly in the context of cartilage matrix regeneration. We discuss the potential for new innovations in regenerative medicine for degenerative diseases of synovial joints using mammalian protein production platforms, specifically protein packaging cell lines, for over-producing growth factors for cartilage tissue regeneration and give recent examples. Mammalian protein production platforms that incorporate protein packaging cell lines are superior to bacterial expression systems and are likely to have a significant impact on the development of new biological therapies for treating focal cartilage defects and more generally for the treatment of degenerative joint diseases such as OA.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1288.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Humanities Keywords: Changing Landscape; Challenges in Higher Education; Jobs of 2030; Transforming Education
Online: 20 September 2023 (02:21:43 CEST)
The COVID-19 pandemic has brought about major changes in our world and has accelerated the progress of the job market. This presents both a challenging and exciting prospect for the workforce in the future, particularly in 2030 and beyond. Through thorough literature reviews, this paper navigates the constantly changing landscape of education and employment. It specifically focuses on the importance of preparing students for the jobs of the future by fostering skills such as adaptability, critical thinking, empathy, integrity, optimism, proactivity, and resilience. The pandemic has accelerated the need for online learning and remote work skills, which are now essential for future success. Through observations, the paper also examines the pulse of the situation in Iligan City, Philippines, where aligning educational institutions with the changing job market is crucial. Overall, this paper has significant implications for educational reforms and real-world challenges, creating a guide for institutions to empower students and contribute to the city's economic growth. Significant information suggests that in a constantly evolving world, those who are prepared, adaptable, and equipped with the skills to shape the future will succeed. Iligan City is well-aware that it needs to position itself to play a pivotal role in this journey.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.1238.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Urology And Nephrology Keywords: Peyronie's disease; pathogenesis; risk factors; molecular mechanisms, transforming growth factor-β1
Online: 30 April 2023 (02:21:49 CEST)
Peyronie's disease (PD) is a benign condition caused by plaque formation on the tunica albuginea of the penis. It is associated with penile pain, curvature, and shortening, and contributes to erectile dysfunction, which worsens patient quality of life. In recent years, understanding of the detailed mechanisms and risk factors involved in development of PD has been increasing. In this review, the pathological mechanisms and several closely related signaling pathways, including TGF-β, WNT/β-catenin, Hedgehog, YAP/TAZ, MAPK, ROCK, and PI3K/AKT, are described. Findings regarding cross-talk among these pathways are then discussed to elucidate the complicated cascade behind tunica albuginea fibrosis. Finally, various risk factors including genetic involved in the development of PD are presented and their association with the disease summarized. The purpose of this review is to provide better understanding regarding involvement of risk factors in the molecular mechanisms associated with PD pathogenesis, as well as provide insight into disease prevention and novel therapeutic interventions.
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Cell And Developmental Biology Keywords: fibrogenesis; hepatic stellate cells; coculture; transforming growth factor beta; oxygen tension
Online: 16 December 2020 (08:51:19 CET)
During chronic liver injury, inflammation leads to liver fibrosis— particularly due to the activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs). However, the involvement of inflammatory cytokines in HSC activation and the relationship among different liver cells is unclear. To examine their interactions, many in vitro liver models are performed in organoid or spheroid culture with random 3D structure, complicating analysis. Herein, we demonstrated the hierarchical coculture of primary rat hepatocytes with non-parenchymal cells such as the human-derived HSC line (LX-2) and liver sinusoidal endothelial cell line (TMNK-1). The cocultured tissue had high usability with simple operation of separating solid and liquid phases with improved liver functions such as albumin production and hepatic cytochrome P450 3A4 activity. We also studied the effects of stimulation by both oxygen tension and the key pro-fibrogenic cytokine, transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β), on HSC activation. Gene expression analysis revealed that lower oxygen tension and TGF-β1 stimulation enhanced collagen type I and alpha-smooth muscle actin expression from LX-2 cells in the hierarchical coculture. Therefore, this hierarchical in vitro cocultured liver tissue could provide an improved platform as a disease model for elucidating the interactions of various liver cell types and biochemical signals in future liver fibrogenesis studies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1910.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: TAp73; PDAC; SMAD4; transforming growth factor-β; epithelial-mesenchymal transition; cell migration
Online: 27 June 2023 (12:53:45 CEST)
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is a fatal disease due to early metastatic spread, late diagnosis and the lack of efficient therapies. A major driver of cancer progression and hurdle to successful treatment is transforming growth factor (TGF)-β. Recent data from pancreatic cancer mouse models have shown that transcriptionally active p73 (TAp73), a p53 family member, inhibits tumor progression through promoting tumor suppressive canonical TGF-β/Smad signaling, while preventing non-canonical TGF-β signaling through extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK)1/2. Here, we have studied whether this mechanism also operates in human PDAC. Using the PDAC-derived tumor cell lines PANC-1 and HPAFII, we show that TAp73 induces the expression of the epithelial marker and invasion suppressor E-cadherin and the common-mediator Smad, SMAD4, while at the same time suppressing expression of the EMT master regulator SNAIL and basal and TGF-β1-induced activation of ERK1 and ERK2. Using dominant-negative and RNA interference-based inhibition of SMAD4 function we went on to show that inhibition of ERK activation by TAp73 is mediated through SMAD4. Intriguingly, both SMAD4 and the α isoform of TAp73 - but not the isoform - interfered with cell migration as shown by xCELLigence technology. Our findings highlight the role of TAp73-SMAD4 signaling in tumor suppression of human PDAC and identify direct inhibition of basal and TGF-β-stimulated pro-invasive ERK activation as an underlying mechanism.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0290.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Medicine And Pharmacology Keywords: aging; Apoptosis; Brain-derived neurotrophic factor; transforming growth factor β1; vascular endothelial growth factor
Online: 17 February 2023 (02:25:34 CET)
Curcumin is a natural dietary polyphenol which that possesses potent anti-aging and neuroprotective properties through various mechanisms and signaling pathways. This study aimed to investigate the effect of curcumin on factors involved in neurogenesis and angiogenesis in the aged brain. Old female Wistar rats were divided into three equal groups (n=7): control, sham, and curcumin (received curcumin, i.p., 30 mg/kg and 5 days/week for 8 weeks) rats. Curcumin treatment caused a significant increase in the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and anti-apoptotic protein BCl-2 in the brains of aging rats but no significant effect on anti-apoptotic Bax protein. Additionally, curcumin attenuated brain lipid peroxidation and decreased transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1). These results suggested that curcumin possesses neuroprotective effects against brain aging, which were mediated by improvment in neurogenesis and angiogenesis. Also, curcumin could alleviate brain aging which may be due to attenuating oxidative stress, inhibiting apoptosis and down-regulating TGF-β1, which in turn enhances VEGF and BDNF. Therefore, curcumin has potential therapeutic value in the treatment of neurological apoptosis, neurogenesis and angiogenesis changes caused by brain aging.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0313.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: cardiogenesis, endocardial cushions, neural crest, hemodynamics, shear stress, semilunar valve, outflow tract septum, Klf2, growth factors, Transforming growth factor
Online: 17 September 2018 (13:45:32 CEST)
The beating heart is subject to intrinsic mechanical factors, exerted by contraction of the myocardium (stretch and strain) and fluid forces of the enclosed blood (wall shear stress). The earliest contractions of the heart occur already in the 10-somite stage in the tubular as yet unsegmented heart. With development the looping heart becomes asymmetric providing varying diameters and curvatures resulting in unequal flow profiles. These flow profiles exert various wall shear stresses and as a consequence different expression patterns of shear responsive genes. In this paper we investigate the morphological changes of the heart after changes the blood flow by ligation of the right vitelline vein in a model chicken embryo and analyze the extended expression in the endocardial cushions of the shear responsive gene Tgfbeta receptor III. A major phenomenon is the diminished endocardial-mesenchymal transition resulting in hypoplastic (even absence of) atrioventricular and outflow tract endocardial cushions, that might be lethal in early phases. The surviving embryos exhibit several cardiac malformations including ventricular septal defects and malformed semilunar valves related to a malposition of the aortopulmonary septum and the enclosed neural crest cells. We discuss the results in the light of the interactions between several shear stress responsive signaling pathways including Vegf, Notch, Pdgf, Klf2, eNos, Endothelin and Tgfβ/Bmp/Smad.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0135.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Medicine And Pharmacology Keywords: vascular homing peptide; cell penetrating peptide; angiogenesis; vascular heterogeneity; fibrosis; targeted delivery; decorin; transforming growth factor-β (tgf-β), bystander effect, cendr peptide; tissue regeneration; regenerative medicine
Online: 10 December 2019 (15:02:39 CET)
Growth factors, chemokines and cytokines guide tissue regeneration after injuries. However, their applications as recombinant proteins are almost non-existent due to the difficulty of maintaining their bioactivity in the protease-rich milieu of injured tissues in humans. Safety concerns have ruled out their systemic administration. The vascular system provides a natural platform for circumvent the limitations of the local delivery of protein-based therapeutics. Tissue selectivity in drug accumulation can be obtained as organ-specific molecular signatures exist in the blood vessels in each tissue, essentially forming a postal code system (“vascular zip codes”) within the vasculature. These target-specific “vascular zip codes” can be exploited in regenerative medicine as the angiogenic vasculature forming in the regenerating tissues has a unique molecular signature. The identification of vascular homing peptides capable of finding these unique “vascular zip codes” after their systemic administration provides an opportunity for the target-specific delivery of therapeutics to tissue injuries. Therapeutic proteins can be “packaged” together with homing peptides by expressing them as multi-functional recombinant proteins. These multi-functional recombinant proteins provide an example how molecular engineering gives a compound an ability to home to regenerating tissue and enhance its therapeutic potential. Regenerative medicine has been dominated by the locally applied therapeutic approaches despite these therapies are not moving to clinical medicine with success. There might be a time to change the paradigm towards systemically administered, target organ-specific therapeutic molecules in future drug discovery and development for regenerative medicine