REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0400.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Dentistry Keywords: Temporomandibular joint disorders; Temporomandibular Joint; Facial Pain; Craniomandibular Disorders
Online: 17 February 2021 (16:07:10 CET)
Temporomandibular disorders (TMD) is a group of orofacial pain conditions which is the most common non-dental pain complaint in the maxillofacial region. Due to the complexity of the etiology and often cyclical nature of the disease, the diagnosis and management of TMD remain a challenge where consensus is still lacking in many aspects. While clinical examination is considered the most important process in the diagnosis of TMD, imaging may serve as a valuable adjunct in selected cases. Depending on the type of TMD, many treatment modalities have been proposed, ranging from conservative options to open surgical procedures. In this review, the authors discuss the present thinking in the etiology and classification of TMD, followed by the diagnostic approach and the current trend and controversies in management.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0155.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Dentistry Keywords: temporomandibular joint disorders; arthrocentesis; TMJ; arthralgia; lavage
Online: 6 August 2020 (10:36:53 CEST)
The aim of this study was to assess the best timing to perform arthrocentesis in the management of temporomandibular disorders with regards to conservative treatment. A systematic search based on PRISMA guidelines, including a computer search with specific keywords, reference list search, and manual search was done. Relevant articles were selected after 3 search rounds for final review based on 6 predefined inclusion criteria, followed by a round of critical appraisal. Eleven publications, including 5 randomized controlled trials and 6 prospective clinical studies informed this review. The studies were divided into 3 groups based on the timing of arthrocentesis: 1). Arthrocentesis as the initial treatment, 2). Early arthrocentesis, and 3). Late arthrocentesis. Meta-analyses compared the efficacy of improvement in mouth opening and pain reduction in the 3 groups. The results were statistically significant and favoured early arthrocentesis, followed by late arthrocentesis in terms of both improvements in mouth opening and pain reduction. All 3 groups showed improvement in mouth opening and pain reduction. We conclude that early arthrocentesis may be able to produce the best clinical results, while arthrocentesis before attempting conservative treatment may produce less favourable outcomes.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0219.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: TMDs; temporomandibular; TMJ; network meta-analysis; systematic review
Online: 11 November 2022 (07:04:36 CET)
Abstract: Background: Pain management is one of the main parts of treatments for Temporomandibular Disorders (TMDs). However, there is still a lack of high-quality evidence that compare the overall effects of these non-surgical treatments. The objective of this systematic review is to identify the most potential treatment protocol in dealing with pain caused by TMDs through a mixed comparison of interventions based on network meta-analysis. Methods: A systematic review and network meta-analysis of studies identified by searching PubMed, Embase, Medline, Ovid, and CINAHL. All the included studies should have characteristics that: (1) participants with TMDs of any age; (2) non-surgical treatments; (3) score of Visual Analog Scale (VAS) as the outcome measure; (4) randomized controlled trials. The Cochrane Bias Assessment Toll was used to assess the bias, the CINeMA website was applied to rate the confidence of evidence, and ADDIS software was used to conduct the network meta-analysis. Results: 46 studies were included in this review. The agreement between authors reached a kappa value of 0.78. The results of the network meta-analysis showed that wearable therapy devices are more likely to be the best choice for reducing the pain of patients with myogenic TMDs, whereas a combination of platelet-rich plasma injection and wearable therapy devices is more likely to be the best choice for reducing the pain in a long term after treatment for patients with mix-type TMDs. Moreover, the application of therapy equipment has the most potential in reducing pain in a long term after treatment for patients with articular TMDs. Discussion: Wearable devices have a great potential for pain syndrome caused by TMDs, the mechanism might come from a biomechanical perspective. However, the overall confidence rating of evidence is low. Studies with high quality are still needed in the future. Other: The PROSPERO Registration Number of this systematic review is CRD42021253442.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0142.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Dentistry Keywords: Botulinum toxin type A; Myofascial pain; Temporomandibular disorders
Online: 9 June 2022 (10:59:51 CEST)
To demonstrate if botulinum toxin type A (BoNT-A) improves mandibular range of motion and muscle sensibility to palpation in refractory myofascial pain (MFP) patients. METHODS: Eighty consecutive female subjects with refractory MFP, were randomly divided into four equal groups (n=20): BoNT-A low (BoNTA-L/10 U in each temporalis and 30 U in each masseter), BoNT-A medium (BoNTA-M/20 U in each temporalis and 50 U in each masseter), BoNT-A high (BoNTA-H/25 U in each temporalis and 75 U in each masseter) and saline solution 0.9% (SS, placebo control group/0.4 mL in each temporalis and 0.6 mL in each masseter). Clinical measurements of the mandibular movements included: pain-free opening, maximum unassisted and assisted opening, and right and left lateral movements. Palpation tests were performed bilaterally in masseter and temporalis muscle. Results were expressed as median, minimum, maximum, and means ± standard deviation (SD). Chi-Square Test was used to compare differences among groups. A 5% probability level was considered significant in all tests RESULTS: Regardless of dose, all parameters of mandibular range of motion significantly improve after 180 days in BoNT- A groups, when compared to the control group. Pain to palpation on muscles, significantly reduced in all BoNT- A groups regardless of dose, when compared to the control group, after 28 and 180 days of treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Independent of doses, BoNT-A improved mandibular range of motion and muscle sensibility to palpation in refractory MFP patients when compared to SS injections.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0566.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Temporomandibular joint; Osteoarthritis; Semaphorin 4D; Plexin-B1; Osteoblast
Online: 23 June 2021 (11:07:01 CEST)
Subchondral bone loss is an important pathological feature of early-stage temporomandibular joint (TMJ) osteoarthritis (OA). Previous studies focused mainly on the bone resorption by osteoclasts in early-stage OA, but the bone formation feature has not drawn enough attention. Sema4D/Plexin-B1 is a pair of molecules expressed by osteoclast/osteoblast, which is capable of inhibiting bone formation by osteoblasts. The present study found that subchondral bone loss in early-stage TMJ OA was accompanied by up-regulated expression of Sema4D in cartilage and subchondral bone and Plexin-B1 in subchondral bone. Reducing Sema4D level could inhibit the subchondral bone loss and cartilage degeneration of early-stage TMJ OA. In vitro, results revealed that Sema4D could reduce the expression of osteocalcin (OCN) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and increase the migrating capability of Plexin-B1-positive osteoblasts. Our results revealed that elevated Sema4D expression in early-stage TMJ OA might decrease the bone formation activity of osteoblasts in the subchondral bone by binding to Plexin-B1 expressed by osteoblasts. Inhibiting Sema4D/Plexin-B1 signaling in the early-stage OA holds promise as a strategy for new therapeutic approaches to osteoarthritis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201707.0023.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: temporomandibular joint disc; reconstituted collagen template; tissue regeneration
Online: 11 July 2017 (16:23:01 CEST)
Previous study demonstrated the reconstituted type I collagen matrix extracted from rabbit tendons enabled to regenerate the TMJ disc in the rabbit. The aim of this study was to investigate changes in the extracellular matrix (ECM) and mechanisms of regeneration in TMJ disc. In 36 New Zealand rabbits that underwent a partial discectomy, discs were replaced with reconstituted collagen templates for 3 months. A histological analysis showed that moderate to severe degeneration appeared in partially discectomized joints without implantation. In contrast, discs that received the reconstituted collagen template regenerated, and returned to normal to protect the joint. Cells in the regenerative tissue expressed ECM, and fibers became regular and compact due to tissue remodeling over time. Reparative cells differentiated into chondroblasts, and showed highly dense pericellular fibers. The morphology and collagen composition of the disc and condyle in the 3-month experimental group were similar to those of normal tissues. In conclusion, the reconstituted collagen template facilitated the regeneration of surgically discectomized discs. Type I and type II collagens play a crucial role in the regeneration of articular discs.
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: mixed dentition period; temporomandibular joint; mandibular condyle; panoramic radiograph
Online: 1 July 2021 (11:13:27 CEST)
Introduction: During mixed dentition period, the growth and development process of dentocraniofacial complex occurs, with temporomandibular joint as one of its centers of growth. The condition of temporomandibular joint can be seen from its condylar head shape; therefore, it is essential to understand the normal morphology of condylar head during mixed dentition period. Objective: this research aims to view the general morphology of condylar head during mixed dentition period. Method: Samples of panoramic radiographs were collected from Ma-ranatha Dental Hospital, Bandung, Indonesia. It consists of 70 male and 70 female subjects, di-vided into three groups according to their phase of mixed dentition period. Shape of subjects' condylar heads was determined by analyzing and comparing the tracing results of condyle in panoramic radiograph. Result: Study showed in first transitional period of mixed dentition, condylar head shape is dominated by round, as growth and development go on, the domination of condylar head shape is changed into convex on second transitional period. Conclusion: Mostly condylar head shape morphology during mixed dentition period is round-headed in first transitional and inter-transitional period, and convex-headed in second transitional period.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0569.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Dentistry Keywords: Sleep quality; Chronic pain; Temporomandibular disorder; Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index; STOP-Bang; Epworth Sleepiness Scale
Online: 23 June 2021 (11:11:14 CEST)
Objectives: This study aimed to investigate and compare sleep quality between patients with chronic temporomandibular disorder and healthy controls, and to analyze the association of sleep quality with disease characteristics, obstructive sleep apnea risk factors, and excessive daytime sleepiness. Methods: Chronic temporomandibular disorder patients (n=503) and 180 age- and sex-matched healthy controls were included, who completed well-organized clinical report and answered questions on sleep quality (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index), sleep apnea risk factors (STOP-Bang questionnaire), and excessive daytime sleepiness (Epworth sleepiness scale). Results: Mean global Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index scores were significantly higher in the patients (6.25±2.77) than in healthy controls (6.25±2.77) (p<0.001). Poor sleep was significantly more prevalent in the patient group (56.9%) than in healthy controls (22.2%) (p<0.001). Compared with healthy controls, chronic temporomandibular disorder patients had a higher likelihood of obstructive sleep apnea. (STOP-Bang total score ≥3; 7.2% vs. 16.1%; p<0.01) and higher excessive daytime sleepiness (Epworth sleepiness scale score ≥10; 12.8% vs. 19.7%; p<0.05). Age (odds ratio=2.551; p<0.001), female sex (odds ratio=1.885; p=0.007), total Epworth sleepiness scale score (odds ratio=1.839; p=0.014), and headache attributed to temporomandibular disorder (odds ratio=1.519; p=0.049) were the most powerful predictors of poor sleep (global Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index score ≥5) in chronic temporomandibular disorder patients. Conclusion: Chronic temporomandibular disorder patients had sleep quality impairment. Various factors, including peripheral and central factors, affect the patient's sleep quality. Therefore, in addition to sleep quality and sleep-related problems, the underlying central mechanism for poor sleep quality should be assessed when treating chronic temporomandibular disorder patients.