ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0186.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Psychiatry & Mental Health Studies Keywords: bipolar depression; inflammation; neuroimmunomodulation; cytokines; psychoneuroimmunology; staging
Online: 11 March 2020 (10:45:16 CET)
There is now evidence that, based on cytokine profiles, bipolar disorder (BD) is accompanied by simultaneous activation of the immune-inflammatory response system (IRS) and the compensatory immune-regulatory system (CIRS), and that both components may be associated with the staging of illness. Nevertheless, no BD studies have evaluated the IRS/CIRS ratio using CD (cluster of differentiation) molecules expressed by peripheral blood activated T effector (Teff) and T regulatory (Treg) subpopulations. This study examined T cell subsets both before and after ex vivo anti CD3/CD28 stimulation using flow cytometric immunophenotyping in 25 euthymic BD patients and 21 healthy controls as well as human cytomegalovirus (HCMV)-specific IgG antibodies. BD is associated with a significantly lowered frequency of baseline (unstimulated) CD3+CD8+CD71+ and CD4+CD25+FOXP3 and increased CD4+CD25+FOXP3+CD152+ frequencies and with lowered stimulated frequencies of CD3+CD8+CD71+, CD4+CD25+FOXP3+CD152+ and CD4+CD25+FOXP3+GARP cells and, consequently, by an increased stimulated Teff/Treg ratio. Moreover, the number of manic, but not hypomanic or depressive episodes, is significantly and negatively associated with the stimulated proportions of CD3+CD4+CD154+, and CD69+ and CD71+ expression on CD4+ and CD8+ cells, while duration of illness (≥ 10 years) is accompanied by a depleted frequency of stimulated CD152+ Treg, and CD154+ and CD71+ CD4+ T cells. BD and anti-human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) IgG levels significantly interact to decrease the expression of CD4+CD25+FOXP+GARP T phenotypes. In conclusion, BD is characterized by deficits in immune-regulatory functions while the staging of illness is characterized by additional impairments is Teff and Treg activation. HCMV seropositivity may contribute to an immune-risk phenotype associated with BD.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0019.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Renal Cell Carcinoma; Pathological staging; Extrarenal extension; Renal vein invasion
Online: 4 January 2021 (11:31:46 CET)
(1) Background: Overall survival of the patients with renal cell carcinoma (RCC) depends mostly on extra-renal extension, documented by the invasion of the pelvicalyceal system, or the perinephric/renal sinus fat or the renal vein/its segmental intraparenchymal branches. Staging may be challenging because of the high inter-observer variability. We have introduced a more accurate procedure to detect the extra-renal extension and, to possibly evaluate the impact of such more laborious approach, we have compared the RCC pathological staging obtained following both standard and modified procedures; (2) Methods: We selected 54 consecutive cases of RCC diagnosed 18 months before and 54 consecutive cases diagnosed 18 months after the introduction of the new method of sampling. Clinico-pathological characteristics have been statistically analyzed; (3) Results: Most of the features analyzed were non statistically significative, except the extra-renal invasion. More precisely, the occurrence of retrograde venous invasion was higher in the cases grossly approached with the more accurate method; (4) Conclusions: Extra-renal extension to intraparenchymal renal vein branches may be underestimated, leading to an inappropriate under-staging. Using more accurate staging procedures, to disclose the occurrence of intra-renal veins tumoral thrombosis, helps to better define the pathological stage, allowing patients to benefit of better fitting treatments.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0092.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Psychiatry & Mental Health Studies Keywords: staging, affective disorders, major depression, bipolar disorder, oxidative, neuro-immune
Online: 7 December 2018 (13:56:04 CET)
Although, staging models gained momentum to stage define affective disorders, no attempts were made to construct mathematical staging models using clinical and biomarker data in patients with major depression and bipolar disorder.The aims of this study were to use clinical and biomarker data to construct statistically-derived staging models, which are associated with early lifetime traumata (ELTs), affective phenomenology and biomarkers.In the current study, 172 subjects participated, 105 with affective disorders (both bipolar and unipolar) and 67 controls. Staging scores were computed by extracting latent vectors (LVs) from clinical data including ELTs, recurring flare ups and suicidal behaviors, outcome data such as disabilities and health-related quality of life (HR-QoL), and paraoxonase (PON)1 actvities and nitro-oxidative stress biomarkers.Recurrence of episodes and suicidal behaviors could reliably be combined into a LV with adequate composite reliability (the “recurrence LV”), which was associated with female sex, the combined effects of multiple ELTs, disabilities, HR-QoL and impairments in cognitive tests. All those factors could be combined into a reliable “ELT-staging LV” which was significantly associated with nitro-oxidative stress biomarkers. A reliable LV could be extracted from serum PON1 activities, recurrent flare ups, disabilities and HR-QoL.Our ELT-staging index scores the severity of a relevant affective dimension, shared by both major depression and bipolar disorder, namely the trajectory from ELTs, a relapsing course and suicidal behaviors to progressive disabilities. Patients were classified into three stages, namely an early stage; a relapse-regression stage; and a suicidal-regression stage. Lowered lipid-associated antioxidant defenses may be a drug target to prevent the transition from the early to the later regression stages.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0147.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: endometrial cancer; ultrasound; lymph nodes; staging; metastases; biomarkers; model; COVID-19
Online: 8 August 2022 (10:24:17 CEST)
Background: Myometrial invasion (MI) is a parameter currently used in transvaginal ultrasound (TVS) in endometrial cancer (EC) to determine local staging, however, without molecular diagnostics, it is insufficient for selection of high-risk cases, i.e., those with a high risk of lymph node metastases (LNM). Methods: One hundred sixteen consecutive EC patients, who had received 2D transvaginal ultrasound examinations in their preoperative workup and final histopathology results as a reference standard, were included in this prospective study. Univariate and multivariate logistic models of analyzed TVS biomarkers (tumor [T] size, T area [AREA], T volume [SPE-VOL], MI, T-free distance to serosa [TFD], endo-myometrial irregularity, [EMIR], cervical stromal involvement, CSI) were evaluated to assess the relative accuracy of the possible LNM predictors. To avoid a potential bias in assuming linear relations between LNM and continuous predictors, spline functions were applied. Calculations were made in R with the use of libraries splines, glmulti, and pROC. Results: LNM was found in 20 out of 116 (17%) patients. In univariate analysis, only uMI, EMIR, uCSI and uTFD were significant predictors of LNM. Accuracy was 0.707 (AUC 0.684, 95% CI 0.568-0.801) for uMI (p<0.01), 0.672 (AUC 0.664, 95% CI 0.547-0.781) for EMIR (p<0.01), 0.776 (AUC 0.647, 95% CI 0.529-0.765) for uCSI (p<0.01), and 0.638 (AUC 0.683, 95% CI 0.563-0.803) for uTFD (p<0.05). The cut-off value for uTFD was 5.2 mm. However, AREA and VOL revealed significant relation by non-linear analysis as well. Among all possible multivariate models, the one comprising interactions of splines of uTFD with uMI and splines of SPE-VOL with uCSI showed most usefulness. Accuracy was 0.802 (AUC 0.791, 95% CI 0.673-0.91) Conclusions: A combination of uTFD for patients with uMI>50%, and SPE-VOL for patients with uCSI, allows for the most accurate prediction of LNM in EC, rather than uMI alone.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0060.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Urology Keywords: extra-prostatic extension; magnetic resonance imaging; radical prostatectomy; nerve-sparing; prostate cancer; staging; diagnostic accuracy
Online: 6 January 2022 (10:05:55 CET)
The accuracy of multi-parametric MRI (mpMRI) in pre-operative staging of prostate cancer (PCa) remains controversial. Objective: To evaluate the ability of mpMRI to accurately predict PCa extra-prostatic extension (EPE) on a side-specific basis using a risk-stratified 5-point Likert scale. This study also aimed to assess the influence of mpMRI scan quality on diagnostic accuracy. Patients and Methods: We included 124 men who underwent robot-assisted RP (RARP) as part of the NeuroSAFE PROOF study at our centre. Three radiologists retrospectively reviewed mpMRI blinded to RP pathology and assigned a Likert score (1-5) for EPE on each side of the prostate. Each scan was also ascribed a Prostate Imaging Quality (PI-QUAL) score for assessing the quality of the mpMRI scan, where 1 represents poorest and 5 represents best diagnostic quality. Outcome measurements and statistical analyses: Diagnostic performance is presented for binary classification of EPE including 95% confidence intervals and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). Results: A total of 231 lobes from 121 men (mean age 56.9 years) were evaluated. 39 men (32.2%), or 43 lobes (18.6%) had EPE. Likert score ≥3 had sensitivity (SE), specificity (SP), NPV, PPV of 90.4%, 52.3%, 96%, 29.9%, respectively, and AUC was 0.82 (95% CI: 0.77-0.86). AUC was 0.63 (95% CI: 0.37-0.9), 0.77 (0.71-0.84) and 0.92 (0.88-0.96) for biparametric scans, PI-QUAL 1-3 and PI-QUAL 4-5 scans, respectively. Conclusions: MRI can be used effectively by genitourinary radiologists to rule out EPE and help inform surgical planning for men undergoing RARP. EPE prediction was more reliable when the MRI scan was a) multi-parametric and b) of a higher image quality according to the PI-QUAL scoring system.
HYPOTHESIS | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0437.v2
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: Alzheimer's; Cellular senescence; Neurodegeneration; Microglia; Astrocytes; Oligodendrocyte Progenitor Cells; TREM2; Braak staging; Oxidative stress; Phapoptosis; Amyloid-beta; Tau; Neuritic plaques
Online: 7 March 2022 (14:22:25 CET)
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) predominantly occurs as a late-onset form (LOAD), involving neurodegeneration and cognitive decline with progressive memory loss. Over time, risk factors and aging promote accumulation of well-known AD pathologies in oxidative stress, amyloid-beta and tau protein pathology, as well as inflammation. Homeostatic glial functions regulate and suppress these AD pathologies; however, other glial states involve increased pro-inflammatory cytokine release and further pathology accumulation. Different stresses can additionally induce cellular senescence, or an irreversible differentiation process resulting in decreased supportive functions and increased, pro-inflammatory cytokine release. While these pathophysiological underpinnings all contribute to LOAD, they require temporal and mechanistic integration. This perspective hypothesizes that when individuals have threshold senescent glia accumulation, they transition from healthy cognition into mild cognitive impairment and LOAD diagnosis. Particularly, senescent microglia are predicted to represent a final threshold required for the tau pathology burden and spreading that corresponds to sustained neurodegeneration and dementia severity. We first explore age-related decline in glia that promote increases in AD pathologies, and then discuss emerging evidence linking oxidative stress, neurons containing tau pathology, and amyloid-beta to microglia, oligodendrocyte progenitor cell, and astrocyte senescence. Our hypothesis proposes that senescent astrocytes and oligodendrocyte progenitors pressure microglia to phagocytose neurons containing tau pathology. The resulting senescent microglia would form neuritic plaques and induce paracrine senescence transitioning into a progressive clinical dementia presentation. This predictive hypothesis can potentially account for why medications used to treat LOAD fail, as previous treatments have not reduced senescent glial burden. It is also coherent with the predominant hypotheses surrounding LOAD, generates testable hypotheses about LOAD, and increases rationale in testing senolytics as targeted treatments for LOAD arrest and reversal.