ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0298.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: burnout; moral distress; COVID-19; perceived organizational support
Online: 22 March 2022 (09:02:27 CET)
The purpose of this study was to explore the role of moral distress on physician burnout during COVID-19. Physicians in the US were interviewed between February and March 2021; 479 responded to our survey. Results indicated that moral distress was a key mediator in explaining the relationship between perceived organizational support, medical specialization, emotional labor, and coping on burnout. There was no support for increased burnout among female physicians, and contracting COVID-19 likewise did not play a role in burnout. Our findings suggest that physician burnout can be mitigated by increasing perceived organizational support; likewise, physicians who engaged in deep emotional labor and problem-focused coping tended to fare better when it came to feelings of moral distress and subsequent burnout.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0625.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: COVD-19; moral distress; healthcare worker; mental health; communication; leadership
Online: 28 July 2021 (10:45:50 CEST)
Background: Sudden changes in clinical practice and the altered ability to care for patients due to the COVID-19 pandemic have been associated with moral distress and mental health concerns in healthcare workers internationally. This study aimed to investigate the severity, prevalence, and predictors of moral distress experienced by Australian healthcare workers during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: A nationwide, voluntary, anonymous, single time-point, online survey of self-identified frontline healthcare workers was conducted between 27th August and 23rd October 2020. Participants were recruited through health organisations, professional associations or colleges, universities, government contacts, and national media. Results: 7846 complete responses were received from nurses (39.4%), doctors (31.1%), allied health staff (16.7%) or other roles (6.7%). Many participants reported moral distress related to resource scarcity (58.3%), wearing PPE (31.7%) limiting their ability to care for patients, exclusion of family going against their values (60.2%), and fear of letting co-workers down if they were infected (55.0%). Many personal and workplace predictors of moral distress were identified, with those working in certain frontline areas, metropolitan locations, and with prior mental health diagnoses at particular risk of distress. Moral distress was associated with an increased risk of adverse mental health outcomes. Feeling appreciated by the community mitigated this risk in healthcare workers. Conclusions: Safeguarding healthcare workforces during crises is important for both patient safety and workforce longevity. Targeted interventions are required to prevent or minimise moral distress and associated mental health concerns in healthcare workers during COVID-19 and other crises.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0349.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: Moral observer-licensing; Immoral behavior; Role involvement; Moral Credits Model; Internet; Social media
Online: 25 March 2022 (15:29:49 CET)
Moral observer-licensing happens when people condone others’ morally questionable conducts due to their history of moral behaviors. We investigated in four studies (N = 808) this phenomenon in the context of cyberspace and its contributing factors and boundary conditions. Study 1 determined what participants perceived as typically moral and immoral behaviors in cyberspace. Then in Study 2, participants condemned less a story character’s online immoral behavior when they were informed of the character’s prior online moral behavior than when they were not, which indicates moral observer-licensing in cyberspace. Study 3 confirmed the presence of moral observer-licensing in cyberspace and further demonstrated that a character’s prior moral or immoral behavior online respectively reduces or intensifies the negativity of the character’s subsequent immoral behavior. Finally, Study 4 showed that participants who identified with the victim in a hypothetical scenario showed less forgiveness and more condemnation of a character’s immoral behavior than those who identified with the perpetrator or the bystander. These findings are of theoretical and practical significance for our understanding of cyber ethics.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0381.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, General Humanities Keywords: moral decadence, implementation of Pancasila, globalization
Online: 14 June 2021 (16:46:30 CEST)
Globalization plays a very important role in the advancement of science and technology today, especially in Indonesia. Globalization has also succeeded in changing all aspects of human life. In addition to having a positive impact on the development of science and technology in Indonesia, globalization also has a negative impact that is quite visible on the character of today's youth. The crisis of the character of Indonesian youth is a serious matter and is reflected in the behavior of Indonesian youth today which does not coincide with the identity of the Indonesian nation and the values of Pancasila. This paper examines the lack of implementation of Pancasila values in the life of the globalization era and also how globalization affects moral decadence among the younger generation. The method used is the Literature Review method, which is a qualitative research method by collecting data from the literature. The lack of practice of Pancasila values and the emergence of globalization is increasingly diminishing the character of Indonesian youth. The implementation of Pancasila values among teenagers needs to be increased so that the nation's moral character is not eroded by the currents of globalization.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0410.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: Jihadism; radicalization; moral structure; extremism; social control
Online: 20 August 2021 (11:30:58 CEST)
This paper is the first of a series of papers which aims to address Islamist violent radicalization from different angles: the nature of violent radicalization in the context of Spain, a comparison between European, North American and Indian violent radicalization, the need to refine territorial radicalization indexes within the context of preventing violent radicalization and the relation between Islamist violent radicalization and other forms of violent radicalization in Europe. This set of articles builds upon the general theoretical framework set by the author on two previous works (García, 2018; 2019). These works are framed under the known conception of three layers of micro, meso and macro factors contributing to violent radicalization processes (McCauley, Moskalenko, 2017). The paper starts by defining Islamist violent radicalization, then it explores different theoretical explanations and finally proposes an explanatory hypothesis that is tested against, on the one hand, data proceeding from different institutional sources in Spain and, on the other, some initial conversations which will become life stories and a in depth interviews to Spanish security officials and people who whether radicalized and regretted or lived very close to others that did it.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0335.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Social Psychology Keywords: social and moral education; preschool age; communitarian approach
Online: 27 November 2019 (08:46:55 CET)
The article deals with issues related to social and moral education and development of preschool children. The theoretical understanding of the current state of this field is reflected in the modern normative documents "On education in the Russian Federation", the state educational standards. Analysis of theoretical and practice-oriented research in this area shows that the phrase "moral education" today is gradually replaced by "social and moral education", "social and moral development". This trend is found in preschool pedagogy (work L. V. Abramova, R. S. Bure, S. M. Zyryanova, N.A. Karataeva, G. M. Kiseleva, I. F. Sleptsova, etc.). It is the study of social and moral representations of preschool children that many relevant diagnostic methods are aimed at: to explain the actions of children, their relationship with each other and adults, to assess these actions (i.e. to correlate the situation with the moral norm). The presented research was based on the method of research of moral representations of children of senior preschool age, developed by G. A. Uruntaeva and Yu.A. Afon'kina. The analysis of the results showed that children of senior preschool age willingly included in the retelling of the actions described in the situation, but find it difficult to assess what is happening from a moral point of view. It is obvious that psychological and pedagogical work is necessary in this direction, taking into account the age characteristics of children, as well as social and moral guidelines relevant to the current situation of development of society.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0119.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: religion; law and rule violations; moral community; China
Online: 8 May 2018 (04:33:21 CEST)
This paper examines the moral community thesis in the secular context of China. Using multilevel logistic regression, we test (1) whether both individual- (measured by affiliation with institutional religion) and aggregate-level religiosity (measured by the number of religious sites per 10,000 people in province) are inversely related to law and rule violations at the individual level and (2) whether the province-level religiosity enhances the inverse relationship between individual religiosity and the deviant behaviors. Results from analyzing data from the 2010 China General Social Survey and the Spatial Explorer of Religions show that both individual- and aggregate-level religiosity are inversely related to the odds of violating the law and various rules of government, transportation, workplace, and other organizations. However, the cross-level interactions are not significant across models, indicating that the contextual religiosity does not increase the effect of individual-level religiosity on deviance. Implications of findings for the moral community thesis are discussed.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints201704.0115.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: Mobbing, Harcèlement moral, Workplace, Psychosocial risk, Content analysis.
Online: 18 April 2017 (17:32:34 CEST)
The topic of the article refers to expressions used to address the psychosocial risk linked to the workplace violence. The article bases on the Polish-French comparison, using analysis of definitions, legal acts and public statistics. The purpose is to show social differences, in the context of mobbing and “harcèlement moral”, that surface from ratified definitions of these phenomena and public statistics. The final conclusions are the effect of a compilation of results of analysis and available literature. The choice of the two European, diverse areas of comparison for the diagnosis - Poland and France - is the result of selection of the method of data content analysis, chosen by the author because of the availability of the scientific resources essential for the article and accessible during an academic stay in Centre d'Etudes de l'Emploi in France.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0006.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Studies Keywords: Teacher training; moral education; values system; higher education; SARS-CoV2
Online: 1 April 2022 (11:29:54 CEST)
To determine the ethical-attitudinal profile of university students in the education career during the pandemic with a tendency towards a new normality. University students of the education career were surveyed online, in an ethical key (axiological attitude, moral attitude and attitude towards new normality). The research was descriptive of univariate hypothesis, with non-probabilistic snowball sampling, reaching a sample of 480 participants. The Ethical-Attitudinal Profile Scale (EPEA) was designed, whose reliability was 0.93 in Lawshe's formula and 0.89 in Cronbach's Alpha. In the axiological attitude, values were obtained more frequently: respect with 79%, sincerity with 73%, prudence with 72%. In the moral attitude, a polar result is contrasted between laxity (67%) and kindness (45%); while, in the attitude towards new normality, there was no spike in frequencies, being distributed more homogeneously between indicators, with a low resilience index. There is an adequate evaluative profile of the university students of the education career despite the context of the pandemic and the trend towards a new normality; having a moral attitude of laxity inferred by the circumstances of uncertainty that are experienced in adverse contexts.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0448.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: moral identity; subjective well-being; identity commitment quality; internalization; symbolization
Online: 20 July 2021 (11:52:09 CEST)
Moral identity can promote people’s well-being, but existing research has paid little attention to the mechanism of the link between the two. The current study proposed that the eudaimonic identity function is a critical mechanism that links moral identity and well-being. Specifically, the quality of identity commitment mediates the link between subjective well-being and the two dimensions of moral identity, namely, internalization and symbolization. We examined these hypotheses in 419 participants, who completed the Self-importance of Moral Identity Questionnaire, Satisfaction with Life Scale, Scale of Positive and Negative Experience, and Questionnaire for Eudaimonic Well-being. Results from the obtained data confirmed our hypotheses: There is a significant correlation between moral identity and subjective well-being. Both the internalization and symbolization dimensions of moral identity promote subjective well-being through the mediating role of identity commitment quality. We discussed these findings with respect to implications and proposed research suggestions for future studies.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0197.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Social Psychology Keywords: free speech; academic freedom; scholarship suppression; moral panics; witch hunts
Online: 9 September 2020 (03:45:39 CEST)
This paper explores the suppression of ideas within academic scholarship by academics, either by self-suppression or because of the efforts of other academics. Legal, moral, and social issues distinguishing freedom of speech, freedom of inquiry, and academic freedom are reviewed. How these freedoms and protections can come into tension is then explored by a sociological analysis of denunciation mobs who exercise their legal free speech rights to call for punishing scholars who express ideas they disapprove of and condemn. When successful, these efforts, which constitute legally protected speech, will suppress certain ideas. Real-world examples over the past five years of academics who have been sanctioned or terminated for scholarship targeted by a denunciation mob are then explored.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0561.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: environmental identity; environmental collective action; emotions; moral conviction; group efficacy beliefs.
Online: 24 February 2021 (17:13:27 CET)
The deterioration and destruction of the environment is becoming more and more considerable and greater efforts are needed to stop it. To accomplish this feat, all members of society must identify with environmental problems, with collective environmental action being one of the most relevant means of doing so. From this perspective, the analysis of the psychosocial factors that lead to participation in environmental collective action emerges as a priority objective in the research agenda. Thus, the aim of this study is to examine the role of "environmental identity" as conceptualized by Clayton, as a central axis for explaining environmental collective action. The inclusion of the latter in the theoretical framework of the SIMCA model gives rise to the model that we have called EIMECA. Two studies were conducted, and the results reveal that environmental identity, a variety of negative affects, as well as group efficacy accompanied by hope for a simultaneous additive effect, are critical when it comes to predicting environmental collective action.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0239.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nursing & Health Studies Keywords: long-term care; healthcare workers; mental health; moral distress; resilience; COVID-19
Online: 12 August 2022 (12:43:46 CEST)
Healthcare workers (HCWs) in long-term care (LTC) faced and continue to experience significant emotional and psychological distress throughout the pandemic. Despite this, little is known about the unique experiences of LTC workers. This scoping review synthesizes existing research on the experiences of HCWs in LTC during the COVID-19 pandemic. Following Arksey and O’Malley’s framework, data were extracted from six databases from inception of the pandemic to June 2022. Among 3,808 articles screened, 40 articles were included in the final analysis. Analyses revealed three interrelated themes: carrying the load (moral distress); building pressure and burning out (emotional exhaustion); and working through it (a sense of duty to care). Given the impacts of the pandemic on both HCW wellbeing and patient care, every effort must be made to address the LTC workforce crisis and evaluate best practices for supporting HCWs experiencing mental health concerns during and post-COVID-19.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0451.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: SARS-CoV2 outbreak; pandemic; Terror Management Theory; moral panic; Corriere della Sera
Online: 17 March 2021 (16:47:47 CET)
Exactly one year ago, between February and March 2020, the SARS-CoV2 infection went from an epidemic confined to China to a worldwide pandemic that was particularly lethal in Italy. This study examined media accounts during that period by analysing the representation of death-related constructs in Corriere della Sera, the most widely read newspaper in Italy. A textual and thematic analysis of articles published between period A (epidemic: 23 January–22 February 2020) and period B (pandemic: 23 February–31 March 2020) was conducted using Nvivo-11. A total of 141 articles comprising 48,524 words was collected. The most utilized words and meanings linked to SARS-CoV2 were computed. In the rank distribution, ‘China’ and ’virus’ were the terms most frequently used in both periods. The terms ‘death’ and ‘dead’ were completely absent in period A and appeared in the 535th position in period B. The term ‘dead’ was used primarily to indicate the number of deceased. From a Terror Management Theory perspective, it is possible that the minimal reference to death-related issues was a reflection of death denial and a manifestation of efforts to deny death to manage terror. These findings highlight the ambiguities and ambivalence surrounding any issue pertaining to death; on one side, undue alarmism may provoke exaggerated reactions, such as moral panic, while on the other denial-based messages that minimize references to mortality may reduce safe behaviour during a pandemic.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0070.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Other Keywords: automation bias; human – automation interaction; human decision-making; level of automation; moral decision
Online: 3 March 2022 (17:28:15 CET)
Automation technologies are present in almost every domain of human activity and they are now more and more present in our everyday life. The reason for this massive deployment of automated systems would reside in all the benefits they offer to the users. In experimental settings, multiple studies have demonstrated the positive effects the introduction of automation can have on human decision-making and performance. However, studies have also demonstrated that the introduction of automation can have important negative effects as well. Considering that automation is now introduced in sensitive domains like military defense or medicine, more than ever we need a complete understanding of the effects caused by these systems on human performance and decision-making, and particularly in tasks and contexts with social or moral dimension. In this paper we will firstly review the main effects produced on a human agent’s behaviors by the introduction of automation. Then, we will review the conditions identified as underlying factors of these effects, and see how they are currently integrated in models of human – automation interaction. We will conclude this review by highlighting new directions for future investigations on human – automation interaction.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0284.v1
Subject: Keywords: Climate change; Scientific uncertainty; Moral uncertainty; Deep uncertainty; Risk; IPCC; Storylines; Probability; Expected utility
Online: 13 August 2021 (08:26:29 CEST)
While the foundations of climate science and ethics are well established, fine-grained climate predictions, as well as policy-decisions, are beset with uncertainties. This chapter maps climate uncertainties and classifies them as to their ground, extent and location. A typology of uncertainty is presented, centered along the axes of scientific and moral uncertainty. This typology is illustrated with paradigmatic examples of uncertainty in climate science, climate ethics and climate economics. Subsequently, the chapter discusses the IPCC’s preferred way of representing uncertainties and evaluates its strengths and weaknesses from a risk management perspective. Three general strategies for decision-makers to cope with climate uncertainty are outlined, the usefulness of which largely depends on whether or not decision-makers find themselves in a context of deep uncertainty. The chapter concludes by offering two recommendations to ease the work of policymakers, faced with the various uncertainties engrained in climate discourse.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0066.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: ethics seminar; moral sensitivity; unethical behavior; nurse; Health care; patient; hospital; Patient safety; education
Online: 2 December 2020 (14:11:57 CET)
While nursing is an ethical profession, unethical behavior among nurses is increasing worldwide. This study examined the effects of an ethics seminar on nurses' moral sensitivity and ethical behavior. A total of 37 nurses (17 experimental, 20 control) were recruited. The ethics seminar was held over a 6-month period from May to October, 2018, and comprised six sessions held once a month for two hours. Moral sensitivity and unethical behavior were measured at the start and end of the seminar. Moral sensitivity and unethical behavior showed a negative correlation (r= -.455, p<0.01). After the ethics seminar, the experimental group's moral sensitivity was significantly increased (t = -1.039, p = 0.314). The mean scores of unethical behavior at pre and post-test in the experimental group were 12.59 and 9.47, respectively. This was a statistically significant difference (t = 3.118, p = 0.004). There was no statistically significant difference in the mean score in both moral sensitivity and unethical behavior in the control group. We conclude that ethics seminars can enhance moral sensitivity and reduce the risk of unethical behavior among nurses. Regular ethics seminars and training must be provided to nurses as a matter of policy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201708.0094.v2
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Veterinary Medicine Keywords: euthanasia; veterinary ethics; medical ethics; end-of-life; assisted suicide; palliative care; assisted dying; moral stress
Online: 1 December 2017 (16:58:27 CET)
This is the second of a series of two papers comparing the end of life issues in human and veterinary medicine. We outline the main differences between human and animal patients such as patient communication, finance and ‘conflicts of interest’ between animal, owner and veterinarian. We discuss striking similarities between human and veterinary issues such as assessing quality of life and the primary role of the attending veterinarian or doctor being the welfare and care of the patient. This paper takes the form of an ethical argument in favour of allowing euthanasia in human medicine, by providing insights into end of life issues for humans from an independent veterinary perspective. Veterinary surgeons are well trained in the ethics of euthanasia and put it to good use in the best interest of their animal patients. Doctors in the UK are limited and unwilling to put forward a case for the option of euthanasia for those patients who face a slow and agonizing death. With advances in medical science being able to significantly prolong the dying process, autonomy for the patient demands a review of the law regarding patient choice in the UK.