ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0333.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: Visual SLAM; Indoor positioning; Mini-drone
Online: 17 November 2022 (09:59:43 CET)
Mini-drones can be used for a variety of tasks, such as weather monitoring, package delivery, search and rescue, and recreation. Their uses are mostly restricted to outside locations with access to the Global Positioning System (GPS) and/or similar systems since their usefulness, safety, and performance substantially rely on ubiquitously accurate positioning and navigation. Indoor localization is getting better, thanks to technologies like Visual Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (V-SLAM). However, more advancements are still required for mini-drone navigation applications with greater safety standards. In this research, a novel method for enhancing indoor mini-drone localization performance is proposed. By merging Oriented Rotated Brief SLAM (ORB-SLAM2), Semi-Direct Monocular Visual Odometry (SVO), and an Adaptive Complementary Filter, the suggested strategy improves V-SLAM approaches (ACF). The findings demonstrate that, when compared to other widely-used indoor localization algorithms, the suggested methodology performs better at estimating location under various situations (low light, low texture, and dynamic environments).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0311.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dietetics And Nutrition Keywords: mini nutritional assessment; acute myocardial infarction; mortality; elderly
Online: 13 November 2018 (10:56:25 CET)
Background: Malnutrition is a frequent condition in the elderly and is associated with prolonged hospitalization and increased mortality. However, the impact of malnutrition among elderly patients with acute myocardial infarction has not been clarified yet. Methods and Results: We have enrolled 174 patients aged 65 years and over, admitted with the diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) who underwent to the evaluation of nutritional status by Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA) and of mortality risk by Grace score 2.0. All-cause mortality was the outcome considered for this study. Over a mean follow-up of 24.5 ± 18.2 months, 43 deaths have been registered (24.3%). Non-survivors were more likely to be older, with worse GFR, lower SBP, lower albumin and MNA score, higher prevalence of Killip classification III-IV grade, and higher Troponin I levels. Multivariate Cox proportional analysis revealed that Grace score and MNA showed a significant and independent impact on mortality, (HR = 1.76, 95% CI = 1.34–2.32 and HR = 0.56, 95% CI = 0.42–0.73, respectively). Moreover, the clinical decision curve revealed a higher clinical net benefit when the MNA was included compared to the partial models without MNA. Conclusions: Nutritional status is an independent predictor of long-term mortality among elderly patients with AMI. MNA score in elderly patients with AMI may help prognostic stratification and identification of patients with/at risk of malnutrition in order to apply interventions to improve nutritional status and maybe survival in this population.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0250.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dentistry And Oral Surgery Keywords: follicular cyst; fracture; mandible; osteosynthesis; mini-plate; collagenic xenograft
Online: 8 February 2022 (12:41:39 CET)
The problem of filling the bone cavity remains relevant in maxillofacial and oral surgery. There is a large selection of osteotropic materials of various natures for filling of bone defects of different etiology. The aim of our research was to improve the result of surgical treatment in a patient with a complicated mandibular fracture with the use of collagenic xenograft during osteosynthesis. In this article, we introduce our experience in the treatment of a patient with a complicated mandibular angle fracture in a combination with the follicular cyst. The obligate steps of treatment included stabilization of the bony fragments, a decrease of risk in fracture line malposition along with titan mini- plates, and shortening in the time of bone regeneration due to a filling of bone defect with the osteotropic material. This approach allowed us to reduce the rehabilitation period and further prosthetic treatment after 4-5 months without additional bone grafting manipulations. Though, the use of collagen osteotropic material, possessing osteoconductive properties, can improve the treatment of patients with mandibular fractures.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0133.v2
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: economic sustainability; mini hydroelectric plants; tariff; incentive; climate change
Online: 19 March 2021 (14:41:06 CET)
The feasibility of hydroelectric plants depends on a variety of factors: water resource regime, geo-graphical, geological and environmental context, available technology, construction cost and eco-nomic value of produced energy. Choices about the building or renewal of hydroelectric plants should be based on the forecast of the future trend of these factors at least during the project life of the system. Focusing on the economic value of the produced energy this paper examines its influ-ence on the feasibility of hydroelectric plants. Analysis, referred to Italian case, were based on three different phases: i) the economic sustainability of small-scale hydroelectric plants under a minimum price guaranteed to the hydroelectric operator; ii) the estimate of the incentives to reach the thresholds of "acceptability" and "bankability" of the investment; iii) the analysis of results ob-tained in the previous phases using a model of the evolution of the electricity price in the period 2014-2100.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0374.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: mini-bioreactors; parallelization; automation; digitalization; multivariate analysis; dynamic processes
Online: 17 October 2018 (06:19:46 CEST)
Mini-bioreactor systems enabling automatized operation of numerous parallel cultivations have been used to accelerate and optimize bioprocess development. As implementation of fed-batch conditions, multiple options of process control and sample analysis are possible, these systems represent valuable screening tools for large-scale production. However, the dynamic behavior of cultivations has not yet been considered regarding data evaluation and decision making during high-throughput screening in mini-bioreactors. In this study, the characterization of Saccharomyces cerevisiae AH22 secreting recombinant endopolygalacturonase is performed in 48 parallel fed-batch cultivations regarding 16 experimental conditions. Automated parallel process control, frequent sampling and analysis were implemented. Data-driven multivariate methods were developed to allow for fast, automated decision making as well as online predictive data analysis regarding endopolygalacturonase production. Using dynamic process information, a cultivation with abnormal behavior could be detected by principal component analysis as well as two clusters of similarly behaving cultivations, later classified according to the feeding rate. By decision tree analysis, cultivation conditions leading to an optimal recombinant product formation could be identified automatically. The developed method is easily adaptable and suitable for automatized process development reducing the experimental times and costs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1634.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: Mini-tuber potato; Dormancy; Sprouting; Carvone; Abscisic acid; Gibberellin; Variable temperature
Online: 26 October 2023 (03:21:38 CEST)
This study investigated the efficacy of carvone, abscisic acid (ABA), gibberellin (GA3), and variable temperature in managing dormancy and sprouting in aeroponically grown mini-tuber potato seeds. Results showed that carvone treatment effectively reduced weight loss rate by 12.25% and decay rate by 3.33% at day 25, compared to control. ABA treatment significantly enhanced germination rate to 97.33%. GA3 treatment resulted in the longest sprouts of 14.24 mm and reduced MDA content by 23.08% at day 30, indicating its potential in shortening dormancy and maintaining membrane integrity. Variable temperature treatment showcased a balanced performance in reducing weight loss and maintaining a lower relative conductivity, indicating less cellular damage. Enzymatic activities of α-amylase, CAT, and SOD were modulated by the treatments, ensuring a balanced enzymatic environment for seed vitality. These findings provide a robust foundation for refining post-harvest management strategies to optimize germination uniformity and preserve the quality of aeroponic potato seeds during extended dormancy, promising enhanced yield and productivity in potato cultivation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1847.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: dairy product consumption; mini-mental state examination score; lower cognitive function
Online: 27 June 2023 (04:58:23 CEST)
Diet modification may be a potential contributor in the prevention of age-related cognitive decline. The association between dairy product consumption and cognitive function remains unknown in older people. We investigated whether cheese intake is associated with lower cognitive function (LCF) in community-dwelling older adults. This cross-sectional study included 1503 adults aged over 65 years. Analyzed data were obtained from face-to-face interviews and functional ability measurement. Cognitive function was assessed using mini-mental state examination (MMSE), and a score ≤ 23 was defined as LCF. The prevalence of LCF was 4.6% and this group had smaller calf circumference, slower usual walking speed, and more frequent history of anemia than subjects with MMSE scores ≥ 24. After adjusting for confounding factors, logistic regression analysis revealed cheese intake (odds ratio (OR) = 0.404, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.198-0.824), age (OR = 1.170, 95% CI = 1.089-1.256), usual walking speed (OR = 0.171, 95% CI = 0.062-0.472) and calf circumference (OR = 0.823, 95% CI = 0.747-0.908) as significant factors associated with LCF. Although the present study was an analysis of cross-sectional data of Japanese community-dwelling older adults, the results suggest that cheese intake is inversely associated with LCF.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0330.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Otolaryngology Keywords: noise; hearing aid; viewing center; mini stadium; sound level meter; Bundesliga
Online: 28 December 2018 (04:59:52 CET)
Noise pollution is an environmental problem due to its effect on hearing and other related health issues. The elevated noise levels above standard limits cause hearing loss and other attendant problems. In Nigeria, viewing centers where football matches are watched via satellite are known as ‘Mini Stadium’. In this study, the noise pollution of a viewing center was assessed. To do this, five top teams each from the English Premier League (EPL), La Liga, Bundesliga, League 1, and Serie A were selected for the assessment. A sound level meter (GB: 2266204, made in China) was used for the monitoring. The range of noise levels in dBA showed as follow: EPL (56-108); La Liga (46-106); Bundesliga (54-102); Serie A (49-101); and Ligue 1 (54-101). The results when compared with the standard limits, it was observed that part of the results exceeded the limits, this means that the viewers and others within the viewing center may be prone to the hearing problem. It is recommended that acoustic insulators and hearing aids should be used to reduce the attendant problems associated with noise.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201710.0039.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: Hybrid Mini-grid, Rural Electrification, Renewable Energy, Rural Development, Energy Access
Online: 6 October 2017 (15:45:54 CEST)
Rural electrification in remote areas of developing countries has several challenges which hinders energy access to the population. For instance the extension of the national grid to provide electricity in these areas is largely not viable. The Kenyan government has put a target to achieve universal energy access by the year 2020. In order to realize this objective, focus is being shifted to establishing off-grid power stations in rural areas.Among rural areas to be electrified, Habaswein is a settlement in Kenya's North Eastern region without connection to the National Power Grid where Kenya Power installed a stand alone hybrid mini-grid.Based on field observations, power generation data analysis, evaluation of the potential energy resource and simulations, this research intends to evaluate the performance of the Habaswein mini-grid and optimize the existing hybrid generation system to enhance its reliability and reduce the operation costs.The result will be a suggestion of how Kenyan rural areas could be sustainably electrified by using renewable energy based off-grid power stations. It will contribute to bridge the research gap currently existing on that area, and it will be a vital tool to researchers, implementers and the policy makers in energy sector.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0237.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: cognitive screening; Efficiency Index; Free-Cog; Mini-Addenbrooke’s Cognitive Examination (MACE); older adults
Online: 12 April 2023 (04:04:12 CEST)
Ageing is the strongest known risk factor for many of the neurodegenerative diseases causing cognitive decline and dementia. Identification of cognitive impairment may be a prelude to appropriate treatment, hopefully disease-modifying. Use of cognitive screening instruments may be an equitable way to identify cognitive impairment. This study examined the use of two such instruments, Free-Cog and Mini-Addenbrooke’s Cognitive Examination (MACE), in patient cohorts referred to a dedicated cognitive disorders clinic based at a tertiary neurosciences centre. Results showed that: (1) specificity and positive predictive value increased with patient age for both tests with some loss of sensitivity and negative predictive value. (2) In the oldest age groups (≥75 and ≥70 years respectively) where specificity was at maximum, a positive test result (i.e. below the specified test cut-off) rules in the diagnosis of cognitive impairment. (3) Values of an “Efficiency Index” for each test indicated qualitatively a moderate change in the probability of correct diagnosis and quantitatively an approximately 15-25% increase in the probability of correct diagnosis. These findings show that both Free-Cog and MACE may be used with confidence for the identification of cognitive impairment and dementia in older patient cohorts. These findings may have implications for public health policies directed to case-finding in clinical practice as opposed to population-based screening.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0046.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: Lumbar spinal stenosis; Spinal decompression; Minimally invasive surgery; Mini-open; Disc herniation; Post-decompression; Instability
Online: 19 June 2023 (15:17:06 CEST)
BackgroundIndex level disc herniation following lumbar spinal decompression is somewhat overlooked as postoperative complication, resulting in return of symptoms. It is proposed that the combination of local instability and degenerated disc is more likely to result in disc herniation. There is no literature comparing post-decompression disc herniation rates between different techniques. This study compares the postoperative disc herniation rates of the "mini-open" laminectomy versus the tubular system decompression.MethodsIn a retrospective comparative study, 563 patient files who underwent primary lumbar spinal decompression, were reviewed and divided into two groups, distinguished by surgical technique. Demographic, clinical, and postoperative data were collected and compared using independent two-tailed t-test and Fisher's exact test with significance set at p<0.05. Primary outcome: comparison of post-decompression surgery, index level, disc herniation occurrence between two surgical techniques.ResultsPostoperative index level disc herniation was significantly lower in the minimally invasive surgery group with 2 cases (0.8%) versus 19 cases (5.8%) in the "mini-open" group [p=0.002]. Disc herniation following single level and multi-level operations were also significantly lower in the minimally invasive group compared with the "mini-open" group (2 versus 11 and 0 versus 8 respectively; p<0.05).ConclusionPostoperative index level disc herniation following lumbar spinal decompression occurs in 3.7% of surgeries. Minimally invasive surgery is found to result in less herniations then "mini-open".
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0279.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Health Policy And Services Keywords: global health; planetary health education; climate change; healthcare professionals; curriculum development; sustainable healthcare education; mini review
Online: 16 August 2022 (05:36:28 CEST)
The emerging concept of planetary health needs to be discussed in a more organized and sustainable way within the global public health and healthcare disciplines. Therefore, planetary health should be considered a cardinal component of the global academic framework for healthcare professionals. The availability of related curricula and courses is crucial to equip health professionals in this relatively new discipline of planetary health. In this review article, we aimed to explore published articles and online databases of courses to summarize the available planetary health education opportunities and discussions for health professionals, to identify the gaps in resource allocation and to suggest future recommendations. We observed a visible re-source inequity in global south with the lack of a universal planetary health module for healthcare professionals. Additionally, there is minimal inclusion of allied health disciplines in this learning process. We, therefore, recommend a dedicated network of motivated healthcare professionals and regional hubs with an agenda to ensure a comprehensive, uniform, and inclusive planetary health education curriculum and practice.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0184.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: mitral valve,; infective endocarditis; minimally invasice cardiac surgery; mini-thoracotomy; cardiac reoperation; prosthetic valve endocarditis; systemic embolization
Online: 2 June 2023 (10:32:03 CEST)
Background. Minimally invasive surgery via right mini-thoracotomy has become the standard of care for the treatment of mitral valve disease worldwide, particularly at high volume centers. In recent years, the spectrum of indications has progressively shifted and extended to fragile and higher risk patients, also addressing more complex mitral valve disease and ultimately including patients with native or prosthetic infective endocarditis. The rationale for the adoption of the minimally invasive approach is to minimize the surgical trauma, promote an earlier postoperative recovery and reduce the incidence of surgical wound infection and other nosocomial infections. The aim of this retrospective observational study is to evaluate the effectiveness and the early and late outcome in patients undergoing minimally invasive surgery for mitral valve infective endocarditis. Methods. Prospectically collected data regarding minimally invasive surgery in patients with mitral valve infective endocarditis were entered into a dedicated database for the period between January 2007 and December 2022 and retrospectively analyzed. All comers during the study period underwent a preoperative evaluation based upon clinical history and anatomy for the allocation to the most appropriate surgical strategy. Selection for the mini-thoracotomy approach was primarily driven by a thorough transthoracic and especially transesophageal echocardiographic evaluation, coupled with total body and vascular imaging. Results. During the study period, 92 patients underwent right mini-thoracotomy to treat native (80/92, 87%) or prosthetic (12/92, 13%) mitral valve endocarditis at our institution, representing 5% of the patients undergoing minimally invasive mitral surgery. Twenty-six (28%) patients had undergone previous cardiac operations, whereas 18 (20%) presented preoperatively with complications related to endocarditis, most commonly systemic embolization. Sixty-nine and 23 patients, respectively, underwent early surgery (75%) or were operated on after the completion of targeted antibiotic treatment (25%). A conservative procedure was feasible in 16/80 (20%) patients with native valve endocarditis. Conversion to standard sternotomy was necessary in a single case (1.1%). No cases of intraoperative iatrogenic aortic dissection were reported. Four patients died perioperatively, accounting for a thirty-day mortality of 4.4%. Causes of death were refractory heart or multiorgan failure and/or septic shock. New onset stroke was observed postoperatively in one case (1.1%). Overall actuarial survival rate at 1 and 5 years after operation was 90.8% and 80.4%, whereas freedom from mitral valve reoperation at 1 and 5 years was 96.3% and 93.2%, respectively. Conclusions. The present study shows good early and long-term results in higher-risk patients undergoing minimally invasive surgery for mitral valve infective endocarditis. Total body, vascular and echocardiographic screening represent the key points to select the optimal approach and allow the extension of indications for minimally invasive surgery to sicker patients, including active endocarditis and sepsis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0938.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Cell And Developmental Biology Keywords: micro-mini pig; large animal experiment; GFP-transgenic pig; multipotent stem cells; skeletal muscle; nerve-muscle regeneration.
Online: 12 May 2023 (11:18:40 CEST)
Large animal experiments are important for preclinical studies of regenerative stem cell transplantation therapy. Therefore, we investigated the differentiation capacity of pig skeletal muscle-derived stem cells (Sk-MSCs) as an intermediate model between mice and humans for nerve muscle regenerative therapy. Enzymatically extracted cells were obtained from green-fluorescence transgenic micro-mini pigs (GFP-Tg MMP) and sorted as CD34+/45- (Sk-34) and CD34-/45-/29+ (Sk-DN) fractions. The ability to differentiate into skeletal muscle, peripheral nerve, and vascular cell lineages was examined by in vitro cell culture and in vivo cell transplantation into the damaged tibialis anterior muscle and sciatic nerves of nude mice and rats. Protein and mRNA levels were analyzed using RT-PCR, immunohistochemistry, and immunoelectron microscopy. The myogenic potential, which was tested by Pax7 and MyoD expression and the formation of muscle fibers, was higher in Sk-DN cells than in Sk-34 cells but remained weak in the latter. In contrast, the capacity to differentiate into peripheral nerve and vascular cell lineages was totally stronger in Sk-34 cells. In particular, Sk-DN cells did not engraft to the damaged nerve, whereas Sk-34 cells showed active engraftment and differentiation into perineurial/endoneurial cells, endothelial cells, and vascular smooth muscle cells, similar to the human case, as previously reported. Therefore, we concluded that Sk-34 and Sk-DN cells in pigs were closer to those in humans than to those in mice.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0025.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: high pressure hydrogen; metal hydride-based high pressure compression; techno-economic analysis; Ti-based AB2 metal hydrides; mini-channel heat exchanger
Online: 4 June 2018 (09:36:54 CEST)
Traditional high pressure mechanical compressors account for over half of the car station’s cost, have insufficient reliability and are not feasible for a large-scale fuel cell market. An alternative technology, employing a two-stage, hybrid system based on electrochemical and metal hydride compression technologies, represents an excellent alternative to conventional compressors. The high-pressure stage, operating at 100-875 bar, is based on a metal hydride thermal system. A techno-economic analysis of the metal hydride system is presented and discussed. A model of the metal hydride system was developed, integrating a lumped parameter mass and energy balance model with an economic model. A novel metal hydride heat exchanger configuration is also presented, based on mini-channel heat transfer systems, allowing for effective high-pressure compression. Several metal hydrides were analyzed and screened, demonstrating that one selected material, namely (Ti0.97Zr0.03)1.1Cr1.6Mn0.4, is likely the best candidate material to be employed for high-pressure compressors under the specific conditions. System efficiency and costs were assessed based on the properties of currently available materials at industrial levels. Results show that the system can reach pressures on the order of 875 bar with thermal power provided at approximately 150 °C. The system cost is comparable with the current mechanical compressors and can be reduced in several ways as discussed in the paper.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0801.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: Dysferlinopathy; limb-girdle muscular dystrophy recessive type 2 (LGMDR2); Miyoshi myopathy; distal myopathy with anterior tibial onset (DMAT); dysferlin; membrane resealing; genetic therapy; mini-dysferlin; exon skipping
Online: 13 November 2023 (10:41:28 CET)
Dysferlinopathies comprise a spectrum of muscular dystrophies characterized by progressive muscle weakness and degeneration due to mutations in the DYSF gene, which encodes the dysferlin protein critical for muscle membrane repair. This review delves into the clinical spectra of dysferlinopathies, their molecular mechanisms, and the spectrum of emerging therapeutic strategies. We explore the phenotypic heterogeneity of dysferlinopathies, highlight the incomplete understanding of genotype-phenotype correlations, and discuss the implications of various DYSF mutations. Furthermore, we examine the utility of animal models in elucidating disease mechanisms and the potential of symptomatic, pharmacological, molecular, and genetic therapies in mitigating the disease's progression. We also consider the roles of diet and metabolism in managing dysferlinopathies, as well as the impact of clinical trials on treatment paradigms. By culminating the complexities inherent in dysferlinopathies, this article emphasizes the need for multidisciplinary approaches, precision medicine, and extensive collaboration in research and clinical trial design to advance our understanding and treatment of these challenging disorders.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0053.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Parasitology Keywords: Equine strongyle; Fecal Egg Count; FEC; modified McMaster; Mini-FLOTAC; Wisconsin floatation; sugar 1.33 specific gravity; NaNO3 1.33 specific gravity; NaCl 1.20 specific gravity; ZnSO4 1.18 specific gravity; AAEP; anthelmintic resistance; FEC gold standard
Online: 1 August 2023 (10:32:58 CEST)
Parasite control strategies such as blanket anthelmintic treatment of all horses in a herd or interval treatment regimen based on egg reappearance remain widely followed practices for the last several decades. These practices have resulted in the fast emergence of resistance in equine strongyles to all major classes of drugs on the market. In this regard, the guidelines set by the American Association of Equine Practitioners advocate evidence-based strongyle control in horses. It recommends targeted treatment of all heavy egg shedders [> 500 eggs per gram (EPG) of feces] while the low shedders (0-200 EPG) are left untreated to maintain susceptible parasite refugia in a herd. As 50-75% of adult horses in a herd are low shedders, preventing them from unnecessary anthelmintic exposure is critical to tackling resistance. There are various fecal egg count (FEC) techniques with many modifications and variations in use, but none is identified as a gold standard and methods comparison studies are lacking. We hypothesized that the diagnostic performance of commonly used quantitation methodologies differs and the FEC methods must be evaluated to determine the gold standard. In this regard, we performed methods comparison studies using polystyrene beads with size and specific gravity comparable to strongyle eggs, as proxy. The linearity of 12 commonly used FEC methodologies (3 techniques with 4 different solutions) was studied using bead standards in the clinically applicable range (63 to 1,000) to determine their suitability for strongyle egg counts. Deming regression analysis identified Mini-FLOTAC with sugar (specific gravity 1.33) as the test with the greatest coefficient of determination. All tests underestimated the true bead count, and we determined a correction factor (CF) for each test to estimate the true count. CF negates the preference for a gold standard test. Finally, we analyzed the validity of CF for 5 tests with R2>0.95 to accurately quantify strongyle eggs from 40 different horses. Overall, this study identified methodologies with the highest diagnostic performance and the limitations to standardizing routine FEC tests to promote uniformity in implementing AAEP parasite control guidelines.