ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201709.0116.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Applied Mathematics Keywords: laminated beam; exponential stability; Cattaneo’s law; semigroup theory
Online: 25 September 2017 (07:10:35 CEST)
In previous work (Z. Angew. Math. Phys. 68(2), 2017), Apalara considered a one dimensional thermoelastic laminated beam under Cattaneo’s law of heat conduction and proved the exponential and polynomial decay results depend on the stability number χT . In this paper, we continue to study the same system and show that the solution of the concerned system lacks of exponential decay result in the case χT ≠ 0 which solves the open problem proposed by Apalara (Z. Angew. Math. Phys. 68(2), 2017).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0130.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Analysis Keywords: laminated beam; thermoelasticity of type III; exponential decay; polynomial decay
Online: 16 January 2018 (04:39:34 CET)
In this paper, we study the well-posedness and asymptotic behaviour of solutions to a laminated beam in thermoelasticity of type III. We first give the well-posedness of the system by using the semigroup method. Then, we show that the system is exponentially stable under the assumption of equal wave speeds. Furthermore, it is proved that the system is lack of exponential stability for case of nonequal wave speeds. In this regard, a polynomial stability result is proved.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201702.0082.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Applied Mathematics Keywords: general stability; laminated beam; infinite memory; multiplier technique; energy method
Online: 22 February 2017 (16:56:19 CET)
In this work, we consider a one-dimensional laminated beam in the case of non-equal wave speeds with only one infinite memory on the effective rotation angle. In this case, we establish the general decay result for the energy of solution without any kind of internal or boundary control. The main result is obtained by applying the method used in Guesmia et al. (Electron. J. Differential Equations 193: 1-45, 2012) and the second-order energy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201702.0058.v2
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Applied Mathematics Keywords: laminated beam; Fourier's law; exponential stability; lack of exponential stability; polynomial stability
Online: 28 January 2019 (11:14:59 CET)
In this paper, we study the well-posedness and asymptotics of a one-dimensional thermoelastic laminated beam system either with or without structural damping, where the heat conduction is given by Fourier's law effective in the rotation angle displacements. We show that the system is well-posed by using Lumer-Philips theorem, and prove that the system is exponentially stable if and only if the wave speeds are equal, by using the perturbed energy method and Gearhart-Herbst-Prüss-Huang theorem. Furthermore, we show that the system with structural damping is polynomially stable provided that the wave speeds are not equal, by using the second-order energy method.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0067.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Analysis Keywords: laminated beam; Gurtin-Pipkin thermal law; well-posedness; exponential stability; lack of exponential stability
Online: 8 January 2018 (11:19:30 CET)
In this paper, we investigate the stabilization of a one-dimensional thermoelastic laminated beam with structural damping, coupled to a heat equation modeling an expectedly dissipative effect through heat conduction governed by Gurtin-Pipkin thermal law. Under some assumptions on the relaxation function g, we establish the well-posedness for the problem. Furthermore, we prove the exponential stability and lack of exponential stability for the problem. To achieve our goals, we make use of the semigroup method, the perturbed energy method and Gearhart-Herbst-Prüss-Huang theorem.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0477.v1
Subject: Keywords: Cross-Laminated Timber (CLT); laminated glass; hybrid façade element; thermal performance; energy efficiency; numerical modelling
Online: 27 April 2020 (03:59:57 CEST)
Façade elements are a building component that satisfies multiple performance parameters. Among other things, “advanced façades” take advantage of hybrid solutions, such as assembling laminated materials. In addition to the enhanced mechanical properties that are typical of optimally composed hybrid structural components, these systems are energy-efficient, durable, and offer lighting comfort and optimal thermal performance, an example of which is the structural solution developed in collaboration with the University of Zagreb and the University of Ljubljana within the Croatian Science Foundation VETROLIGNUM project. The design concept involves the mechanical interaction of timber and glass load-bearing members without sealing or bonding the glass-to-timber surfaces. Following earlier research efforts devoted to the structural analysis and optimization of thus-assembled hybrid Cross-Laminated Timber (CLT)-glass façade elements, in this paper, special focus is given to a thermal and energy performance investigation under ordinary operational conditions. A simplified numerical model representative of a full-size building is first presented by taking advantage of continuous ambient records from a Live-Lab mock-up facility in Zagreb. Afterwards, a more detailed Finite Element (FE) numerical analysis is carried out at the component level to further explore the potential of CLT–glass façade elements. The collected numerical results show that CLT–glass composite panels can offer stable and promising thermal performance for façades similar to national and European standard requirements.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0330.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Cross-Laminated Timber (CLT); laminated glass; hybrid facade element; thermal performance; energy efficiency; numerical modelling
Online: 23 March 2020 (03:41:03 CET)
Facade elements are known to represent a building component with multiple performance parameters to satisfy. Among others, “advanced facades” take advantage of hybrid solutions, like the assemblage of laminated materials. In addition to enhanced mechanical properties that are typical of optimally composed hybrid structural components, these systems are energy-efficient, durable, and offer lightening comfort and optimal thermal performance. This is the case of the structural solution developed in joint research efforts of the University of Zagreb and the University of Ljubljana, within the Croatian Science Foundation VETROLIGNUM project. The design concept involves the mechanical interaction of timber and glass load-bearing members, without sealing or bonded glass-to-timber surfaces. Laminated glass infilled timber frames are recognized as a new generation of structural members with relevant load-carrying capacity (and especially the enhancement of earthquake resistance of framed systems), but also energy-efficient and cost-effective solutions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0184.v1
Subject: Engineering, Construction Keywords: cross-laminated timber; hygrothermal; energy; moisture; durability; tropical; passivhaus
Online: 10 September 2021 (11:21:01 CEST)
The uptake of buildings employing cross-laminated timber (CLT) assemblies and designed to Passivhaus standard has accelerated internationally over the past two decades due to several factors including design responses to the climate crisis by decarbonising the building stock. Structural CLT technology and the voluntary Passivhaus certification both show measurable benefits in reducing energy consumption, while contributing to durability and indoor comfort. However, there is a general lack of evidence to support a fast uptake of these technologies in Australia. This paper responds to the compelling need of providing quantitative data and adoption strategies, it explores their combined application as a potential pathway for climate-appropriate design of energy-efficient and durable mass timber envelope solutions for subtropical and tropical Australian climates. Hygrothermal risk assessments of interstitial condensation and mould growth of CLT wall assemblies inform best-practice design of mass timber buildings in hot and humid climates. This research found that the durability of mass timber buildings located in hot and humid climates may benefit from implementing the Passivhaus standard to manage interior conditions. The findings also suggested that climate-specific design of the wall assembly is critical for mass timber buildings, in conjunction with excellent stormwater management practices during construction and corrosion protection for metallic fasteners.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0099.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Surfaces, Coatings & Films Keywords: Cu/Al laminated composites; deformation behavior; interface; microstructure; constitutive equation
Online: 9 April 2018 (07:55:59 CEST)
In order to understand the hot deformation behavior of novel Cu/Al laminated composites, isothermal hot compression tests were conducted by Gleeble-1500D thermo-mechanical simulator. And the effect of bonding interface, deformation temperature and strain rate on the deformation behavior was analyzed. Results show that under the interface constraint effect, soft Al layer trends to flow synchronously with hard Cu layer. And further microstructure examinations indicate the cooperative deformation capability of Cu/Al composites increases with increasing stain rate and decreasing deformation temperature. Strain hardening exponent, calculated based on the true stress-true strain data, also proves the effect of deformation temperature and strain rate on the cooperative deformation behavior. Meanwhile, unique composites structure allows the Al matrix to exhibit the characteristic of dynamic recrystallization during the hot deformation process. Lastly, strain compensated Arrhenius-type constitutive equation was employed to describe the coupling effect of temperature, strain rate and strain on the flow stress.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0071.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Cross-laminated timber floors; End supports; End fixity factor; Vibration serviceability
Online: 4 October 2018 (13:21:12 CEST)
As an emerging building solution, cross-laminated timber (CLT) floors have been increasingly used in mass timber construction. The current vibration design of CLT floors is conservative due to the assumption of simple support conditions in the floor-to-wall connections. It is noted that end fixity occurs as a result of clamping action at the ends, arising from the gravity load applied by the structure above the floor and by the mechanical fasteners. In this paper, the semi-rigid floor-to-wall connections are treated as elastically restrained edges against rotations to account for the effect of partial constraint. A rotational end-fixity factor was first defined to reflect the relative bending stiffness between CLT floors and elastic restraints at the edges. Then, for the design of vibration serviceability of CLT floors as per the Canadian Standard for Engineering Design in Wood (CSA O86), restraint coefficients were defined and their analytical expressions were derived for natural frequencies and the mid-span deflection under a concentrated load, respectively. In particular, a simplified formula of the restraint coefficient for the fundamental frequency was developed to assist engineers in practical design. At last, by comparing with reported experimental data, the proposed design formula showed excellent agreement with test results. In the end, the proposed end fixity factor with their corresponding restraint coefficients is recommended as an effective mechanics-based approach to account for the effect of end support conditions of CLT floors.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0090.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: cross-laminated timber; structural composite lumber; hybrid; bending properties; shear properties
Online: 5 September 2018 (06:33:41 CEST)
Cross-laminated timber (CLT) possesses both good shape stability and the possible two-way force transfer ability due to its crosswise lamination. However, the transverse layers in CLT are prone to rolling shear failure under an out-of-plane load. An innovative multi-layer composite laminated panel (CLP) was developed by combining structural composite lumber (SCL) and dimension lumber to overcome the rolling shear failure while maintaining high mechanical performance and aesthetic appearance of natural wood. The mechanical properties of 5-layer CLP consisted of laminated strand lumber (LSL) and dimension lumber with different layups were evaluated by both static and modal tests. The results showed that the shear resistance, bending stiffness and moment resistance of CLP were up to 143%, 43% and 87% higher than their counterparts of regular CLT, respectively. The failure modes observed in both shear and bending tests indicated that the use of LSL in transverse layers could eliminate the potential rolling shear failure in CLT. With the lamination properties from components tests as inputs, the validity of shear analogy method was assessed by test results. The mechanical properties can be well predicted by shear analogy method except for the bending moment resistance of CLP and CLT with either rolling failure in the cross layer or tension failure in the bottom layer.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0443.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Cross-Laminated Timber (CLT); Out-of-Plane Shear Stiffness; Timoshenko Beam Theory; Shear Analogy Method; Rolling Shear Modulus
Online: 22 September 2018 (23:07:52 CEST)
The lay-up of cross laminated timber (CLT) leads to significant differences in properties over its cross-section. Particularly the out-of-plane shear behavior of CLT is effected by the changes in shear moduli over the cross-section. Results from laboratory shear tests are used to evaluate the shear stiffness of 3- and 5-layer CLT panels in their major and minor strength direction. The results are compared to calculated shear stiffness values on evaluated single-layer properties as well as commonly used property ratios using the Timoshenko beam theory and the shear analogy method. Differences between the two calculation approaches are pointed out. The shear stiffness is highly sensitive to the ratio of the shear modulus parallel to the grain to the shear modulus perpendicular to the grain. The stiffness values determined from two test measurements are compared with the calculated results. The level of agreement is dependent on the number of layers in CLT and the property axis of the CLT panels.