ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0800.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: hypertrophic cardiomyopathy; cardiomyopathies; heart failure
Online: 12 June 2023 (08:41:43 CEST)
Background: Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy (HCM) is the most common inherited Cardiomyopathy. The hallmark of HCM is myocardial fibrosis which contributes to heart failure, arrhythmias, and sudden cardiac death (SCD). Objective: To identify the factors implicated in heart failure symptoms and functional capacity of patients with HCM. Methods: In this cohort study, 43 patients with HCM were recruited. According to functional capacity and symptoms presentation, patients were categorized according to NYHA classification, and echocardiographic measurements of left ventricle systolic and diastolic function have been conducted. The echocardiographic assessment of right vetriculo-arterial coupling (RVAC) has been made by calculating the tricuspid annular peak systolic tissue Doppler velocity (TASV)/estimated RV systolic pressure (RVSP) ratio. Results: Almost half, 22 (51%) of our study population present symptoms of heart failure and were categorized as the symptomatic group - NYHA 2 or higher. Maximum LVOT gradient, RVSP, and the ratio of E/e’ were higher in the “symptomatic” compared to the “asymptomatic” group. TASV was lower in the “symptomatic” compared to the asymptomatic group (11±1cm/sex vs. 13±2cm/sec, p=0.04). However, there was no difference in other potentially influential factors, such as heart rate or systemic blood pressure. The SCD risk score does not differ between the two studied groups. The RVAC (estimated with the TASV/RVSP ratio) was lower in the “symptomatic” compared with the “asymptomatic” group (0.32±0.09 vs. 0.46±0.11, p<0.001). Conclusion: A low RVAC (as TASV/RVSP ratio) value could represent an echocardiographic marker of right ventricular-arterial uncoupling in patients with HCM and may impaired functional status.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0629.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy; metabolomics; cardiovascular disease; myectomy surgery
Online: 23 April 2021 (10:28:18 CEST)
Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is a common inherited heart disorder complicated by left ventricle outflow tract (LVOT) obstruction, which can be treated with surgical myectomy. To date, no reliable biomarkers for LVOT obstruction exist. To determine whether metabolomic biomarkers for obstruction can be identified, we conducted metabolomic profiling on plasma samples of 18 HCM patients before and after undergoing surgical myectomy to measure changes in the plasma metabolome in the postoperative state. Plasma was collected approximately 4 weeks before surgery at the preoperative visit and approximately 3 months after the surgery at the postoperative visit. We found that 215 metabolites were altered in the postoperative state (p-value < 0.05). Identified metabolites that were significantly reduced post-myectomy included metabolites of heme, such as bilirubin, and phenylacetylglutamine, a biomarker of urea cycle disorders, which suggests that liver and kidney function are improved in the postoperative state. Markers of arginine metabolism such as homoarginine and dimethylarginine are also decreased in the postoperative state, suggestive of reduction in nitric oxide production, inflammation and heart failure after surgery. 3-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) was also decreased, suggesting possible increased fatty acid utilization and a return to normal heart function. 12 of these metabolites were notably significant after adjusting for multiple comparisons (q-value < 0.05), including bilirubin, PFOS, PFOA, 3,5-dichloro-2,6-dihydroxybenzoic acid, 2-hydroxylaurate, trigonelline and 6 unidentified compounds, which support improved kidney and liver function and increased lean soft tissue mass. These findings suggest improved organ metabolic function after surgical relief of LVOT obstruction in HCM and further underscore the beneficial systemic effects of surgical myectomy.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1692.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: mavacamten; cardiac myosin inhibitor; hypertrophic cardiomyopathy; heart failure
Online: 27 November 2023 (11:50:17 CET)
We describe real-world use of mavacamten in 50 patients with oHCM. Consistent with EXPLORER-HCM and VALOR-HCM, we report significant improvement in wall thickness, mitral regurgitation, left ventricular outflow tract obstruction and NYHA class. Moreover, in our center’s experience, neither arrhythmia burden, nor contractility have worsened in the vast majority of patients: We note a clinically insignificant mean decrease in left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), with only two patients requiring temporary mavacamten discontinuance for LVEF < 50%. Adverse events were rare, unrelated to mavacamten itself, and seen solely in patients with disease too advanced to have been represented in clinical trials. Our multidisciplinary pathway enabled us to provide a large number of patients with a novel closely-monitored therapeutic within just a few months of commercial availability. These data lead us to conclude that mavacamten, as a first-in-class cardiac myosin inhibitor, is safe and efficacious in real-world settings.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0191.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy; proteomics; aptamer; cardiovascular disease; myectomy surgery
Online: 8 February 2021 (11:18:59 CET)
Left Ventricular Outflow Tract (LVOT) obstruction occurs in approximately 70% of Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy (HCM) patients and currently requires imaging or invasive testing for diagnosis, sometimes in conjunction with provocative physiological or pharmaceutical stimuli. To identify potential biomarkers of LVOT obstruction, we performed proteomics profiling of 1305 plasma proteins in 12 HCM patients with documented LVOT obstruction referred for surgical myectomy. Plasma was collected at the surgical preoperative visit approximately one month prior to surgery and then at the post surgical visit approximately 3 months later. Proteomic profiles were generated using the aptamer-based SOMAscan assay. Principal Component Analysis using the highest statistically significant proteins separated all preoperative samples from all postoperative samples. Further analysis revealed a set of 25 proteins that distinguished the preoperative and postoperative states with a paired t-test p value of <0.01. Ingenuity Pathway analysis facilitated the generation of protein interaction networks and the elucidation of key upstream regulators of the differentially expressed proteins such as interferon-, TGF-1 and TNF. Biological pathways affected by the surgery included organ inflammation, migration and motility of leukocytes, fibrosis, vasculogenesis, angiogenesis, acute coronary events, endothelial proliferation, eicosanoid metabolism, calcium flux, apoptosis and morphology of the cardiovascular system. Our results indicate that surgical relief of dynamic outflow tract obstruction in HCM patients is associated with unique alterations in plasma proteomic profiles that likely reflect improvement in organ inflammation and physiological function.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0704.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: left ventricular noncompaction; apical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy; next generation sequencing
Online: 28 December 2020 (13:19:41 CET)
Left ventricular noncompaction (LVNC) and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) commonly occur as separate disorders with distinct clinical and pathoanatomical features. However, these cardiomyopathies may have a similar genetic origin with mutations encoding sarcomeric proteins. The described case demonstrates an example, in which phenotypic expression of both diseases occurs in the same patient.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0240.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Post-mortem Cardiac magnetic resonance; hypertrophic cardiomyopathy; sudden death
Online: 6 November 2020 (10:44:52 CET)
Post-mortem cardiac magnetic resonance (PMCMR) is an emerging tool supporting forensic medicine for the identification of the causes of cardiac death, as hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). We proposed a new method of PMCMR to diagnose HCM despite myocardial rigor mortis. Methods: we performed CMR in 49 HCM patients, 30 non-HCM hypertrophy and 32 healthy controls. In cine images, rigor mortis was simulated by the analysis of the cardiac phase corresponding to the 25% of diastole. Left ventricular mass, mean and standard deviation (SD) of WT, maximal WT, minimal WT and their difference, were compared for the identification of HCM. These parameters were validated at PMCMR, evaluating 8 hearts with HCM, 10 with coronary artery disease and 10 with non-cardiac death. Results: The SD of WT with a cut-off of > 2.4 had the highest accuracy to identify HCM (AUC 0.95, 95%CI 0.89-0.98). This was particularly evident in female population of HCM (AUC=0.998), with 100% specificity (95%CI 85-100%) and 96% sensitivity (95%CI 79-99%). Using this parameter, at PMCMR all the 8 patients with HCM were correctly identified with no false positive. Conclusions: PMCMR allows to identify HCM as cause of sudden death using the SD of WT >2.4 as diagnostic parameter.
SHORT NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0067.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Calcium; Actomyosin Kinetics; Myosin Binding Protein-C; Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy
Online: 7 October 2019 (12:12:35 CEST)
In an attempt to correct misunderstandings this article brings together the observations on Calcium, Myosin Binding Protein-C and Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy in the basic function of cardiac muscle. A finding of many years ago is reiterated in a novel enzyme kinetic format with defined rate limiting step which makes CaATP the apparent substrate of the actomyosin cross-bridge. The relationship of these kinetics to recent observations on disruption of myosin binding protein-C is described along with how this bears on the understanding of the related cardiomyopathies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1503.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: hypertrophic cardiomyopathy; Russian; Slavic; underrepresented population; specific characteristics; genetics; MYBPC3; MYH7; TPM1; FLNC
Online: 22 September 2023 (05:31:18 CEST)
Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is a common inherited cardiac disorder characterized by marked clinical and genetic heterogeneity. Ethnic groups underrepresented in studies may have distinctive characteristics. We sought to evaluate the clinical and genetic landscape of Russian HCM patients. A total of 193 patients (52% male; 95% Eastern Slavic origin; median age 56 years) were clinically evaluated, including genetic testing, and prospectively followed to document outcomes. As a result, 48% had obstructive HCM, 25% had HCM in family, 21% were asymptomatic, and 68% had comorbidities. During 2.8 years of follow-up, the all-cause mortality rate was 2.86%/year. A total of 5.7% received an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD), 21% septal reduction therapy. Sequencing analysis of 176 probands identified 64 causative variants in 66 patients (38%); recurrent variants were MYBPC3 p.Q1233* (8), MYBPC3 p.R346H (2), MYH7 p.A729P (2), TPM1 p.Q210R (3) and FLNC p.H1834Y (2); 10 were multiple variant carriers (5.7%); 5 had non-sarcomeric HCM, ALPK3, TRIM63 and FLNC; thin filament variant carriers had a worse prognosis for heart failure (HR = 7.9, p=0.007). In conclusion, in the Russian HCM population, the low use of ICD and relatively high mortality should be noted by clinicians; some distinct recurrent variants are suspected to have a founder effect; family studies on some rare variants enriched the worldwide knowledge in HCM.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0139.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy; spatial transcriptomics; single nucleus RNA-sequencing; gene expression; bioinformatics; cardiovascular disorder; genetic disorder
Online: 4 July 2023 (05:18:51 CEST)
Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy (HCM) is a common inherited disorder that can lead to heart failure and sudden cardiac death, characterized at the histological level by focal areas of myocyte disarray, hypertrophy and fibrosis, and few disease-targeted therapies exist. To identify, focal, spatially restricted alterations in transcriptional pathways and reveal novel therapeutic targets, we performed a spatial transcriptomic analysis of areas of focal myocyte disarray compared to areas of normal tissue, using a commercially available platform (GeoMx, nanoString). We analyzed surgical myectomy tissue from four patients with HCM and control interventricular septum tissue from two unused organ donor hearts that were free of cardiovascular disease. Histological sections were reviewed by an expert pathologist and 72 focal areas with varying degrees of myocyte disarray (normal, mild, moderate, severe) were chosen for analysis. Areas of interest were interrogated with the Human Cancer Transcriptome Atlas designed to profile 1800 transcripts. Differential expression analysis revealed significant changes in gene expression between HCM and Control tissue, and functional enrichment analysis indicated these genes were primarily involved in interferon production and mitochondrial energetics. Within HCM tissue, differentially expressed genes between areas of mild and moderate disarray were enriched for genes related to mitochondrial energetics (moderate disarray) and response to oxygen/cytokine levels (mild disarray). The comparison between areas of moderate and severe disarray were enriched for genes related to the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) cascade in severe disarray. Analysis of ligand-receptor pair gene expression revealed that HCM tissue exhibited downregulation of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), NOTCH, junctional adhesion molecule, and CD46 signaling, while showing upregulation of fibronectin, CD99, cadherin, and amyloid precursor protein signaling. A deconvolution analysis utilizing the matched single nuclei RNA-sequencing (snRNA-seq) data to determine cell type composition in areas of interest revealed significant differences in fibroblast and vascular cell composition in areas of severe disarray when compared to normal areas in HCM samples. Cell composition in normal areas from control tissue was also divergent from normal areas in HCM samples, which was consistent with the differential expression results. Overall, our data identify novel and potential disease-modifying targets for therapy in HCM.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0461.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy; Left ventricular outflow tract obstruction; single nucleus RNA-sequencing; dendritic cells; integrin-b1.
Online: 29 December 2021 (09:43:00 CET)
Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy (HCM) is a common inherited disorder characterized by unexplained left ventricular hypertrophy, with or without left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT) obstruction. Single nuclei RNA-sequencing (snRNA-seq) of both obstructive and nonobstructive HCM patient samples have revealed alterations in communication between various cell types but a direct and integrated comparison between the two HCM phenotypes has not been reported. We performed a bioinformatic analysis of HCM snRNA-seq datasets from obstructive and nonobstructive patient samples to identify differentially expressed genes and distinctive patterns of intercellular communication. Differential gene expression analysis revealed 37 differentially expressed genes, predominantly in cardiomyocytes but also in other cell types, relevant to aging, muscle contraction, cell motility and the extracellular matrix. Intercellular communication was generally reduced in HCM, affecting the extracellular matrix, growth factor binding, integrin binding, PDGF binding and SMAD binding, but with increases in adenylate cyclase binding, calcium channel inhibitor activity, and serine-threonine kinase activity in nonobstructive HCM. Increases in neuron to leukocyte and dendritic cell communication, in fibroblast to leukocyte and dendritic cell communication and in endothelial cell communication to other cell types, largely through changes in expression of integrin-b1 and its cognate ligands, were also noted. These findings indicate both common and distinct physiological mechanisms affecting the pathogenesis of obstructive and nonobstructive HCM and provide opportunities for personalized management of different HCM phenotypes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0178.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: cardiac muscle; cardiac contractility; force generation; enhanced molecular dynamics simulations; allostery; protein folding; disease; hypertrophic cardiomyopathy
Online: 12 October 2021 (12:20:26 CEST)
Cardiac myosin-binding protein C (MyBPC) is a thick-filament associated regulatory protein in the sarcomere. It regulates the sensitive contractile system of the myocardium by acting as a mechanical tether, sensitizing the thin filament or modulating myosin motor activity. Mutations in the MYBPC3 gene are a frequent cause for the development of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, the most frequent cardiac disorder. Recently, the monoallelic double mutation MYBPC3Δ25bp/D389V has been discovered as a subset of the common MYBPC3Δ25bp variant in South Asia. MYBPC3Δ25bp/D389V carriers exhibit hyperdynamic features, which are considered an early finding for the development of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Using correlation-guided molecular dynamics simulations sampling, we show that the D389V mutation shifts the conformational distribution of the C2 domain of MyBPC. We further applied biochemical approaches to probe the effects of the D389V mutation on structure, thermostability and protein-protein interactions of MyBPC C2. The melting temperature (Tm) of MyBPC C2 D389V is decreased by 4 to 7 °C compared to wild type while the interaction of the C0-C2 domains with myosin and actin remains unchanged. Additionally, we utilized steered molecular dynamics (SMD) simulations to investigate the altered unfolding pathway of MyBPC C2 D389V. Based on our data, we propose a pathomechanism for the development of HCM in MYBPC3Δ25bp and MYBPC3Δ25bp/D389V carriers.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0256.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: hypertrophic cardiomyopathy; pathological cardiac hypertrophy; sarcomere; cardiac myocyte; cardiac fibroblast; cardiac fibrosis; myocyte-fibroblast interaction; extracellular matrix
Online: 12 July 2021 (12:13:53 CEST)
Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is the most common inherited cardiovascular disorder affecting 1 in 500 people in the general population. Although characterized by asymmetric left ventricular hypertrophy, cardiomyocyte disarray and cardiac fibrosis, HCM is in fact a highly complex disease with heterogenous clinical presentation, onset and complications. While HCM is generally accepted as a disease of the sarcomere, variable penetrance in families with identical genetic mutations challenges the monogenic origin of HCM and instead implies a multifactorial cause. Furthermore, large scale genome sequencing studies revealed that many genes previously reported as causative of HCM in fact have little or no evidence of disease association. These findings thus call for a re-evaluation of the sarcomere-centered view of HCM pathogenesis. Here, we summarize our current understanding of sarcomere-independent mechanisms of cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, highlight the role of extracellular signals in cardiac fibrosis, and propose an alternative but integrated model of HCM pathogenesis.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0429.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dermatology Keywords: RNA therapeutics; skin; mRNA therapeutics; siRNA therapeutics; antisense oligonucleotide ther-apeutics; ASO; melanoma; hypertrophic scars; wound healing; dermatology
Online: 27 February 2023 (01:53:06 CET)
Despite being under development for decades, RNA therapeutics have only recently emerged as viable platform technologies. The COVID-19 mRNA vaccines have demonstrated the promise and power of the platform technology. In response, novel RNA drugs are entering clinical trials at an accelerating rate. As the skin is the largest and most accessible organ, it has always been a preferred target for drug discovery. This holds true for RNA therapies as well, and multiple candidate RNA-based drugs are currently in development for an array of skin conditions. In this mini review, we catalog the RNA therapies currently in clinical trials for different dermatological diseases. We summarize the main types of RNA-related drugs and use examples of drugs currently in development to illustrate their key mechanism of action.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0385.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM); hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM); restrictive cardiomyopathy (RCM); arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC); left ventricular non-compaction cardiomyopathy (LVNC); Duchenne muscular dystrophy; dystrophin; genome editing; CRISPR/Cas9; Cpf1 (Cas12a)
Online: 29 December 2019 (13:41:48 CET)
Cardiomyopathies are diseases of heart muscle, a significant percentage of which are genetic in origin. Cardiomyopathies can be classified as dilated, hypertrophic, restrictive, arrhythmogenic right ventricular or left ventricular non-compaction, although mixed morphologies are possible. A subset of neuromuscular disorders, notably Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophies, are also characterized by cardiomyopathy aside from skeletal myopathy. The global burden of cardiomyopathies is certainly high, necessitating further research and novel therapies. Genome editing tools, which include zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs), transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) systems have emerged as increasingly important technologies in studying this group of cardiovascular disorders. In this review, we discuss the applications of genome editing in the understanding and treatment of cardiomyopathy. We also describe recent advances in genome editing that may help improve these applications, and some future prospects for genome editing in cardiomyopathy treatment.