CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0705.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Gastroenterology And Hepatology Keywords: Drug-induced liver injury; ocrelizumab; hepatotoxicity
Online: 21 April 2023 (09:41:29 CEST)
Drug induced liver injury (DILI) is the most common cause of acute liver failure and 5-10% of patients hospitalized for jaundice are diagnosed with DILI. For a diagnosis of DILI to be made, there should be exclusion of other etiologies of liver injury and the use of a precipitator drug, latency of symptoms, and resolution of liver injury once the offending drug is identified and discontinued. In our case report, we present a patient with idiosyncratic hepatocellular pattern DILI after two doses of ocrelizumab for treatment of multiple sclerosis. Ocrelizumab was given 16 and 27 days prior to the onset of icterus, jaundice, and fatigue, in a patient without the evidence of prior exposure to hepatitis B virus. At presentation labs revealed severe acute hepatocellular liver injury with R factor of 30.42, marked hyperbilirubinemia, and transient hypoalbuminemia. No evidence of latent or active hepatitis B infection was detected. Drug dechallenge led to return of liver chemistries to near-normal levels 31 days after the onset of her symptoms. This case indicates DILI diagnosis associated with the use of ocrelizumab, and warrants careful monitoring of liver functions in patients even in the absence of hepatitis B.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0148.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: cyclophosphamide; cytoprotective; hepatotoxicity; hematotoxicity; Hypericum triquetrifolium turra.; myelotoxicity; rat
Online: 19 March 2018 (08:53:25 CET)
The aim of this study was to investigate in-vitro antioxidant properties and in-vivo protective effects of different concentrations of Hypericum triquetrifolium Turra. (HT) seed methanol extracts against acute hepatotoxicity, myelotoxicity and hematotoxicity in rats exposed to overdose of cyclophosphamide (CP). HT seed methanol extracts were tested in view of its in-vitro antioxidant activities as total phenolic contents and DPPH free radical-scavenging activity. To investigate in-vivo protective effects of HT seed methanol extracts on rat tissues; tested animals were divided into nine groups. Three groups only were treated with HT extracts (25, 50 and 100 mg/kg HT) for 6 days. Three groups were pre-treated with the extract of HT (25, 50 and 100 mg/kg HT) for 6 days and on the last day they were injected with single dose of CP (150-mg/kg body weight). Two groups were used as control groups and one group was only treated with CP (150 mg/kg) on the 6th day. The toxic effects of CP and protective effects of HT extracts on the nucleated cells which were produced by bone marrow and serum alanine transaminase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), oxidative stress index (OSI) levels were investigated biochemically. Additionally, liver tissue samples were examined histopathologically. Our results show that HT seed methanol extract has high total phenolic content and antioxidant activity. Over dose CP administration caused hepatotoxicity, myelotoxicity and hematotoxicity on rat. Whereas, 25, 50 and 100 mg/kg HT plus CP administered groups showed significant protective effects on nucleated cells. And 25, 50, 100 mg/kg HT plus CP treated groups showed an important decrease on serum ALT, ALP, LDH and OSI levels when compared with CP treated group. Our results showed that the administration of different HT doses with high doses of CP significantly reduced hepatotoxicity, myelotoxicity and hematoxicity on rats.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1842.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: Alsidium corallinum; polysaccharides; biological activities; hepatotoxicity; dyslipidemia; computa-tional analyzes
Online: 28 August 2023 (09:51:28 CEST)
Sulfated polysaccharides from seaweed are highly active natural substances having valuable applications. In the present paper, attempts have been made to discuss the physicochemical and structural features of polysaccharides isolated from red marine alga Alsidium corallinum (ACPs) and its protective effect in hepatic impairments induced by tebuconazole (TBZ) in rats. Structural features were determined using High performance liquid chromatography, Fourier transformed infrared, and solid state 1H and 13C-Nuclear magnetic resonance analysis. ACPs are found to be hetero-sulfated-anionic polysaccharides that contained carbohydrates, sulfate groups and uronic acids. In vitro biological activities suggested the effective antioxidant and antimicrobial capacities of ACPs. For antioxidant testing in vivo, the biochemical analysis and plasma profiles displayed that oral administration of ACPs could mitigate blood lipid indicators, including total cholesterol, triglyceride, low and high density lipoprotein cholesterol, bilirubin, liver function indexes involving alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase, showed that ACPs possessed obvious antioxidant activities. Besides, the intervention of ACPs potentially inhibited lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation, key enzymes of lipid metabolism (<0.001) and increased levels and antioxidant status (<0.05). Histomorphological observation confirmed that ACPs intervention could partially repair liver injuries caused by TBZ. The computational results showed that A. corallinum monosaccharides bound 1JIJ, 1HD2 and 1WL4 receptors with acceptable affinities, which together with deep embedding and molecular interactions support the antioxidant, antimicrobial and hypolipidemic outlined effects in the in vitro and in vivo findings. In view of their prominent antioxidant effects, ACPs stand for promising candidates in liver diseases and need be considered in pharmaceutical applications.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0328.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacology And Toxicology Keywords: Phytobioactive compounds; anti-inflammatory; anti-oxidant; methotrexate; hepatotoxicity; oxidative stress
Online: 16 August 2021 (11:37:17 CEST)
Methotrexate (MTX) is a potent drug for the treatment of various diseases globally amidst being a chemotherapeutic and immunosuppressant agent. However, hepatotoxicity induced by MTX could be life-threatening if left untreated. Folate supplementation is concurrently applied to reduce the adverse effects of MTX, albeit efficacy compromise. Therefore, there is the need to understand the process for the prevention and treatment strategies for MTX induced hepatotoxicity (MIH). In recent times, preliminary preclinical and clinical findings indicate the potential of natural phytobioactive compounds for MIH prevention and treatment. This mini review therefore summarizes proposed mechanisms of MIH and recent advances in the prevention and treatment prospects of natural phytobioactive compounds on MIH.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0025.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacology And Toxicology Keywords: Ellagic acid; cisplatin; hepatotoxicity; Nrf2/HO-1 pathway; NF-κB pathway
Online: 2 October 2023 (03:19:16 CEST)
Cisplatin (CDDP), an important chemotherapeutic agent, could result in potential hepatotoxicity, but the precious molecular mechanisms remain unclear. In this study, the protective effect of ellagic acid (EA) on CDDP exposure-induced hepatotoxicity and underlying molecular mechanisms were investigated using a mouse model. Mice were randomly divided into control, CDDP model, EA100 (i.e., EA 100 mg/kg/day), and CDDP plus EA 25, 50, and 100 mg/kg/day. Mice in all CDDP-treated groups were intraperitoneally injected with CDDP 20 mg/kg/day for 2 days. In all EA co-treatments, mice were orally administrated with EA for 7 days. Our results found that, compared to the control group, CDDP treatment resulted in liver dysfunction, oxidative stress, and hepatocyte necrosis, which are effectively revised by EA supplementation in a dose-dependent manner. Meanwhile, EA supplementation inhibited CDDP-induced the elevation of caspases-9 and -3 activities in the liver tissues of mice. Furthermore, EA supplementation significantly downregulated CDDP exposure-induced the increases of NF-κB, IL-1β, TNF-α, and IL-6 proteins and mRNAs, while further upregulated the expression of Nrf2, and HO-1 proteins and mRNAs. Taken together, our results reveal that EA supplementation could ameliorate CCDP-induced liver injury in mice via the opposite regulation of Nrf2/HO-1 and NF-kB pathways.
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: epigallocatechin-3-gallate; acetaminophen; cytochrome P-450; bioactivation; apoptosis; autophagy; hepatotoxicity
Online: 28 July 2019 (16:45:51 CEST)
Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) is the most abundant polyphenol in green tea. In this study, the effects of dietary EGCG on oxidative stress and the metabolism and toxicity of acetaminophen in liver were investigated. Rats were fed the diets with (0.54 %) or without EGCG supplementation for four weeks and were then intraperitoneally injected with acetaminophen (1g/kg). Results showed EGCG lowered hepatic oxidative stress and cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A2, 2E1, and 3A, and UDP-glucurosyltransferase activities prior to acetaminophen injection. After acetaminophen challenge, the elevations in plasma alanine aminotransferase activity and histological changes in liver were ameliorated by EGCG treatment. EGCG reduced acetaminophen-induced apoptosis by increasing the Bax/Bcl2 ratio in liver. EGCG mildly increased autophagy by increasing the LC3B II/I ratio. Lower hepatic acetaminophen-glutathione and acetaminophen-protein adducts contents were observed after EGCG treatment. EGCG increased glutathione peroxidase and NAD(P)H quinone 1 oxidoreductase activities and reduced organic anion-transporting polypeptides 1a1 expression in liver after acetaminophen treatment. Our results indicate that EGCG may lower oxidative stress and reduce the metabolism and toxicity of acetaminophen. The reductions in CYP-mediated acetaminophen bioactivation and uptake transporter, as well as enhanced antioxidant enzyme activity, may limit the accumulation of toxic products in liver and thus lower hepatotoxicity
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0330.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: coumarin; 1,2-benzopyrone; Melilotus officinalis; narrative review; primary lymphoedema; secondary lymphoedema; hepatotoxicity
Online: 22 September 2022 (03:20:25 CEST)
Coumarin is an effective treatment for primary lymphoedema, as well as lymphoedema related to breast cancer radiotherapy or surgery. However, its clinical use is limited in several countries due to the possible occurrence of hepatotoxicity, mainly in the form of mild to moderate transaminase elevation. Noteworthy, only few cases of severe hepatotoxicity have been described in literature, with no reported cases of liver failure. Data available on coumarin absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion have been reviewed, focusing on hepatotoxicity studies carried out in vitro and in vivo. Finally, safety and tolerability data from clinical trials have been thoroughly discussed. On the basis of these data, coumarin-induced hepatotoxicity seems to be restricted to a small subset of patients, probably due to the expression of specific alleles of CYP450 isoform not yet well characterized. In summary, more research is needed in order to identify patients at risk of developing hepatotoxicity following coumarin treatment, in order to improve the risk/benefit ratio of the product and allow more patients to benefit from its therapeutic properties.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0091.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacology And Toxicology Keywords: Avocado; Calcium carbide; hepatotoxicity; liver; Persea Americana; seed extract; toxicity; wistar rats.
Online: 7 February 2022 (13:22:28 CET)
Context: Persea Americana is reported to have medicinal value. Calcium Carbide (CaC2), a fruit-ripening agent, has been shown to be toxic to body organs. Objective: To determine the effect of avocado seed extract (ASE) on CaC2-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Methodology: Four experimental groups, each of 5 adult wistar rats were fed respectively with normal diets (group A); 250mg/kg ASE (group B); 100mg/kg CaC2 (group C); combination of 100mg/kg CaC2 and 250mg/kg ASE – group D. Changes in the rats’ behaviours, body weights, and liver function were assessed over 21 days. Data were analyzed using SPSS. The cumulated rat weights, rat liver weights and serum liver enzyme levels for groups B, C, and D rats were compared to group A. Results: Abnormal behavior was most observed in group C rats. Rats in group A showed a significant increase in weight before and three weeks following administration of feeds while rats in groups B, C, and D showed significant decrease in weight – more marked in group C rats. Only the mean liver weights of rats in group C showed significant decrease compared to that in group A, p = 0.001. Similarly, only the cumulated liver enzyme levels of rats in group C demonstrated significant increase when compared to group A rats - indicating hepatotoxicity. Conclusion In this study, hepatotoxicity occurred in CaC2-administered rats. However, the combination of CaC2 and ASE showed no liver toxicity indicating a mitigating effect of ASE to CaC2-induced hepatotoxicity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0178.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacology And Toxicology Keywords: DILIrank; DILI; drug hepatotoxicity; QSAR; nested cross-validation; virtual screening; in silico
Online: 14 February 2020 (02:24:04 CET)
Drug induced liver injury (DILI) remains one of the challenges in the safety profile of both authorized drugs and candidate drugs and predicting hepatotoxicity from the chemical structure of a substance remains a challenge worth pursuing, being also coherent with the current tendency for replacing non-clinical tests with in vitro or in silico alternatives. In 2016 a group of researchers from FDA published an improved annotated list of drugs with respect to their DILI risk, constituting “the largest reference drug list ranked by the risk for developing drug-induced liver injury in humans”, DILIrank. This paper is one of the few attempting to predict liver toxicity using the DILIrank dataset. Molecular descriptors were computed with the Dragon 7.0 software, and a variety of feature selection and machine learning algorithms were implemented in the R computing environment. Nested (double) cross-validation was used to externally validate the models selected. A number of 78 models with reasonable performance have been selected and stacked through several approaches, including the building of multiple meta-models. The performance of the stacked models was slightly superior to other models published. The models were applied in a virtual screening exercise on over 100,000 compounds from the ZINC database and about 20% of them were predicted to be non-hepatotoxic.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1105.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: herbal medicine products; benzo[a]pyrene-induced hepatotoxicity; B[a]P-7,8-dihydrodiol-9,10-epoxide (BPDE); benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P); HepG2 cells
Online: 18 September 2023 (13:01:15 CEST)
The objective of the this study was to reduce the benzo[a]pyrene-induced hepatotoxicity method in herbal medicine products and to give proof that neferine, daidzein, genistein possess antihepa-totoxic effects. B[a]P which classified as a group 1 carcinogen and metabolized to B[a]P-7,8-dihydrodiol-9,10-epoxide (BPDE) causes mutagenic DNA addition products. The reduc-tion of BPDE-DNA adduct formation by B[a]P-7,8-dihydrodiol-9,10-epoxide (BPDE) was derived by benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P). In HepG2 cells, B[a]P exhibited toxicity and substance treatment of the cells with B[a]P with neferine in lotus and daidzein, genistein in soybean reduced the BPDE-DNA ad-ducts level. The level of B[a]P-metabolites in the substance treatment of the cells was presented that BPDE levels were reduced by neferine in lotus and daidzein, genisten in soybean. These results suggest that neferine in lotus and daidzein, genistein in soybean prevent B[a]P-induced hepato-toxicity for BPDE-DNA adduct formation.