ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0658.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Information Technology & Data Management Keywords: biometric matching; fully homomorphic encryption; privacy-preserving techniques
Online: 27 July 2020 (06:19:29 CEST)
One of the most reliable methods of authentication used today is biometric matching. This authentication process, which is done by using biometrics information such as fingerprint, iris, face, etc. is used in many application areas. Authentication at border gates is one of these areas. However, some restrictions have been introduced to storing and using such data, especially with the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR). The main goal of this work is to find the practical implementation of fully homomorphic encryption-based biometric matching in border controls. In this paper, we propose a biometric authentication system based on hash expansion and fully homomorphic encryption features, considering these restrictions. One of the most significant drawbacks of the homomorphic encryption method is the long execution time. We solved this problem by executing the matching algorithm in parallel manner. The proposed scheme is implemented as proof-of-concept in the SMILE, and its advantages in privacy preservation has been demonstrated.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0267.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: Fully-autonomous; AC micro-grid; AC/DC/AC converter; Seamless switching
Online: 22 May 2019 (08:44:26 CEST)
This paper proposes a novel micro-grid structure, which can operate fully-autonomously with inherent seamless switching. It can operate independently in both grid-connected and islanded mode as a self-governed entity without relying on the utility grid. An AC/DC/AC converter is employed as the interface between the micro-grid and the utility grid, which enables the two entities to have different voltages in grid-connected mode. Seamless switching between operation modes can be achieved naturally. The micro-grid is regulated to exchange predefined amount of power with the utility grid in grid-connected mode. This will benefit the power dispatching algorithm of the power system. The predefined power is estimated based on power forecasting of local renewable generations and loads with consideration of the Sate of Charge (SOC) of the battery, and is updated and broadcasted every certain period. A small scale AC micro-grid with a rotating generator, battery storage and solar arrays etc. is built for investigation. Matlab/Simulink results are provided to validate the robustness and flexibility of proposed micro-grid and its operation strategy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0472.v3
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: Online misinformation; COVID-19 vaccination; fully vaccinated; Intelligence Quotient; per capita income
Online: 20 September 2021 (12:12:19 CEST)
The objective of the study was to evaluate the risk factors associated with lower COVID-19 vaccination rates in the United States. The study evaluated the effect of red-blue political affiliation and the effect of the US state's average educational aptitude score and per capita income on states' vaccination rates. The study found that states with concomitantly lower income along with lower educational aptitude scores are less vaccinated while the states with higher income have higher vaccination rates even among those with lower educational aptitude scores. These findings stayed significant after adjusting for red-blue political affiliation where states with red political affiliation have lower vaccination rates. Further study is needed to evaluate how to stop online misinformation among states with low income and low educational aptitude scores; and whether such an effort will increase overall vaccination rates in the United States.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0221.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Fluids & Plasmas Keywords: fully kinetic ions; ion temperature gradient instabilities; tokamak; gyrokinetics; particle-in-cell
Online: 27 March 2018 (06:03:12 CEST)
The feasibility of using full ion kinetics, instead of gyrokinetics, in simulating low-frequency Ion-Temperature-Gradient (ITG) instabilities in tokamaks has recently been demonstrated by Sturdevant et al. [Physics of Plasmas 24, 081207 (2017)]. In that work, a variational integrator was developed to integrate the full orbits of ions in toroidal geometry, which proved to be accurate in capturing both the short-time scale cyclotron motion and long time scale drift motion. The present work extends that work in three aspects. First, we implement a relatively simple full orbit integrator, the Boris integrator, and demonstrate that the accuracy of this integrator is also sufficient for simulation of ITG instabilities. Second, the equilibrium magnetic configuration is extended to general toroidal configuration specified numerically, enabling simulation of realistic equilibria reconstructed from tokamak experiments. Third, we extend that work to the nonlinear regime and investigate the nonlinear saturation of ITG instabilities. To verify the new numerical implementation of the orbit integrator and magnetic configuration, the linear electrostatic ITG frequency and growth rate are compared with those given in Sturdevant's work and good agreement is found.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0147.v2
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Numerical Analysis & Optimization Keywords: Fully fuzzy Sylvester matrix equations; Fuzzy matrix equation; Numerical fuzzy solution; Trapezoidal fuzzy multiplication
Online: 23 February 2022 (12:17:04 CET)
Many authors proposed analytical methods for solving fully fuzzy Sylvester matrix equation (FFSME) based on Vec-operator and Kronecker product. However, these methods are restricted to nonnegative fuzzy numbers and cannot be extended to FFSME with near-zero fuzzy numbers. The main intention of this paper is to develop a new numerical method for solving FFSME with near-zero trapezoidal fuzzy numbers that provides a wider scope of trapezoidal fully fuzzy Sylvester matrix equation (TrFFSME) in scientific applications. This numerical method can solve the trapezoidal fully fuzzy Sylvester matrix equation with arbitrary coefficients and find all possible finite arbitrary solutions for the system. In order to obtain all possible fuzzy solutions, the TrFFSME is transferred to a system of non-linear equations based on newly developed arithmetic fuzzy multiplication between trapezoidal fuzzy numbers. The fuzzy solutions to the TrFFSME are obtained by developing a new two-stage algorithm. To illustrate the proposed method numerical example is solved.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0469.v2
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Other Keywords: U-shape network; fully convolutional networks; deep learning; macula fovea; ultra-widefield Fundus images
Online: 7 September 2021 (11:51:17 CEST)
Macula fovea detection is a crucial prerequisite towards screening and diagnosing macular diseases. Without early detection and proper treatment, any abnormality involving the macula may lead to blindness. However, with the ophthalmologist shortage and time-consuming artificial evaluation, neither accuracy nor effectiveness of the diagnose process could be guaranteed. In this project, we proposed a deep learning approach on ultra-widefield fundus (UWF) images for macula fovea detection. This study collected 2300 ultra-widefield fundus images from Shenzhen Aier Eye Hospital in China. Methods based on U-shape network (Unet) and Fully Convolutional Networks (FCN) are implemented on 1800 (before amplifying process) training fundus images, 400 (before amplifying process) validation images and 100 test images. Three professional ophthalmologists were invited to mark the fovea. A method from the anatomy perspective is investigated. This approach is derived from the spatial relationship between macula fovea and optic disc center in UWF. A set of parameters of this method is set based on the experience of ophthalmologists and verified to be effective. Results are measured by calculating the Euclidean distance between proposed approaches and the accurate grounded standard, which is detected by Ultra-widefield swept-source optical coherence tomograph (UWF-OCT) approach. Through a comparation of proposed methods, we conclude that, deep learning approach of Unet outperformed other methods on macula fovea detection tasks, by which outcomes obtained are comparable to grounded standard method.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0658.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Acoustics Keywords: vacuum, physics of a vacuum, fully geometrized physics, vacuum balance, signature, algebra of signature
Online: 28 June 2021 (13:58:31 CEST)
The aim of the article is to develop geometrized physics of a vacuum on the basis of two basic postulates: 1) the constancy of the speed of light (more precisely, the speed of propagation of electromagnetic waves) in the vacuum; 2) the ‘vacuum balance condition’ associated with the statement that only mutually opposite formations are born from the vacuum, so that, on average, they completely compensate of the manifestations of each other. The Algebra of signatures is proposed as a mathematical basis for geometrized physics of a vacuum.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0231.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: Optical Music Recognition; historical document analysis; Medieval manuscripts; neume notation; fully convolutional neural networks
Online: 20 May 2019 (08:45:34 CEST)
Even today, the automatic digitisation of scanned documents in general but especially the automatic optical music recognition (OMR) of historical manuscripts still remain an enormous challenge, since both handwritten musical symbols and text have to be identified. This paper focuses on the Medieval so-called square notation developed in the 11th-12th century, which is already composed of staff lines, staves, clefs, accidentals, and neumes, that are roughly spoken connected single notes. The aim is to develop an algorithm that captures both the neume and pitch, that is melody information that can be used to reconstruct the original writing. Our pipeline is similar to the standard OMR approach and comprises a novel staff line and symbol detection algorithm, based on deep Fully Convolutional Networks (FCN), which perform pixel-based predictions for either staff lines or symbols and their respective types. Then, the staff line detection combines the extracted lines to staves and yields an F1-score of over 99% for both detecting lines and complete staves. For the music symbol detection we choose a novel approach that skips the step to identify neumes and instead directly predicts note components (NCs) and their respective affiliation to a neume. Furthermore, the algorithm detects clefs and accidentals. Our algorithm recognises these symbols with an F1-score of over 96% if the type is ignored and predicts the true symbol sequence of a staff with a diplomatic symbol accuracy rate (dSAR) of about 87%. If only the NCs without their respective connection to a neume, all clefs, and accidentals are of interest the algorithm reaches an harmonic symbol accuracy rate (hSAR) of approximately 90%.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0112.v2
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Computational Mathematics Keywords: remote sensing; image classification; fully connected conditional random fields (FC-CRF); convolutional neural networks (CNN)
Online: 28 November 2018 (07:11:42 CET)
The interpretation of land use and land cover (LULC) is an important issue in the fields of high-resolution remote sensing (RS) image processing and land resource management. Fully training a new or existing convolutional neural network (CNN) architecture for LULC classification requires a large amount of remote sensing images. Thus, fine-tuning a pre-trained CNN for LULC detection is required. To improve the classification accuracy for high resolution remote sensing images, it is necessary to use another feature descriptor and to adopt a classifier for post-processing. A fully connected conditional random fields (FC-CRF), to use the fine-tuned CNN layers, spectral features, and fully connected pairwise potentials, is proposed for image classification of high-resolution remote sensing images. First, an existing CNN model is adopted, and the parameters of CNN are fine-tuned by training datasets. Then, the probabilities of image pixels belong to each class type are calculated. Second, we consider the spectral features and digital surface model (DSM) and combined with a support vector machine (SVM) classifier, the probabilities belong to each LULC class type are determined. Combined with the probabilities achieved by the fine-tuned CNN, new feature descriptors are built. Finally, FC-CRF are introduced to produce the classification results, whereas the unary potentials are achieved by the new feature descriptors and SVM classifier, and the pairwise potentials are achieved by the three-band RS imagery and DSM. Experimental results show that the proposed classification scheme achieves good performance when the total accuracy is about 85%.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0207.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Information Technology & Data Management Keywords: smart anti-theft system; intruder detection; unsupervised activity monitoring; smart home; partially/fully covered faces
Online: 11 July 2018 (16:47:59 CEST)
The proposed research methodology aims to design a generally implementable framework for providing a house owner/member with the immediate notification of an on-going theft (unauthorized access to their premises). For this purpose, a rigorous analysis of existing systems was undertaken to identify research gaps. The problems found with existing systems were that they can only identify the intruder after the theft, or cannot distinguish between human and non-human objects. Wireless Sensors Networks (WSNs) combined with the use of Internet of Things (IoT), Cognitive Internet of Things, Internet of Medical Things, and Cloud Computing are expanding smart home concepts and solutions, and their applications. The primary objective of the present research work was to design and develop IoT and cloud computing based smart home solutions. In addition, we also propose a novel smart home anti-theft system that can detect an intruder, even if they have partially/fully hidden their face using clothing, leather, fiber, or plastic materials. The proposed system can also detect an intruder in the dark using a CCTV camera without night vision facility. The fundamental idea was to design a cost-effective and efficient system for an individual to be able to detect any kind of theft in real-time and provide instant notification of the theft to the house owner. The system also promises to implement home security with large video data handling in real-time.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201711.0130.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: shallow water equations; models comparison; fully dynamic model; zero-inertia model; inertial terms; overland flow routing
Online: 20 November 2017 (16:44:39 CET)
The shallow water equations are widely applied for the simulation of flow routing in rivers and floodplains, as well as for flood inundation mapping. From a mathematical point of view, they are a hyperbolic system of nonlinear partial differential equations, whose numerical integration is sometimes computationally burdensome. For this reason, the interest of many researchers has been focused on the study of simplified forms of the original set of equations, which requires less computational effort. One of the most commonly applied simplifications consists in neglecting the inertial terms, which changes the hyperbolic model to a parabolic one. The effects of such a choice on the outputs of the simulations of flooding events are controversial and an important topic of debate. In the present paper, two numerical models, recently proposed for the solution of the complete and zero-inertia forms of the shallow waters equations, are applied to several unsteady flow routing scenarios. We simulate synthetic and laboratory studies, starting from very simple geometries and moving towards complex topographies. Analyzing the role of the terms in the momentum equations, we try to understand the effect, on the computed results, of neglecting the inertial terms in the zero-inertia formulation. We analyze the computational costs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0086.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Velocity–pressure coupling; Fully coupled solvers; Augmented Lagrangian; two-phase flows; saddle point; projection method; preconditioning; smooth VOF
Online: 3 December 2020 (13:50:52 CET)
In this paper, we investigate the accuracy and robustness of three classes of methods for solving two-phase incompressible flows on a staggered grid. Here, the unsteady two-phase flow equations are simulated by finite volumes and penalty methods using implicit and monolithic approaches (such as the augmented Lagrangian and the fully coupled methods), where all velocity components and pressure variables are solved simultaneously (as opposed to segregated methods). The interface tracking is performed with a Volume-of-Fluid (VOF) method, using the Piecewise Linear Interface Construction (PLIC) technique. The home code Fugu is used for implementing the various methods. Our target application is the simulation of two-phase flows at high density and viscosity ratios, which are known to be challenging to simulate. The resulting strategies of monolithic approaches will be proven to be considerably better suited for these two-phase cases, they also allow to use larger time step than segregated methods.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0129.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Algebra & Number Theory Keywords: degenerate Daehee polynomials; fully degenerate Daehee polynomials of the second kind; higher-order Daehee polynomials of the second kind
Online: 8 October 2018 (05:53:03 CEST)
In this paper, we investigate the new degenerate Daehee polynomials and numbers which are called the degenerate Daehee polynomials of the second kind, and derive some new and interesting identities and properties of those polynomials.