ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0424.v1
Online: 21 October 2020 (09:31:42 CEST)
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the number one cause of death worldwide. This condition resulted in huge research on CVD increasing the need for animal models suitable for the in vivo research. Daphnia and Zebrafish are good animal models for cardiovascular research due to their relative body transparency and easy culture property. Several methods have been developed to conduct cardiac performance measurement in Daphnia and Zebrafish. However, most of the methods only able to obtain heartbeat rate. The other important cardiac endpoints like stroke volume, ejection fraction, fraction shortening, cardiac output and heartbeat regularity must use other programs for measurement. To overcome this limitation, in this study, we successfully developed a one-stop ImageJ-based method using kymograph macros language that able to obtain multiple cardiac performance endpoints simultaneously for the first time. To validate its utility, we incubate Daphnia magna at different ambient temperatures and exposed zebrafish with astemizole to detect the corresponding cardiac performance alterations. In summary, the kymograph method reported in this study provides a new, easy to use, and inexpensive one-stop method on obtaining multiple cardiac performance endpoints with high accuracy and convenience.
Subject: Life Sciences, Cell & Developmental Biology Keywords: novelty; arthropod; appendages; Parhyale; Tribolium; Daphnia; carapace
Online: 5 March 2021 (11:32:56 CET)
Understanding how novel structures arise is a central question in evolution. The carapace of the waterflea Daphnia is a bivalved “cape” of exoskeleton that surrounds the animal, and has been proposed to be one of many novel structures that arose through repeated co-option of genes that also pattern insect wings. To determine whether the Daphnia carapace is a novel structure, the expression of pannier, the Iroquois gene aurucan, and vestigial are compared between Daphnia, Parhyale, and Tribolium. The results suggest that the Daphnia carapace did not arise by cooption, but instead represents an elongated ancestral exite (lateral lobe or plate) that emerges from a proximal leg segment that was incorporated into the Daphnia body wall. The Daphnia carapace therefore appears to be homologous to the Parhyale tergal plate and the insect wing. In addition, the vg-positive region that gives rise to the Daphnia carapace also appears to be present in Parhyale and Tribolium, which do not form a carapace. Thus, rather than a novel structure resulting from gene co-option, the carapace appears to have arisen from an ancient, conserved developmental field that persists in a cryptic state in other arthropod lineages, but in Daphnia became elaborated into the carapace. Cryptic persistence of serially homologous developmental fields may thus be a general solution for the origin of many novel structures.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0419.v1
Subject: Biology, Physiology Keywords: artificial sweeteners; zebrafish; Daphnia; cardiac performance; toxicity
Online: 18 September 2020 (04:47:33 CEST)
Artificial sweeteners are widely used food ingredients in beverages and drinks to lower calorie intake which in turn prevent lifestyle diseases such as obesity. Epidemiological evidences suggest that an overdose of artificial sweeteners could result to adverse effects after consumption. Thus, our study aims to systematically explore the potential adverse effects of eight commercial artificial sweeteners, including acesulfame-K, alitame, aspartame, sodium cyclamate, dulcin, neotame, saccharin and sucralose on cardiac performances of zebrafish (Danio rerio) and Daphnia as model animals. Embryonic zebrafish and Daphnia were exposed to eight artificial sweeteners at 100 ppb concentrations and their cardiac performance (heart rate, ejection fraction, fractional shortening, stroke volume, cardiac output and heartbeat regularity) were measured and compared. Saccharin significantly increased the heart rate of zebrafish larvae while a significant decrease was observed in Daphnia. Significant increase was also noted in zebrafish heart rate variability after incubation in acesulfame K, dulcin, sodium cyclamate, and sucralose. However, a significant increase in Daphnia was only observed after incubation in dulcin. Based on Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and hierarchical clustering results, several artificial sweetener samples were species-specific to zebrafish and Daphnia. Our study demonstrates the potential adverse physiological effects of artificial sweeteners in cardiovascular systems of zebrafish larvae and Daphnia.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0376.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: fullerene; fish; daphnia; toxicity; aquatic animal; nanomaterial
Online: 17 September 2020 (05:51:49 CEST)
Fullerene molecules are composed of carbon in forms of a hollow sphere, ellipsoid, or tube. Fullerenes have attracted considerable attention in different fields of science since their discovery in 1985. The unique carbon cage structure of fullerene provides immense scope for derivatization, rendering potential for various industrial applications. The prospective applications of fullerenes thus have led to assorted fullerene derivatives. The unique chemical structure also provides ease for fullerene to be synthesized through various kinds of conjugating techniques, where fullerene can be located either on the backbone or the branch chain. Here in this review, we have compiled the toxicity and biosafety aspects of fullerene in aquatic organisms. The frequent use of fullerene is likely to come in contact and interact with the aquatic environment and aquatic organisms. According to the current understanding, waterborne exposure to fullerene-based nanomaterials indeed triggers toxicities at cellular, organic, molecular as well as neurobehavioral levels.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0319.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Microbiology Keywords: cyanobacteria; protease inhibitors; digestive enzyme; daphnia; HPLC; UV/Vis
Online: 27 May 2019 (12:56:49 CEST)
Cyanobacterial mass developments in eutrophic ponds and lakes are a major concern for lake management, as many cyanobacteria produce a huge variety of toxic secondary metabolites, e.g. microcystins. The aim of this research was to culture a strain of the cyanobacterium Microcystis sp strain BM25, to observe its biomass production and to isolate and purify protease inhibitors from this cyanobacterial biomass. Different secondary metabolites were isolated following a standard bioassay-guideline. Isolation was performed, with an enzymatic protease assay as bioassay. High performance liquid chromatography was used to identify different fractions of secondary metabolite from the strain BM25. Moreover, protease homogenates were isolated from Daphnia magna in order to test the inhibitors against naturally occurring major digestive proteases trypsin and chymotrypsin. It was measured that 60% MeOH and the 80% MeOH C18-SPE fraction inhibits chymotrypsin activity 98% (6 nmol pNA min-1 mg-1) and 99 % (4 nmol pNA min-1 mg-1), respectively. In contrast, trypsin activity was not inhibited by methanolic extracts of this cyanobacterium strain.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0638.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: amoxicillin; chlorination; hypochlorite; degradation by-products; water treatment; acute toxicity test; Daphnia magna
Online: 24 December 2020 (15:32:11 CET)
In recent years, many studies have highlighted the consistent finding of amoxicillin in waters destined for wastewater treatment plants, in addition to superficial waters of rivers and lakes in both Europe and North America. In this paper, the amoxicillin degradation pathway was investigated by simulating the chlorination process normally used in a wastewater treatment plant to reduce similar emerging pollutants at three different pH values. The structures of 16 isolated degradation byproducts (DPs), one of which was isolated for the first time, were separated on a C-18 column via a gradient HPLC method. Then, combining mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS/TOF) and nuclear magnetic resonance, we compared commercial standards and justified a proposed formation mechanism beginning from the parent drug. Microbial growth inhibition bioassays with Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Staphylococcus aureus were performed to determine the potential loss of antibacterial activity in isolated degradation byproducts. An increase of antibacterial activity in the DPs was observed compared to the parent compound.