Malhotra, N.; Ger, T.; Castillo, A.L.; Audira, G.; Siregar, P.; Ruallo, J.M.S.; Chen, J.; Lee, J.; Hsiao, C. An Update Report on the Biosafety and Potential Toxicity of Fullerene-Based Nanomaterials toward Aquatic Animals. Preprints2020, 2020090376. https://doi.org/10.20944/preprints202009.0376.v1
Malhotra, N., Ger, T., Castillo, A.L., Audira, G., Siregar, P., Ruallo, J.M.S., Chen, J., Lee, J., & Hsiao, C. (2020). An Update Report on the Biosafety and Potential Toxicity of Fullerene-Based Nanomaterials toward Aquatic Animals. Preprints. https://doi.org/10.20944/preprints202009.0376.v1
Malhotra, N., Jiann-Shing Lee and Chung-Der Hsiao. 2020 "An Update Report on the Biosafety and Potential Toxicity of Fullerene-Based Nanomaterials toward Aquatic Animals" Preprints. https://doi.org/10.20944/preprints202009.0376.v1
Fullerene molecules are composed of carbon in forms of a hollow sphere, ellipsoid, or tube. Fullerenes have attracted considerable attention in different fields of science since their discovery in 1985. The unique carbon cage structure of fullerene provides immense scope for derivatization, rendering potential for various industrial applications. The prospective applications of fullerenes thus have led to assorted fullerene derivatives. The unique chemical structure also provides ease for fullerene to be synthesized through various kinds of conjugating techniques, where fullerene can be located either on the backbone or the branch chain. Here in this review, we have compiled the toxicity and biosafety aspects of fullerene in aquatic organisms. The frequent use of fullerene is likely to come in contact and interact with the aquatic environment and aquatic organisms. According to the current understanding, waterborne exposure to fullerene-based nanomaterials indeed triggers toxicities at cellular, organic, molecular as well as neurobehavioral levels.
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