Preprint Article Version 1 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

Amoxicillin in Water: Insights Into Relative Reactivity, Byproduct Formation, and Toxicological Interactions During Chlorination

Version 1 : Received: 23 December 2020 / Approved: 24 December 2020 / Online: 24 December 2020 (15:32:11 CET)

How to cite: Siciliano, A.; Guida, M.; Libralato, G.; Saviano, L.; Luongo, G.; Previtera, L.; Di Fabio, G.; Zarrelli, A. Amoxicillin in Water: Insights Into Relative Reactivity, Byproduct Formation, and Toxicological Interactions During Chlorination. Preprints 2020, 2020120638 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202012.0638.v1). Siciliano, A.; Guida, M.; Libralato, G.; Saviano, L.; Luongo, G.; Previtera, L.; Di Fabio, G.; Zarrelli, A. Amoxicillin in Water: Insights Into Relative Reactivity, Byproduct Formation, and Toxicological Interactions During Chlorination. Preprints 2020, 2020120638 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202012.0638.v1).

Abstract

In recent years, many studies have highlighted the consistent finding of amoxicillin in waters destined for wastewater treatment plants, in addition to superficial waters of rivers and lakes in both Europe and North America. In this paper, the amoxicillin degradation pathway was investigated by simulating the chlorination process normally used in a wastewater treatment plant to reduce similar emerging pollutants at three different pH values. The structures of 16 isolated degradation byproducts (DPs), one of which was isolated for the first time, were separated on a C-18 column via a gradient HPLC method. Then, combining mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS/TOF) and nuclear magnetic resonance, we compared commercial standards and justified a proposed formation mechanism beginning from the parent drug. Microbial growth inhibition bioassays with Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Staphylococcus aureus were performed to determine the potential loss of antibacterial activity in isolated degradation byproducts. An increase of antibacterial activity in the DPs was observed compared to the parent compound.

Subject Areas

amoxicillin; chlorination; hypochlorite; degradation by-products; water treatment; acute toxicity test; Daphnia magna

Comments (0)

We encourage comments and feedback from a broad range of readers. See criteria for comments and our diversity statement.

Leave a public comment
Send a private comment to the author(s)
Views 0
Downloads 0
Comments 0
Metrics 0


×
Alerts
Notify me about updates to this article or when a peer-reviewed version is published.
We use cookies on our website to ensure you get the best experience.
Read more about our cookies here.