ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0257.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Applied Physics Keywords: Betz Limit; Aerodynamic Efficiency; Biomimicry
Online: 19 September 2022 (03:47:02 CEST)
This paper describe a procedure to measure experimentally the power coefficient, Cp, of winged seeds, and apply this technique to seeds from the Norway maple (Acer platanoides). We measure Cp=56.9±2% at a tip speed ratio of 3.21±0.06. Our results are in agreement with previously published CFD simulations that indicate that these seeds – operating in low-Reynolds number conditions – approach the Betz limit (Cp=59.3%) the maximum possible efficiency for a wind turbine. In addition, this result is not consistent with the recent theoretical work of Okulov & Sørensen, which suggests that a single-bladed turbine with a tip-speed ratio of 3.2 can achieve a power efficiency of no more than 30%.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0496.v2
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: Aerodynamic Lift; Boundary Layer Theory; Triple Deck Theory
Online: 9 November 2021 (14:52:31 CET)
An explanation of aerodynamic lift still is under controversial discussion as can be seen, for example, in a recent published article in Scientific American . In contrast to an approach via integral conservation laws we here review an approach via the classical Kutta-Condition and its relation to boundary layer theory. Thereby we summarize known results for viscous correction to the lift coefficient for thin aerodynamic profiles and try to remember the work on triple-deck or higher order Boundary Layer theory, its connection to interactive boundary layer theory, viscous/inviscid coupling as implemented to well-known engineering code Xfoil. Finally we compare its findings to simple 2D numerical solution of full Navier Stokes equations (CFD)models. As a conclusion, a clearer definition of terms like understanding and explanation applied to the phenomenon of aerodynamic lift will be given.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0225.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: boundary layer transition; wind turbine; thermography; aerodynamic glove
Online: 19 April 2019 (11:58:41 CEST)
Knowledge about laminar-turbulent transition on operating multi-megawatt wind turbine blades needs sophisticated equipment like hot-films or microphone arrays. Contrarily thermographic pictures can easily be taken from the ground and temperature differences indicate different states of the boundary layer. The accuracy however, still is an open question, so that an aerodynamic glove known from experimental research on aero-planes was used to classify the boundary-layer state of a 2 megawatt wind turbine blade operating in the orthern part of Schleswig-Holstein, Germany. State-of-the-art equipment for measurering static surface pressure was used for monitoring the lift distribution. To distinguish laminar and turbulent parts of the boundary layer (suction side only) 48 microphones were applied together with ground-based thermographic cameras from two teams. Additionally, an optical camera mounted on the hub was used to survey vibrations. During start-up (from 0 to 9 rpm) extended, but irregularly shaped regions of a laminar boundary layer were observed which had the same extension measured both with microphones and Thermography. When an approximately constant rotor rotation (9 rpm corresponding to approximately 6 m/s wind-speed) was achieved, a flow transition was visible at the expected position of 40 % chord length on the rotor blade, which was fouled with dense turbulent wedges and an almost complete turbulent state on the glove was detected. In all observations, quantitative determination of the flow transition positions from thermography and microphones agree well within their accuracy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0382.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Applied Physics Keywords: flexible fibre; flow medium; aerodynamic shape; drag; scaling laws
Online: 27 May 2022 (10:46:59 CEST)
The study of a flexible body immersed in a flowing medium is one of best way to find its aerodynamic shape. This Letter revisited the problem first studied by Alben, Shelley and Zhang (Nature 420, 479-481, 2002). The aerodynamic shape of the fibre is found by simpler approach and universal drag scaling laws of the flexible fibre in flowing medium are proposed by using dimensional analysis. The Alben scaling laws is being generalized and confirmed to be universal. Our study show that the Alben number is a measurement of maximum curvature of the fibre forced by dynamic pressure. A complete Maple code is provided for finding aerodynamic shape of the fibre in the flowing medium.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0181.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: annular cooling fan; outer ring; structure parameters; aerodynamic performance
Online: 15 May 2019 (10:05:43 CEST)
We studied the effect of the structure parameters of engine annular cooling fan with outer ring on the aerodynamic performance by means of experiments and model simulation in fluent®. Firstly, based on the experiment, a computational model is developed to calculate and analyze the aerodynamic performance of the tested annular fan. The model is validated by comparing the test results with the calculated data. Besides, the aerodynamic performance differences between two types of fans (common fan without outer ring and annular fan with outer ring) are discussed. Based on the computational model, the relation between aerodynamic performance and the outer ring structure parameters are investigated. The results show that the relative parameter on the axial direction has great influence on the aerodynamic performance; while the effect of radial relative parameter is minor. In addition, the outer ring with arc chamfer structure in the downstream side can improve its static pressure efficiency effectively.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0028.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: aerodynamic efficiency; surface fow; wrinkled/contoured surface; surface flow
Online: 3 July 2018 (07:43:28 CEST)
The aerodynamic efficiency of a NACA 0012 AR 4 wing was affected through periodic contours aligned in the flow direction resembling a “wrinkled” texture. Streamwise and cross-stream Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) were conducted at the University of Dayton Low Speed Wind Tunnel (UD-LSWT) around Reynolds number of 135,000 on the NACA 0012 AR 4 wing with and without surface contours. Wings with 6 contour sections was designed by spline fitting two NACA 0012 airfoil profiles in the spanwise direction. Both 2D (wall-to-wall model) configuration and 3D configuration of the wings were tested to determine the effects of surface contours on the parasite and induced drag of the wing. Streamwise PIV results indicated an increase in momentum deficit in the wake of the mid-contour region due to enhanced boundary layer separation from the upper surface of the mid-contour region. The cross-stream PIV results indicated a decrease in the magnitude of azimuthal velocity, circulation and RMS quantities in the wingtip vortex with the surface contours. The reduction in the wingtip vortex properties indicates that the contours were effective in blocking the spanwise flow feeding into the wingtip vortex on the surface of the wing
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0091.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: flexible tower; nacelle attitude feedback (NAF); dynamic response; aerodynamic load
Online: 6 September 2021 (12:45:31 CEST)
Based on the two-node Euler-Bernoulli beam, the tower system is discretized by finite element method, and the cubic Hermite polynomial is taken as the shape function of the beam element, and the structural characteristic matrix of the tower system is calculated, and the wind turbine-nacelle-tower multi-degree of freedom is established Finite element numerical model. The aerodynamic load calculation formula for any nacelle attitude angle is deduced. The influence of the vibration feedback of the flexible tower on the aerodynamic load of the wind turbine is studied. The results show that when the rigidity of the tower is large, the impact of tower vibration feedback on the aeroelastic load of the wind turbine is small. For a tower system with greater flexibility, the time-varying feedback of wind-induced vibration will cause greater aeroelastic load changes, especially the overturning moment of the tower top, which will cause a greater impact on the dynamic behavior of the tower in the downwind and crosswind directions. As the flexibility of the tower system increases, the interaction between tower vibration and aerodynamic load is gradually increasing. Taking the impact of the flexible tower on the aeroelastic load of the wind turbine into account, on the one hand, helps to predict the wind more accurately. The aerodynamic load of the wind turbine improves the efficiency of wind energy utilization. On the other hand, it can more accurately analyze the dynamic behavior of the flexible structure of the wind turbine, which is extremely beneficial to the structural optimization design of the wind turbine.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0093.v2
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2; virus, bioaerosol; social distancing; aerodynamic size; infection
Online: 22 April 2020 (05:54:48 CEST)
The fast spread of COVID-19 constitutes a worldwide challenge to the public health, educational, and trade systems, affecting the overall wellbeing of human societies. The high transmission and mortality rates of this virus, and the unavailability of a vaccine or treatment, resulted in the decision of multiple governments to enact measures of social distancing. Thus, it is of general interest to consider the validity of the proposal for keeping a social distancing of at least 2 m from other persons to avoid the spread of COVID-19. The exposure to the bioaerosol can result in the deposition of the pathogen in the respiratory tract of the host causing disease and an immunological response. In the atmospheric context, the work evaluates the effect of aerodynamic diameter (size) of particles in carrying RNA copies of the novel coronavirus. A SARS-CoV-2 carrier person talking, sneezing, or coughing at distance of 2 m can still provide a pathogenic bioaerosol load with submicron particles that remain viable in air for up to 3 hours for exposure of healthy persons near and far from the source in a stagnant environment. The deposited bioaerosol creates contaminated surfaces, which if touched can act as a path to introduce the pathogen by mouth, nose, or eyes and cause disease.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0262.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Fluids & Plasmas Keywords: Dandelion; pappus; flexible filament; wind-dispersal; aerodynamic shape; drag; Reynolds number; scaling laws
Online: 20 June 2022 (09:41:58 CEST)
The common dandelion uses a bundle of drag-enhancing bristles (the pappus) that enables seed dispersal over formidable distances; however, the scaling laws of pneumatic/aerodynamic drag underpinning pappus-mediated flight remains unresolved. In this paper, we will study the pneumatic/aerodynamic shape of dandelion and the scaling law of resistance, and find that the drag resistance coefficient is proportional to the -2/3 power of the dandelion pappus Reynolds number. As a by-product, the terminal velocity analytical expression of the dandelion seed is also obtained.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0056.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: Airborne wind energy; crosswind kite; induction factor; wake model; aerodynamic performance; CFD; analytical model
Online: 3 March 2022 (07:50:24 CET)
This paper presents some results from a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model of a multi-megawatt crosswind kite spinning on a circular path in a straight downwind configuration. The unsteady Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes equations closed by the k−ω SST turbulence model are solved in the three-dimensional space using ANSYS Fluent. The flow behaviour is examined at the rotation plane, and the overall (or global) induction factor is obtained by getting the weighted average of induction factors on multiple annuli over the swept area. The wake flow behaviour is also discussed in some details using velocity and pressure contour plots. In addition to the CFD model, an analytical model for calculating the average flow velocity and radii of the annular wake downstream of the kite is developed. The model is formulated based on the widely-used Jensen’s model (Technical Report Risø-M; No. 2411, 1983), which was developed for conventional wind turbines, and thus has a simple form. Expressions for the dimensionless wake flow velocity and wake radii are obtained by assuming self-similarity of flow velocity and linear wake expansion. Comparisons are made between numerical results from the analytical model and those from the CFD simulation. The level of agreement was found to be reasonably good. Such computational and analytical models are indispensable for kite farm layout design and optimization, where aerodynamic interactions between kites should be considered.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0133.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: airborne wind energy; leading-edge inflatable wing; RANS; side-slip flow; struts; aerodynamic performance
Online: 8 November 2021 (12:14:40 CET)
Steady-state Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) simulations are performed for a leading-edge inflatable wing for airborne wind energy applications. Expanding on previous work where only the inflatable leading edge tube was considered, eight additional inflatable strut tubes that support the wing canopy are now included. The shape of the wing is considered to be constant. The influence of the strut tubes on the aerodynamic performance of the wing and the local flow field is assessed, considering flow configurations with and without side-slip. The simulations show that the aerodynamic performance of the wing decreases with increasing side-slip component of the inflow. On the other hand, the chordwise struts have little influence on the integral lift and drag of the wing, irrespective of the side-slip component. The overall flow characteristics are in good agreement with previous studies. In particular, it is confirmed that at a low Reynolds number of Re=10^5, a laminar separation bubble exists on the suction side of this hypothetical rigid wing shape with perfectly smooth surface. The destruction of this bubble at low angles of attack impacts negatively on the aerodynamic performance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201802.0032.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Acoustics Keywords: inverse acoustic problem; helicopter rotor; Ffowcs Williams and Hawkings equation; aerodynamic constraint; Thikhonov method
Online: 5 February 2018 (11:34:30 CET)
An inverse aeroacoustic problem for a helicopter rotor combined with aerodynamic constraint is proposed based on Ffowcs Williams and Hawkings equation in subsonic. The rotor noise includes thickness noise and loading noise when quadrupole noise is neglected. Thickness noise is related to geometry and motion conditions. Loading noise is related to the pressure on the wall. Therefore, the equation between pressure on the wall and far-field noise can be established, thus the pressure on the wall can be obtained by solving this equation. Since this equation is an ill-posed, the singular value decomposition combined with the regulation method is applied and the aerodynamic constraint is taken into account. The direct noise prediction is verify firstly and then the inverse problem is solved. The reconstruction pressure is compared to the input data. The result is in good agreement with the input value. At the same time, the influence of interference noise is also considered. Under low signal-to-noise ratio, the reconstruction result is also reasonable.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0362.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: apartment building; aerodynamic coefficient; wind speed; air change rate; concentration of carbon dioxide; experimental measurement
Online: 15 March 2021 (08:11:30 CET)
Air change rate is an important parameter for quantification of ventilation heat losses and also affects the indoor climate of buildings. Indoor air quality is significantly associated with ventilation. If air change isn't sufficient, trapped allergens, pollutants and irritants can degrade the indoor air quality and affect the well-being of a building's occupants. Many studies on ventilation and health have concluded that lower air change rates can have a negative effect on people’s health and low ventilation may result in an increase in allergic diseases. Quantification of air change rate is complicated, since it is affected by a number of parameters, of which the one of the most variable is the air-wind flow. This study aims to determination and comparison of values of the air change rate in two methods - by quantifying of aerodynamic coefficient Cp = Cpe - Cpi – so called aerodynamic quantification of the building and the methodology based on experimental measurements of carbon dioxide in the selected reference room in apartment building.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0133.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: anderson-vertical-axis-wind-turbine; actual-power; aerodynamic-power; blockage-factor; power-coefficient; tip-speed-ratio
Online: 11 October 2019 (11:10:59 CEST)
The basic equation for estimating the aerodynamic power captured by an Anderson Vertical Axis Wind Turbine (AVAWT) is a solution of the Navier-Stokes(N-S) equations for a baroclinic, inviscid flow. In a nutshell, the pressure difference across the AVAWT is derived from Bernoulli’s equation; an upshot of the integration of the N-S momentum equation for a baroclinic inviscid flow, Euler’s momentum equation. The resulting expression for the pressure difference across the AVAWT rotor is plotted as a function of freestream speed. Experimentally determined airstream speeds at the AVAWT inlet and outlet, coupled with corresponding freestream speeds are used in estimating the aerodynamic power captured. The aerodynamic power is subsequently used in calculating the aerodynamic power coefficient of the AVAWT. The actual power coefficient is calculated from the power generated by the AVAWT at various free stream speeds and plotted as a function of the latter. Experimental results show that, at all free stream speeds and tip speed ratios, the aerodynamic power coefficient is higher than the actual power coefficient of the AVAWT. Consequently, the power generated by the AVAWT prototype is lower than the aerodynamic power captured, given the same inflow wind condition.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0157.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: GEM fluxes; gaseous elemental mercury; coastal area; Aegean Sea; Mediterranean Basin; aerodynamic gradient method; Monin-Obukhov similarity theory
Online: 13 August 2019 (13:23:20 CEST)
Coastal rural areas can be a source of elemental mercury, but the potential influence of their topographic and climatic particularities on gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) fluxes have not been investigated extensively. In this study gaseous elemental mercury was measured over Mediterranean coastal grassland located at Northern Greece from 2014 to 2015 and GEM fluxes were evaluated utilizing Monin-Obukhov similarity theory. The GEM fluxes ranged from -50.30 to 109.695 ng m-2 h-1 with a mean value equal to 10.501 ng m-2 h-1 ± 19.14 ng m-2 h-1. Concerning the peak events, with high positive and low negative GEM fluxes, those were recorded from the morning until the evening. Rain events were a strong contributing factor for enhanced GEM fluxes. The enhanced turbulent mixing under daytime unstable conditions led to greater evasion and positive GEM fluxes while during nighttime periods the GEM evasion is lower indicating the effect of atmospheric stability on GEM fluxes. The coastal grassland with its specific characteristics influences the GEM fluxes and this area could be characterized as source of elemental mercury. This study is one of the rare efforts in the research community to estimate GEM fluxes in a coastal natural site based on aerodynamic gradient method.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0289.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: tunnel entrance; crosswind; wind–train–track coupling dynamic model; transient response of aerodynamic load; sudden wind effect; traffic safety
Online: 24 January 2020 (15:07:07 CET)
Sudden variation of aerodynamic loads is the potential source of safety accidents of high-speed train (HST). As a follow-up investigation on the aerodynamic response of a HST that enters a tunnel under crosswind environment, this paper focuses on the transient response of a HST’s safety indices based on the train–track coupling interaction model. Firstly, a wind–train–track coupling dynamic model is proposed by introducing transient aerodynamic loads into the vehicle–track system. Secondly, the temporal evolution of safety coefficients indicates that the train’s safety risk increases during tunnel entry with crosswind. Results show that the derailment coefficients and wheel load reduction rate during tunnel entry are not only larger than those in open air but also those inside the tunnel due to the sudden disappearance of wind excitation at the tunnel entrance. In addition, the characteristic wind curve, which is the wind velocity against the train speed, is presented for application based on the current specification of the safety criteria threshold. The investigation will be useful in assessing the safety risk of a running train subjected to other aerodynamic attacks, such as the coupling effect of infrastructure scenario and crosswind in windy area.