ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0178.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacology And Toxicology Keywords: essential oils; Bartonella henselae; persisters; stationary phase; antimicrobial activity
Online: 16 October 2019 (05:18:55 CEST)
Bartonella henselae is a fastidious Gram-negative intracellular bacterium which can cause cat scratch disease, endocarditis in humans and animals as well as other complications, leading to acute or chronic infections. The current treatment for Bartonella infections is not very effective due to antibiotic resistance and also persistence. To develop better therapies for persistent and chronic Bartonella infections, in this study, with the help of SYBR Green I/PI viability assay, we performed a high-throughput screening of an essential oil library against stationary phase B. henselae. We successfully identified 32 essential oils that had high activity, including four essential oils extracted from Citrus plants, three from Origanum, three from Cinnamomum, two from Pelargonium and two from Melaleuca, as well as frankincense, ylang ylang, fir needle, mountain savory (winter), citronella, spearmint, elemi, vetiver, clove bud, allspice and cedarwood essential oils. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) determination of these 32 top hits indicated they were not only active against stationary phase non-growing B. henselae but also had good activity against log phase growing B. henselae. The time-kill curve by drug exposure assay showed 13 active hits, including essential oils of oregano, cinnamon bark, mountain savory (winter), cinnamon leaf, geranium, clove bud, allspice, geranium bourbon, ylang ylang, citronella, elemi and vetiver, could eradicate all stationary phase B. henselae cells within 7 days at the concentration of 0.032% (v/v). Two active ingredients, carvacrol and cinnamaldehyde, of oregano and cinnamon bark essential oils, respectively, were shown to be very active against stationary phase B. henselae such that they were able to eradicate all the bacterial cells even at the concentration ≤ 0.01% (v/v). Our finding of active essential oils may help to develop more effective treatments for persistent Bartonella infections.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0197.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: carbon intensity; coal consumption; co-integration test; Granger causality; error correction model
Online: 27 March 2017 (10:33:34 CEST)
Co-integration and Causality was built to conduct studies on causality relation between carbon intensity and coal consumption leading to providing important basis for the transition to a low carbon economy. The EG two-step method was performed to study the relation between carbon intensity and coal consumption of China during 1990-2015 and the co-integration and Granger test was constructed to build up the co-integration and error correction models for analysis of the interaction between carbon intensity and coal consumption. The results showed that in long term there is a stable co-integration relation and a positive correlation between carbon intensity and coal consumption; whereas fluctuations exist in short term and there is a one-way Granger causality of carbon intensity with respect to coal consumption.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0331.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Finance Keywords: digital finance; corporate social responsibility; debt financing cost
Online: 24 March 2022 (10:45:03 CET)
Based on the data of A-share listed companies in Shanghai and Shenzhen of China from 2011 to 2018 and the digital inclusive finance index of Peking University (2011-2018), this paper empirically tests the impact of digital finance development on corporate social responsibility in various provinces of China and its impact mechanism. The results show that: (1) the development of digital finance helps to promote the fulfillment of corporate social responsibility; (2) the influence mechanism of the development of digital finance to promote the fulfillment of corporate social responsibility lies in that it reduces the cost of debt financing and leads to the improvement of corporate social responsibility.(3) Further research shows that the positive relationship between digital finance and corporate social responsibility is more significant in private enterprises. At the same time, the impact is more significant in areas with poor market environment. The above research shows that the development of digital finance has a significant positive effect, which will improve the level of corporate social responsibility.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0722.v1
Subject: Engineering, Telecommunications Keywords: Visible light communications; uplink; moving retroreflective end; effective incidence angle
Online: 10 November 2023 (14:45:00 CET)
The LED light source is an important light source for indoor visible light communication. It has the characteristics of a large divergence angle and a high transmission rate. Therefore, using LED as the light source for visible light full-duplex communication can not only satisfy the lighting requirements but also transmit information at high speed. To analyze the factors that affect the optical power of the indoor single-light source visible light communication uplink receiving end, an indoor visible light communication model was established, and mathematical calculation formulas were derived based on the model establishment, and the maximum movable range formula of the retroreflective end under specific conditions was derived; The reliability of the formula was verified with the help of Zemax simulation software. Theoretical analysis and experimental results show that increasing the movement range of the retroreflective end can be achieved by increasing the lens diameter, reducing the focal length, and increasing the link distance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201709.0042.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Cell And Developmental Biology Keywords: fat embolism syndrome (FES); autophagy; rapamycin; rat model
Online: 11 September 2017 (09:59:48 CEST)
As a high fatal disease, fat embolism syndrome is complication, which brought great pain to patient and their family served as a serious social burden. The mechanism of FES remains unclear. Autophagy controls the cell survival and homeostasis by removing the mis-folded proteins and damaged organelles as well as intracellular pathogens through a lysosomal degradation pathway. Increasing research documented that autophagy was wildly involved in variety of human diseases and had huge therapeutic potential. In our study, we first established the rat model of FES with the liquid fat by tail vein injection. We observed the up-regulated MPO expression and activity, increased Wet-to-Dry (W/D) lung weight, promoted quantity of fat granules, and the dominant disorder in the lung rat model of FES, compared to the control group. These observations demonstrated that we successfully build the rat model of FES. Then, we sought to dissect the role of the autophagy in the rat model of FES. The western blots analysis showed that the autophagy was inhibited in the rat model of FES constructed with liquid fat. Furthermore, Rapamycin could restore the repression of autophagy in rat model of FES. These investigations illustrated that autophagy was involved in FES. In addition, our experiments showed that Rapamycin could alleviate the symptoms of FES. Taken together, our study demonstrated the participation of autophagy in FES and further, as a potential therapeutic target, the modulation of autophagy could affect the symptom of rat model of FES.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1196.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: frailty; cardiovascular disease; cancer; cardio-oncology; multimorbidity
Online: 19 September 2023 (04:05:23 CEST)
Advances in cardiovascular therapies and cancer treatments result in longer patient survival. The coexistence of cancer and cardiovascular disease has been recognized as a complex clinical scenario. Beside cardiovascular disease, older people with cancer are at greater risk of experiencing multimorbidity and the geriatric syndromes such as frailty. In older people, the concurrent presence of cancer and cardiovascular disease increased the risk of mortality, and the presence of frailty can exacerbate their conditions and hinder the treatment effectiveness. Given the significant intersection among frailty, cardiovascular disease and cancer in older people, this paper aims to provide an overview of the current research in this field and identifies gaps in research to understand the burden and impact of frailty in these populations. While many studies have examined the prevalence and impact of frailty on adverse outcomes in patients with cancer or with cardiovascular disease, evidence of frailty in individuals with both conditions is lacking. There is no universally accepted definition of frailty, which leads to inconsistencies in identifying and measuring frailty in older adults with cardiovascular disease and cancer. The frailty index seems to be a preferred frailty definition in studies in patients with cancer, while the frailty phenotype seems to be more commonly used in cardiovascular research. However, differences in how the frailty index was categorised and in how patients were classified as ‘frail’ depending on the cut points may have negative effect on understanding the impact of frailty in the studied populations. This makes it challenging to compare findings across different studies and limits our understanding of the prevalence and impact of frailty in these populations. Addressing these research gaps will contribute to our understanding of the burden of frailty in older people with cardiovascular disease and cancer, and improved clinical care protocols in this vulnerable population.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0863.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: dietary metabolizable energy; production performance; geese; dose-effect meta-analysis.
Online: 13 September 2023 (10:41:08 CEST)
To determine the impacts of metabolizable energy levels on the performance indices of geese and to forecast the ideal range of dietary metabolizable energy levels, this study was carried out. Literature on the effects of dietary metabolized energy level on the performance of geese was searched from CNKI, Wanfang, VIP, PubMed, Web of Science, and ScienceDirect databases from January 1, 2000, to December 31, 2022. A dose-response meta-analysis was performed by STATA (14.0), data were calculated by the robust error meta-regression model (REMR), and nonlinear dose-effect curves were plotted by the restricted cubic spline method (RCS). 29 papers were chosen from the 1,475 literatures that fit the criteria and were included in the dose-response meta-analysis. There were 6,079 geese included in the sample. The following production performance indices included average daily gain (ADG), average daily feed intake (ADFI), feed-to-gain ratio (F/G), dressed percentage, percentage of half-eviscerated yield, percentage of eviscerated yield, percentage of breast muscle, percentage of leg muscle and percentage of abdominal fat. The Egger test assessed publication bias, while sensitivity analysis was used to examine the heterogeneity. The verified results are consistent and reliable. The results indicated that for each group, the optimal dietary metabolizable energy level was about 13 to 13.5MJ/kg for medium-sized geese aged 0 to 4 weeks, 12 to 13MJ/kg for medium-sized geese aged above 5 weeks, 12.5 to 13MJ/kg for small-sized geese aged 0 to 4 weeks, and 13 to 13.5MJ/kg for mall-sized geese over 5 weeks of age. Future research should be conducted on related diets of large-sized geese, small-sized geese, and higher metabolizable energy levels.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0436.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Metals, Alloys And Metallurgy Keywords: semi-solid annealing; 2A14 aluminum alloy; hot-rolled; EBSD; TEM; recrystallization
Online: 27 February 2023 (03:34:13 CET)
In this paper, in order to provide proper parameters for the preparation of semi-solid billets, the semi-solid annealing of hot-rolled 2A14 Al alloy was investigated. The microstructure was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM) with X-ray energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS) and electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD), scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM). XRD results show that with the increase of temperature, equilibrium θ-Al2Cu gradually dissolved in the matrix. The EDS results of SEM and STEM show that there were coarse θ-Al2Cu phase, ultra-fine precipitate Al(MnFeSi) or (Mn, Fe)Al6 phase and atomic clusters in the microstructure. EBSD results show that the recrystallization mechanism was dominated by continuous static recrystallization (CSRX), the homogeneous nucleation occurred when the sample was heated to near solidus temperature, and CSRX happened in the semi-solid temperature. In the process of recrystallization, the micro-texture changed from preferred orientation to random orientation. A variety of experimental results show that static recrystallization (SRX) occurred at semi-solid temperature due to the blocking effect of atomic clusters on dislocation slip and the Zener drag effect of fine precipitates on low angle grain boundaries (LAGBs) disappeared with melting at semi-solid temperature.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0078.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: transcriptomics; metabolomics; drought stress; rehydration; genes; pathway
Online: 3 October 2023 (05:34:06 CEST)
Drought stress is a major abiotic factor affecting tomato production and fruit quality. However, the genes and metabolites associated with tomato responses to water deficiency and rehydration are poorly characterized. To identify the functional genes and key metabolic pathways underlying tomato responses to drought stress and recovery, drought-susceptible and drought-tolerant inbred lines underwent transcriptomic and metabolomic analyses. A total of 332 drought-responsive and 491 rehydration-responsive core genes were robustly differentially expressed in both genotypes. The drought-responsive and rehydration-responsive genes were mainly related to photosynthesis–antenna proteins, nitrogen metabolism, plant–pathogen interactions, and the MAPK signaling pathway. Various transcription factors, including homeobox-leucine zipper protein ATHB-12, NAC transcription factor 29, and heat stress transcription factor A-6b-like, may be vital for tomato responses to the water status. Moreover, 24,30-dihydroxy-12(13)-enolupinol, caffeoyl hawthorn acid, adenosine 5′-monophosphate, and guanosine were the key metabolites identified in both genotypes under drought and recovery conditions. The combined transcriptomic and metabolomic analysis highlighted the importance of 38 genes involved in metabolic pathways, biosynthesis of secondary metabolites, biosynthesis of amino acids, and ABC transporters for tomato responses to water stress. Our results provide valuable clues regarding the molecular basis of drought tolerance and rehydration. The data presented herein may be relevant for genetically improving tomato to enhance drought tolerance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0140.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacology And Toxicology Keywords: Drug screening; Borrelia afzelii; Borrelia garinii; Persister; Hypocrellin A; biofilm
Online: 8 December 2022 (02:24:04 CET)
Lyme disease (LD) is a tick-transmitted infection caused by Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato species which includes B. burgdorferi, B. afzelii, and B. garinii. The majority of patients with early LD can be cured by standard treatment, yet some still suffer from post-treatment Lyme disease syndrome (PTLDS). The presence of Borrelia persisters has been proposed as a contributing factor, which cannnot be completely killed by the currently used antibiotics for Lyme disease. Finding new pharmaceuticals targeting Borrelia persisters is crucial in developing more effective treatment. Here, we first confirmed the existence of persisters in cultures of B. garinii and B. afzelii and then conducted high-throughput screening of a custom drug library against persister-rich stationary-phase cultures of B. garinii and B. afzelii. Among 2427 compounds screened, hypocrellin A (HA), anthracycline class of drugs, and topical antibiotics along with some other natural compounds were identified to have strong potential in killing persisters of B. garinii and B. afzelii. HA was the most active anti-Borrelia compound, capable of eradicating stationary-phase Borrelia persisters, in particular when combined with doxycycline and/or ceftriaxone. Liposoluble antioxidant vitamin E was found to antagonize the activity of HA, indicating HA’s target is the cell membrane where HA-triggered reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation took place in the presence of light. HA was found to have distinct bactericidal activity against Borrelia species but had poor or no activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Identification of the above-mentioned drug candidates may help to develop more effective therapies for LD.
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: breast-specific gamma imaging (BSGI); neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC); breast cancer; Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI); residual tumor size
Online: 6 July 2021 (12:40:31 CEST)
Background: The present retrospective study was designed to evaluate the relative diagnostic utility of breast-specific gamma imaging (BSGI) and breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as means of evaluating female breast cancer patients in China. Methods: A total of 229 malignant breast cancer patients underwent ultrasound, mammography, BSGI, and MRI between January 2015 and December 2018 for initial tumor staging. Of these patients, 73 were subsequently treated via definitive breast surgery following neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC), of whom 17 exhibited a complete pathologic response (pCR) to NAC. Results: BSGI and MRI were associated with respective 76.8% and 69.6% sensitivity values as a means of detecting residual tumors following NAC, while both of these approaches exhibited comparable specificity in this diagnostic context (58.8% vs 70.6%, P=0.473). Conclusion: These results demonstrate that BSGI is a useful auxiliary approach to evaluating pCR to NAC treatment.
SHORT NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0289.v5
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: COVID-19; proton affinity; calcium oxalate; isoleucine; valine; glycine; prophylactic approach
Online: 14 June 2020 (17:43:37 CEST)
The current pneumonia epidemic could evolve into a pandemic on a global scale if not effectively contained. The COVID-19 virus possesses a 61-amino acid open reading frame resembling SARS-CoV virulence factor - ORF6 peptide. The isoleucine content is 15.9% in ORF6 of SARS-CoV versus 16.4% of that in SARS-CoV-2. Given the proton affinity in the carbonyl oxygen in isoleucine, augmented proton traffic can enhance proton-ion antiport and prompt cell swelling. Calorie restriction has been confirmed in animal studies to extend lifespan, and its underlying mechanism is not fully known. As the content of essential amino acids in the open reading frame of SARS-CoV-2 reaches 57.4%, a starch/vitamin diet served for short period of time does not give rise to essential amino acids and halts virion production, which could be adopted as prophylactic approach of many viral infections. Plant-based diet or fasting/boiled rice water can also minimize the intake of essential amino acids or all amino acids respectively. Furthermore, several proteins of SARS-CoV-2 possess high valine plus glycine content which is implicated in heart disease, justifying the aforementioned approaches.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1154.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Waste Management And Disposal Keywords: Excess sludge; Discharge plasma; Thiosulfate; Disintegration
Online: 16 August 2023 (07:20:09 CEST)
Disposal and treatment of excess sludge is a huge problem in waste water treatment plants. Discharge plasma oxidation is an effective approach for sludge dewatering and digestion. In this study, the excess sludge disintegration by non-thermal discharge plasma coupled with thiosulfate (TSA) was investigated. The soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD) increased to 404.93 mg L-1 after 20 min of single discharge plasma treatment, and it further increased to 549.08 mg L-1 after adding 15 mmol L-1 of TSA; the water content of filter cake also further decreased in the presence of TSA. There existed an appropriate TSA dosage. In the discharge plasma coupled with TSA system, reactive oxygen species (·OH and ·O2-) were produced and played important roles in sludge disintegration. The addition of TSA promoted the production of ·OH. These reactive oxygen species destroyed the floc structures and promoted the transformation of organic substances, leading to reduction in average size of sludge flocs. The ratio of soluble extracellular polymer substances (S-EPS) was enhanced, while the ratio of tightly bound fraction was reduced after treatment. Thus, discharge plasma coupled with TSA promoted the lysis of microbial cells and released intracellular organic matter and bound water, finally improving sludge dewaterability.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0149.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: porous scaffold; collagen coating; bioactive peptide; skull defect repair; tissue engineering
Online: 17 January 2018 (06:48:17 CET)
The treatment of large-area bone defects remains a challenge; however, various strategies have been developed to improve the performances of scaffolds in bone tissue engineering. In this study, poly(lactide-co-glycolide)/hydroxyapatite (PLGA/HA) scaffold was coated with Asp-Gly-Glu-Ala (DGEA)-incorporated collagen for the repair of rat skull defect. Our results indicated that the mechanical strength and hydrophilicity of PLGA/HA scaffold were clearly improved and conducive to cell adhesion and proliferation. The collagen-coated scaffold with DGEA significantly promoted the repair of skull defect. These findings indicated that a combination of collagen coating and DGEA improved scaffold properties for bone regeneration, thereby providing a new potential strategy for scaffold design.