ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1433.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Mathematical Physics Keywords: Stochastic degenerate parabolic equation; Nonlinear noise; Pullback random attractor; Wong-Zakai approximation; Upper semicontinuity
Online: 20 June 2023 (11:02:50 CEST)
At present paper, we aim to study the long-time behavior of a stochastic semi-linear degenerate parabolic equation on bounded or unbounded domain and driven by a nonlinear noise and defined. Since the theory of pathwise random dynamical systems can not be applied directly to the equation with nonlinear noise, first, we establish the existence of weak pullback mean random attractors for the equation by applying the theory of mean-square random dynamical systems; then, we prove the existence of (pathwise) pullback random attractors for the Wong-Zakai approximate system of the equation. In addition, we establish the upper semicontinuity of pullback random attractors for the Wong-Zakai approximate system of the equation under consideration driven by a linear multiplicative noise.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1516.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Applied Mathematics Keywords: stochastic; fractional-order; memristive BAM neural networks; finite-time synchronization; quadratic gronwall inequality
Online: 22 August 2023 (09:51:34 CEST)
This paper studies the finite-time synchronization problem of fractional-order stochastic memristive bidirectional associative memory neural networks (MBAMNNs) with discontinuous jumps. A novel criterion for finite-time synchronization is obtained by utilizing the properties of quadratic fractional-order Gronwall inequality with time delay and the comparison principle. This criterion provides a new approach to analyze the finite-time synchronization problem of neural networks with stochasticity. Finally, numerical simulations are provided to demonstrate the effectiveness and superiority of the obtained results.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0156.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: noni mosaic virus; potyvirus; complete genome; morinda citrifolia l; illumina transcriptomic sequencing
Online: 14 October 2019 (09:29:57 CEST)
An outbreak of a virus-like disease has caused severe damage to noni plants (Morinda citrifolia L.) in Xishuangbanna area of China's southwestern Yunnan province since 2015. The diseased plants displayed typical mosaic symptom with light and dark green patches on leaves. Flexuous filamentous virus particles of about 800 nm in length were observed from the leaf saps by transmission electron microscope. Illumina transcriptomic sequencing further revealed the presence of a potyvirus and its near complete genome was obtained from de novo assembly. The complete genome of 9,659 nts was obtained by Sanger sequencing of eight amplicons generate by RT-PCR and 5’ and 3’ RACE. BLASTp analysis of the polyprotein sequence showed that the virus was most closely related to Tobacco vein banding mosaic virus (TVBMV), but these two viruses only shared 50.7% amino acid sequence similarity. Both phylogenetic analyses of the polyprotein and CP amino acid sequences indicated that this virus is a member of genus Potyvirus. However, the low sequence homology with all known potyviruses established this virus as a new species in the genus, tentatively named as Noni mosaic virus (NoMV). Our field surveys showed that 100% of the symptomatic samples and 28.57% of the asymptomatic samples were infected with this novel potyvirus. Aphids collected from diseased leaves were also detected carrying the virus. In summary, our data indicated that a novel species of potyvirus, NoMV, is prevalent in Yunnan, China and is associated with an emerging mosaic disease on M. citrifolia.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0336.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: Manihot esculenta Crantz; potexvirus; Cassava common mosaic virus; genomics
Online: 23 March 2020 (05:46:35 CET)
The complete genomic sequence of a Cassava common mosaic virus Linggao isolate (CsCMV-LG) was determined from cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) with mild leafy mosaic symptom to no symptom in China. Excluding the poly(A) tail, the CsCMV-LG genome (GenBank accession No. MT038420) is 6374 nucleotides (nts) in length, with five major open reading frames encoding a 1450-amino acids (aa) RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp), three triple gene block (TGB) proteins (231-aa, 110-aa and 95-aa), and a 229-aa coat protein (CP). Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the complete genome of the CsCMV-LG is closely related to that of CsCMV-Brazilian which has been assigned to the genus Potexvirus, but the sequence identity shared only 88.0%. Notable, the mild CsCMV-LG isolate can also infect Nicotiana benthamiana in laboratory through rub inoculation causing mild vein yellowing at 15-day post inoculation. This is the first full-length genome sequence of a distinct isolate of Cassava common mosaic virus (CsCMV) infecting cassava in Hainan, China.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201903.0037.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Applied Physics Keywords: Optical fiber-sensors; Rayleigh backscattering; Φ-OTDR system; Vibration measurement.
Online: 4 March 2019 (10:26:13 CET)
Recently, the phase-sensitive OTDR (Φ-OTDR) based vibration sensor system has gained the focus of many researchers and some efforts have been undertaken to push further the limitations imposed on the performance of the Φ-OTDR sensor system. Then, progress in the different areas of its performance evaluation factors such as: improvement of the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), spatial resolution (SR) in the sub-meter range, enlargement of the sensing range, frequency response bandwidth over the conventional limit and phase signal demodulation for quantitative measurement have been realized. This paper presents an overview of the recent progress in the Φ-OTDR based vibration sensing system in the different areas mentioned above.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0747.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Archaeology Keywords: bronze relics; powder rust; high-permeability; stabilization
Online: 12 October 2023 (02:12:19 CEST)
Under the influence of various factors, the bronze ware unearthed by archaeology has various diseases of different degrees, and the mineralization problem is more prominent. The physical properties of mineralized bronzes have been destroyed, and the whole is loose and fragile, which is in urgent need of reinforcement and protection. Common reinforcement and protection materials mainly consider surface sealing, matrix bonding reinforcement and penetration reinforcement. Considering the low matrix strength and complex disease types of fragile bronzeware, it is difficult to achieve targeted protection with commonly used reinforcement and protection materials. In view of the problems such as poor permeability and easy discoloration of commonly used protection materials, this paper uses self-developed reinforcement and protection material AMC to compare its reinforcement and protection performance with B72, which has a high comprehensive evaluation on the performance of commonly used reinforcement and protection materials. The matrix strength was increased, and the appearance intervention degree was less than B72.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0334.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: Cyclodextrin; , host-guest inclusion; drug delivery; interactions; application
Online: 14 April 2023 (02:52:22 CEST)
Drug delivery systems consist of cyclodextrins (CyDs) have kept constant attention for good compatibility, negligible toxicity, and improved pharmacokinetics of drugs. The unique hollow structure has endowed a lot of functions, such as inclusion of guest molecules, functional modification of active hydroxyl groups, and noncovalent interactions. Besides, the polyhydroxy structure has further extended the functions of CyDs by inter/intramolecular interactions and chemical modification. Furthermore, the versatile functions of the complex contribute to physicochemical characteristics alteration of the drugs, therapeutic talent, stimulus-responsive switch, self-assemble capability, and fiber formation. This review attempts to list the recent progress of CyDs and discuss their roles in the drug delivery system. Future perspectives of the construction of CyD-based drug delivery systems are also discussed at the end of this review, which may be the possible directions for the construction of more rational and cost-effective delivery vehicles.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0626.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: tilapia; negative-sense RNA virus; Tilapia lake virus; DNA vaccine
Online: 28 July 2021 (11:11:37 CEST)
Tilapia lake virus (TiLV) is the main tilapia-infecting virus worldwide, causing serious economic losses. However, there is no vaccine for this viral disease. Here, TiLV ORF10 (TiLV-ORF10) encoding a protein with abundant epitopes was constructed into the eukaryotic expression vector pcDNA3.1, and used to evaluate the immune protective effects in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). RT-PCR and western blot analyses conﬁrmed vaccine plasmid expression in tilapia muscle tissues. Moreover, the transcription levels of immunoglobulin M, toll-like receptor 2, myeloid differentiation factor 88, interleukin 8, tumor necrosis factor alpha, gamma-IFN, and nuclear factor κB immune-related genes were statistically signiﬁcantly upregulated in the spleen, liver, and kidney of vaccinated tilapias (P < 0.05). TiLV challenge experiments showed that relative percent survival (RPS) was signiﬁcantly enhanced in ﬁsh by this DNA vaccine. Moreover, RPS was enhanced further when using a higher amount of the DNA vaccine (85.72% RPS at a DNA dose of 45 μg pcDNA3.1–ORF10). Vaccination with pcDNA3.1–ORF10 signiﬁcantly reduced virus replication, as evidenced by the low amount of virus in the spleen, liver, and kidney of vaccinated tilapias after TiLV challenge. Thus, pcDNA3.1–ORF10 could induce protective immunity in tilapia and may be a potential vaccine candidate for controlling diseases caused by TiLV.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.1136.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Ecology Keywords: Bacterial communities; Fungal communities; Mineral-solubilizing microbial inoculums; Robinia pseudoacacia L.
Online: 28 April 2023 (07:29:24 CEST)
The addition of mineral-solubilizing microbial inoculums is a kind of biological measure for vegetation restoration of rock mining areas. Its function is to accelerate soil weathering, improve soil fertility, improve the ability of plants to fix soil. Through understanding the response of plant rhizosphere microbial community to the mineral-solubilizing microbial inoculums, it is helpful to popularize the use of mineral-solubilizing microbial inoculums. However, little is known about the changes of plant rhizosphere soil microbial communities after the addition of mineral-solubilizing microbial inoculums. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to reveal the pasthways through which different mineral-solubilizing microbial inoculums positively affect underground part of R. pseudoacacia. A pot experiment was conducted to investigate the responses of rhizosphere soil bacterial and fungal communities in R. pseudoacacia by taking 32 samples from four different mineral-solubilizing microbial inoculums treatments. The results showed that the effect of mineral-solubilizing microbial inoculums on the structure of fungal community was greater than that of bacterial community. But the relative abundance of Proteobacteria was increased, which had a strong positive correlation with root nodulation. In terms of microbial diversity, mineral-solubilizing microbial inoculums had a greater effect on the diversity and evenness of bacterial community. It is worth noting that correlation analysis showed that Proteobacteria and Verrucomicrobia in bacteria and Ascomycota and Zoopagomycota in fungi were positively correlated with soil enzyme activity and plant growth. RDA analysis showed that the relative abundance of these two phyla in bacteria also had positive effects on plant root nodulation. Our results showed that the addition of mineral-solubilizing microbial inoculums can optimize the rhizosphere soil microbial community structure, promote R. pseudoacacia root nodulation, and enhance the nitrogen fixation capacity of plants. In addition, this study can provide a theoretical basis for the application of mineral-solubilizing microbial inoculums to a wide range of slope ecological restoration.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0491.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: Tuberculosis; Mycobacterium; Diagnostics; Drug Discovery; Antibiotics; Antimicrobial Re-sistance; Microfluidics; Single-Cell Analysis; Bioengineered Models
Online: 29 September 2021 (11:34:04 CEST)
Tuberculosis (TB) remains a global healthcare crisis with an estimated 10 million new cases and 1.4 million deaths per year TB is caused by infection with the major human pathogen Mycobacte-rium tuberculosis, which is difficult to rapidly diagnose and treat. There is an urgent need for new methods of diagnosis, sufficient in vitro models which capably mimic all physiological condi-tions of the infection, and high-throughput drug screening platforms. Microfluidic-based tech-niques provide single-cell analysis which reduces experimental time, the cost of reagents, and have been extremely useful for gaining insight into monitoring microorganisms. This review out-lines the field of microfluidics and discusses the use of this novel technique so far in M. tuberculo-sis diagnostics, research methods, and drug discovery platforms. The practices of microfluidics have promising future applications for diagnosing and treating TB.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0077.v2
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Materials Science And Technology Keywords: polymer exchange membrane; electrocatalysts; noble metals; earth abundant elements; water splitting; acidic environment; oxygen evolution reaction; hydrogen evolution reaction; anode and cathode electrodes
Online: 12 November 2018 (06:55:56 CET)
Water electrolysis provides efficient and cost-effective production of hydrogen from renewable energy. Currently, the oxidation half-cell reaction relies on noble-metal catalysts, impeding widespread application. In order to adopt water electrolyzers as the main hydrogen production systems, it is critical to develop inexpensive and earth-abundant catalysts. This review discusses the proton exchange membrane (PEM) water electrolysis (WE) and the progress in replacing the noble-metal catalysts with earth-abundant ones. Researchers within this field are aiming to improve the efficiency and stability of earth-abundant catalysts (EACs), as well as to discover new ones. The latter is particularly important for the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) under acidic media, where the only stable and efficient catalysts are noble-metal oxides, such as IrOx and RuOx. On the other hand, there is significant progress on EACs for the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) in acidic conditions, but how many of these EACs have been used in PEM WEs and tested under realistic conditions? What is the current status on the development of EACs for the OER? These are the two main questions this review addresses.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0417.v4
Online: 20 August 2020 (04:20:16 CEST)
Nyssa yunnanensis is a deciduous tree species in the family Nyssaceae within the order Cornales. As only eight individual trees and two populations have been recorded in China’s Yunnan province, this species has been listed among China’s national Class I protection species since 1999 and also among 120 PSESP (Plant Species with Extremely Small Populations) in the Implementation Plan of Rescuing and Conserving China’s Plant Species with Extremely Small Populations(PSESP) (2011-2-15). Here, we present the draft genome assembly of N. yunnanensis. Using 10X Genomics linked-reads sequencing data, we carried out the de novo assembly and annotation analysis. The N. yunnanensis genome assembly is 1475 Mb in length, containing 288,519 scaffolds with a scaffold N50 length of 985.59 kb. Within the assembled genome, 799.51 Mb was identified as repetitive elements, accounting for 54.24% of the sequenced genome, and a total of 39,803 protein-coding genes were predicted. With the genomic characteristics of N. yunnanensis available, our study might facilitate future conservation biology studies to help protect this extremely threatened tree species.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1403.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: semisolid; gene mapping; Aegilops tauschii; synthetic hexaploid wheat; lodging resistance
Online: 20 July 2023 (09:36:04 CEST)
Lodging is one of the important factors affecting the high and stable yield of wheat worldwide. Solid-stemmed wheat has higher stem strength and lodging resistance than hollow-stemmed wheat. There are many solid stemmed varieties, landraces and old varieties of durum wheat. However, the transfer of solid stem genes from durum wheat is suppressed by the suppressor gene located on chromosome 3D in common wheat, and only hollow-stemmed lines have been created. However, synthetic hexaploid wheat can serve as a bridge to transfer solid stem genes from tetraploid wheat to common wheat. In this study, the F1, F2, and F2:3 generations of the cross between solid-stemmed Syn-SAU-119 and semisolid-stemmed Syn-SAU-117 were developed. A single dominant gene, tentatively designated Su-TdDof, was identified in synthetic hexaploid wheat Syn-SAU-117 by genetic analysis, which suppresses stem solidity. Using bulked segregant RNA-seq (BSR-seq) analysis, Su-TdDof was mapped to chromosome 7DS and flanked by markers KASP-669 and KASP-1055 within a 4.53 cM genetic interval corresponding to 3.86 Mb and 2.29Mb physical region in the Chinese Spring (IWGSC RefSeq v1.1) and Ae. tauschii (AL8/78 v4.0) genome, respectively, in which three genes related to solid stem development were annotated. Su-TdDof differed from a previously reported solid stem suppressor gene based on its origin and position. Su-TdDof would provide a valuable example for research on the suppression phenomenon. The flanking markers developed in this study would be useful for screening Ae. tauschii accessions with no suppressor gene (Su-TdDof) to develop more synthetic hexaploid wheat lines for wheat lodging resistance breeding and further cloning the suppressor gene Su-TdDof.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0156.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Ecology, Evolution, Behavior And Systematics Keywords: Marine microorganisms, marine fungi, algae, marine plants, marine invertebrates, marine vertebrates, genome, metagenome
Online: 12 December 2018 (15:44:09 CET)
With the continuing development of sequencing technology, genomics has been applied in a variety of biological research areas. In particular, the application of genomics to marine species, which boast a high diversity, promises great scientific and industrial potential. Significant progress has been made in marine genomics especially over the past few years. Consequently, BGI, leveraging its prominent contributions in genomics research, established BGI-Qingdao, an institute specifically aimed at exploring marine genomics. In order to accelerate marine genomics research and related applications, BGI-Qingdao initiated the International Conference on Genomics of the Ocean (ICG-Ocean) to develop international collaborations and establish a focused and coherent global research plan. Last year, the first ICG-Ocean conference was held in Qingdao, China, during which 47 scientists in marine genomics from all over the world reported on their research progress to an audience of about 300 attendees. This year, we would like to build on that success, drafting a report on marine genomics to draw global attention to marine genomics. We summarized the recent progress, proposed future directions, and we would like to enable additional profound insights on marine genomics. Similar to the annual report on plant and fungal research by Kew Gardens, and the White Paper of ethical issues on experimental animals, we hope our first report on marine genomics can provide some useful insights for researchers, funding agencies as well as industry, and that future versions will expand upon the foundation established here in both breadth and depth of knowledge.This report summarizes the recent progress in marine genomics in six parts including: marine microorganisms, marine fungi, marine algae and plants, marine invertebrates, marine vertebrates and genomics-based applications.