ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0184.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computational Mathematics Keywords: Integer factorization; Wheel factorization; Cryptography
Online: 10 February 2023 (07:43:56 CET)
The efficiency with which an integer may be factored into its prime factors determines several public key cryptosystems′ security in use today. Although there is a quantum-based technique with a polynomial time for integer factoring, on a traditional computer, there is no polynomial time algorithm. We investigate how to enhance the wheel factoring technique in this paper. Current wheel factorization algorithms rely on a very restricted set of prime integers as a base. In this study, we intend to adapt this notion to rely on a greater number of prime integers, resulting in a considerable improvement in the execution time. The experiments on composite numbers n reveal that the proposed algorithm improves on the existing wheel factoring algorithm by about 75%
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0310.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: physical activity; Alzheimer’s disease; 5xFAD; acute, wheel running
Online: 12 February 2021 (15:03:25 CET)
Physical activity is considered a promising preventive intervention to reduce the risk of developing Alzheimer’s disease (AD). However, the positive effect of exercise therapy has not been proven conclusively yet, likely due to confounding factors such as varying activity regimens and life or disease stages. To examine the impact of different routines of physical exercise in the early disease stages, we subjected young 5xFAD and wild-type mice to 1-day (acute) and 30-day (chronic) voluntary wheel running and compared them with age-matched sedentary controls. We observed a significant increase in brain lactate levels in acutely trained 5xFAD mice relative to all other experimental groups. Subsequent brain RNA-seq analysis did not reveal major differences in transcriptomic regulation between training durations in 5xFAD mice. In contrast, acute training yielded substantial gene expression changes in wild-type animals relative to their chronically trained and sedentary counterparts. The comparison of 5xFAD and wild-type mice showed the highest transcriptional differences in the chronic and sedentary groups, whereas acute training was associated with much fewer differentially expressed genes. In conclusion, our results suggest that different training durations did not affect the global transcriptome of 3-month-old 5xFAD mice, whereas acute running seemed to induce a similar transcriptional stress state in wild-type animals as already known for 5xFAD mice.
ARTICLE | doi:10.3390/sci1020052
Subject: Engineering, Transportation Science And Technology Keywords: bainite; submerged arc welding; hardfacing; reprofiling; railway wheel; wear
Online: 4 September 2019 (00:00:00 CEST)
When a railway vehicle moves on a curved rail, sliding contact occurs between the rail head side and wheel flange, which wears the wheel flange down. The thinned flange needs to be restored above the required minimum thickness for structural safety. In this study, a new process and welding wire for restoring worn-out railway wheels by submerged arc welding was developed. To characterize the properties of the restored wheel, dilatometric analysis of phase transformation, SEM/EDX analyses, hardness measurement, and residual stress measurement using the X-ray diffraction method were performed. Finally, wear tests with full-size wheel/rail specimens were carried out. It was confirmed that the weld metal was composed of bainitic microstructures as intended, and welding defects were not observed. The wear amount of the restored wheel was greater than that of the base material, but it was less than half of the wear depth of the weld-repaired wheel with ferritic–pearlitic microstructures. The developed process seems applicable to industry.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0154.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: Radio Telescope; Azimuth Wheel-Rail; Surface Damage; Electromagnetic Ultrasonic Testing
Online: 2 August 2023 (10:05:35 CEST)
The azimuth wheel-rail of large aperture radio telescope is the key component, it not only sup-ports the whole weight of the antenna, but also directly affects the pointing performance of the antenna with its surface accuracy. The whole weight of the radio telescope is hundreds or even thousands of tons, its azimuth frame rollers have great contact stress with the wheel-rail surface, repeated rolling can cause rolling contact fatigue on the wheel-rail surface, resulting in wear, cracks and other damage to the wheel-rail, and even lead to failure or fracture of the wheel-rail in serious cases, so it is very important to monitor the damage of the antenna wheel-rail. In order to visually detect the use of antenna wheel-rail surface, this paper proposed the method using electromagnetic ultrasonic detection to detect the damage of antenna wheel-rail surface for the first time. Based on the electromagnetic ultrasonic nondestructive testing principle, the simplified wheel-rail model containing wear, corrosion and crack damage is simulated. The results show that this method can effectively detect the surface damage of the antenna wheel-rail surface, and it can provide an important reference for the research of wheel-rail damage detection of large radio telescope.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0180.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: grinding, wheel wear, wear flat, precision, tribometry, pin on disk
Online: 10 July 2018 (13:24:06 CEST)
Manufacturing of grinding wheels is continuously adapting to new industrial requirements. New abrasives and new wheel configurations, together with wheel wear control allow for grinding process optimization. However, the wear behavior of the new abrasive materials is not usually studied from a scientific point of view due to the difficulty to control and monitor all the variables affecting the tribochemical wear mechanisms. In this work an original design of pin on disk tribometer is developed in a CNC grinding machine. An Alumina grinding wheel with special characteristics is employed and two types of abrasive are compared: White Fused Alumina (WFA) and Sol-Gel Alumina (SG). The implemented tribometer reaches sliding speeds of between 20 and 30 m/s and real contact pressures up to 190 MPa. The results show that the wear behavior of the abrasive grains is strongly influenced by their crystallographic structure and the tribometer appears to be a very good tool for characterizing the wear mechanisms of grinding wheels, depending on the abrasive grains.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0718.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Binder modification; Organophilic nano clay; Rutting; Viscosity, and Wheel tracker test.
Online: 9 August 2023 (07:56:32 CEST)
Organophilic nano clay is the composition of mostly clay and organic molecules designed to improve various materials' physical and chemical properties. Permanent deformation in asphalt pavements is primarily the result of inadequate compaction, excessive loading, and high temperatures. Rutting can result in aquaplaning, leading to accidents and costly maintenance and rehabilitation works that drain the economy. Such behavior of asphalt pavements may be attributable to poor selection of aggregate, asphalt binder, or substandard asphalt binders. This study used different percentages of organophilic nano clay ranging from 3.0% - 5.0% with two penetration grade bitumen, i.e., N.R.L 60-70 & N.R.L 80-100. Adding organophilic nano clay to asphalt binder significantly reduced the rutting potential under cyclic loading at high temperatures (55 °C). Ten modified formulations and two virgin bitumen specimens were prepared. The modified binders' viscosity and rutting were tested using the Rotational Viscometer and Wheel Tracker Test (W.T.T.), respectively. The results were analyzed using software for Statistical Analysis. It was recorded that organophilic nano clay-modified bitumen significantly affected rutting to interpret the results. The results indicated that rutting decreased and viscosity increased in all nano clay-modified bitumen samples, with a 4.5% O.N.C modified binder showing the most significant improvement.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1069.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: wheel surface defect detection; deep learning; YOLO; object detection; machine vision
Online: 15 June 2023 (07:20:42 CEST)
Surface defect detection is a crucial step in the process of automotive wheel production. However, the task possesses challenges due to complex background and a wide range of defect types. In order to detect the defects on the wheel surface accurately and quickly, this paper proposes a YOLOv5-based algorithm for automotive wheel surface defect detection. The algorithm trains and tests the YOLOv5s model using the self-created automotive wheel surface defect dataset, which contains four kinds of defects: linear, dotted, sludge, pinhole. The extensive experimental results demonstrate that the deep learning network trained by our method can achieve an average accuracy of 71.7% and 57.14 FPS. Our findings prove that this detection algorithm performs better than other common target detection algorithms and meets the real-time requirements of industrial applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0058.v2
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: slate; crown; random fill; compaction quality control; wheel-tracking test; topographic settlement
Online: 28 January 2020 (05:22:56 CET)
Particle size can pose a challenge to random embankment compaction control methods, where practical techniques have hardly been developed and procedural control is used instead. In order to develop new quality control procedures for slate random fill, the necessary fieldwork and laboratory tests were carried out. This involved the revision of certain methods such as the wheel-tracking or topographic settlement tests. More than six hundred in-situ density and moisture content measurements were carried out for this research. In addition, more three hundred topographic settlements and three hundred wheel-tracking carriage tests were performed. The quality control processes were completed with more than thirty plate bearing tests. Possible evidence of statistical correlations between compaction control tests were identified. An analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed. When testing proved relationships between them, the replacement of one of them by the other was assessed by deduction. Finally, the study suggests new procedures for compaction quality control of random slate fill used in crown area.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0280.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: wheel force sensor, WFS, automobile proving ground, special road, dynamic detection.
Online: 21 May 2018 (16:35:40 CEST)
Automobile proving ground is important for the research of vehicles which is used for the vehicle dynamics, durability testing, braking testing, etc. However, the roads in automobile proving ground will inevitably be damaged with the extension of the service life. In most previous researches, equipment similar to laser cross-section was used to detect pavement quality, the principle of which was to reflect pavement quality by detecting road surface roughness. This method ignores the elastic deformation of the roads itself when the vehicle is traveling on it and hardly compensate for the amendment. Therefore, this article presents a new method based on force sensor to reduce the impact of elastic deformation such as wheel tyre deformation, pavement deformation, and wheel rim deformation. In which, force sensors mounted on the wheels collect the three-dimensional dynamic load of the wheel.The presented method has been tested with two sets of cobblestone road load data, and the results show that The incentives imposed by the test vehicle on the target road are 88.3%, 91.0%, and 92.05% of the incentives imposed by the test vehicle on the standard road in three dimensions, respectively. It is clear that the proposed method has strong potential effectiveness to be applied for lose detection of the special road application.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0442.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: electric vehicles; configuration synthesis; motor transmission; in-wheel-hub motor; six-link mechanism
Online: 24 July 2018 (05:59:20 CEST)
Nowadays, there are several electric vehicle (EV) on the market, due to the innovation of technology that promotes the new components such as battery, transmission, electric motors. This paper proposes a design approach for the configuration synthesis and simulation of the in-wheel-hub motor transmissions with the six-link mechanisms. The synthesis process shows 6 mechanisms with six members and eight joints, 15 new clutchless motor transmissions and 16 new clutched motor transmissions. A novel motor transmission in the feasibility of the synthesized configurations is selected as an example to analyze the working principle with operation modes and power flow paths. And, this design is modeled for the simulation process that generates the results of operation mode transition and energy regulation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.2091.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: wheel-track composite unmanned vehicle; complex environment; differential steering mechanism; steering radius; neural network
Online: 30 August 2023 (13:17:56 CEST)
In order to solve the problems of complicated steering control of unmanned vehicles in the field and difficult steering on complex roads, we designed a wheel-track composite vehicle equipped with a novel power differential steering mechanism with dual driving, which drove the steering of the vehicle through the differential rotation of the rear two wheels. The unmanned vehicle was simple to control, small in size, and able to work under the conditions of complex roads, such as hills, mountains, and muddy land. Firstly, a steering mechanism with both differential speed and force was designed to prevent the vehicle from skidding into muddy land and stopping motionless. Secondly, the kinematics model and dynamics model of the two drive shafts and the two output shafts (wheel shafts) were established. Thirdly, according to the relationship between the rotational speed of the two output shafts and the steering radius of the vehicle, the kinematic model of the rotational speed of the two input shafts and the steering radius of the wheel-track composite vehicle was obtained. Finally, according to the test data, the mathematical model of rotational speeds of the two input shafts and the actual steering radius of the vehicle was obtained by neural network fitting, and the maximum relative error between the model results and the actual steering radius value was 3.53%. The combination of power differential steering mechanism and wheel-track composite unmanned vehicle increased the adhesion with the ground and could better adapt to the complex road environment. In conclusion, the unmanned vehicle had the advantages of continuous radius steering, deceleration and torsion increase, differential lock, etc. It was suitable for all-terrain military and civilian vehicles and various special equipment mobile platforms of the walking device, and the research results could provide theoretical references for the steering control and structural optimization of the wheel-track composite vehicle under the environment of complex road surface.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0373.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Random filling; slate rock; core; wheel impression test; topographic settlement test; plate bearing test
Online: 18 August 2021 (08:23:11 CEST)
The construction of random fillings from the excavation of medium hardness rocks, with high particle sizes, presents limitations in compaction control. This research applies new control techniques with revised test procedures in the construction of the random fillings core, which constitutes the main part of the embankment, with the bigger volume and provides the geotechnical stability to the infrastructure. The maximum layer thickness researched was 800mm. As there are many types of rocks, this research is applied to metamorphic slates. Quality control has been carried out by applying new research associated with the revision of wheel impression test, topographic settlements and plate bearing test (PBT). A statistical analysis of the core of 16 slate random fillings has been carried out, with a total of 2250 in situ determination of density and moisture content, 75 wheel impression tests, 75 topographic settlement control and 75 PBT. The strong associations found between different tests have allowed to simplify the quality control.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201709.0103.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: in-wheel-motor electric vehicle; ride comfort; improved particle swarm optimization; linear quadratic regulator; fuzzy PID control
Online: 21 September 2017 (12:59:33 CEST)
In this paper, an in-wheel vibration absorber for In-wheel-motor electric vehicle (IWM EV) is designed, and a comprehensive control strategy of in-wheel absorber and vehicle suspension is proposed to improve vehicle ride comfort. The proposed in-wheel vibration absorber, designed for suppressing the motor vibration, is composed of a spring and a controllable damper. The values of in-wheel spring stiffness and damper initial coefficient are determined by using the improved particle swarm optimization (IPSO) algorithm, which is carried on the typical driving condition. To deal with the negative interaction effects between vehicle suspension and in-wheel absorber, the linear quadratic regulator (LQR) algorithm is utilized to control suspension damper, and the fuzzy PID method is utilized to control in-wheel damper. Based on the four evaluation indexes including vehicle body vertical acceleration, suspension dynamic deflection, wheel dynamic load and motor wallop, the simulation results show that, the proposed LQR control of suspension effectively improves vehicle ride comfort, and the fuzzy PID control of in-wheel damper exhibits superior performance of motor vibration suppressing in comparison to conventional electric wheel.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0185.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: Sitting; intervention; feasibility; office workers; behaviour change wheel; police; QR codes; activity breaks; cardiometabolic risk; behaviour change; wellbeing
Online: 13 June 2022 (10:45:43 CEST)
The aim of this study was to evaluate the acceptability and feasibility of a theory-derived sedentary workplace intervention (single arm, pre-post design) for police office staff. Twenty-four staff participated in an 8-week intervention incorporating an education session, team competition with quick response (QR) codes, team trophy, and weekly leaderboard newsletters, a self-monitoring phone app, and electronic prompt tools. The intervention supported participants to reduce and break up their sitting time with three minutes of incidental movement every 30 minutes at work. Feasibility and acceptability were assessed using mixed methods via the RE-AIM QuEST and PRECIS-2 frameworks. The intervention was highly pragmatic in terms of eligibility, organisation, adherence, outcome, and analysis. It was slightly less pragmatic on recruitment and setting. Delivery and follow-up were more explanatory. Reach and adoption indicators demonstrated feasibility among police staff, across a range of departments, who were demographically similar to participants in previous office-based multi-component interventions. The intervention was delivered mostly as planned with minor deviations from protocol (Implementation fidelity). Participants perceived the intervention components as highly acceptable. Preliminary results showed improvements in workplace sitting and standing, as well as small improvements in weight and positive affect. Evaluation of the intervention in a fully powered randomised controlled trial to assess behaviour and health outcomes is recommended.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0170.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: urban freight transport; multi agent; vehicle routing problem; decarbonization; fuel cell electricvehicles; well to wheel; total cost of ownership
Online: 10 May 2021 (10:58:43 CEST)
The option of decarbonizing urban freight transport using Battery Electric Vehicle (BEV) seems promising.However, there is currently a strong debate whether Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle (FCEV) might be the bettersolution. The question arises as to how a fleet of FCEV influences the operating cost, the Greenhouse Gas(GHG) emissions and primary energy demand in comparison to BEVs and to Internal Combustion EngineVehicle (ICEV). To investigate this, we simulate the urban food retailing as a representative share of urbanfreight transport using a multi-agent transport simulation software. Synthetic routes as well as fleet size andcomposition are determined by solving a Vehicle Routing Problem (VRP). We compute the operating costsusing a total cost of ownership (Total Cost of Ownership (TCO)) analysis and the use phase emissions as wellas primary energy demand using the Well To Wheel (WTW) approach. While a change to BEV results in 17 -23% higher costs compared to ICEV, using FCEVs leads to 22 - 57% higher costs. Assuming today’s electricitymix, we show a GHG emission reduction of 25% compared to the ICEV base case when using BEV. Currenthydrogen production leads to a GHG reduction of 33% when using FCEV which however cannot be scaled tolarger fleets. Using current electricity in electrolysis will increase GHG emission by 60% compared to the basecase. Assuming 100% renewable electricity for charging and hydrogen production, the reduction from FCEVsrises to 73% and from BEV to 92%. The primary energy requirement for BEV is in all cases lower and forhigher compared to the base case. We conclude that while FCEV have a slightly higher GHG savings potentialwith current hydrogen, BEV are the favored technology for urban freight transport from an economic andecological point of view, considering the increasing shares of renewable energies in the grid mix.