ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0204.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Fluids & Plasmas Keywords: De Laval nozzle; femtosecond laser micromachining; ultrafast laser sources.
Online: 14 January 2022 (11:24:56 CET)
We report on the study of ultrafast laser-induced plasma expansion dynamics in a gas microjet. To this purpose, we focused femtosecond laser pulses on a nitrogen jet produced through a homemade De Laval micronozzle. The laser excitation leads to plasma excitation with a characteristic spectral line emission at 391 nm. By following the emitted signal with a detection system based on an Intensified Charge-Coupled Device (ICCD) we captured the two-dimensional spatial evolution of the photo-excited nitrogen ions with a temporal resolution on the nanosecond time scale. We fabricated the micronozzle on fused silica substrate by femtosecond laser micromachining. This technique enables high accuracy and three-dimensional capabilities, thus providing an ideal platform for developing glass-based microfluidic structures for application to plasma physics and ultrafast spectroscopy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0337.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Optics Keywords: ultrafast laser microfabrication; 3D glass printing; light field manipulation
Online: 29 July 2019 (11:51:49 CEST)
Three-dimensional (3D) printing has allowed for production of geometrically complex 3D objects with extreme flexibility, which is currently undergoing rapid expansions in terms of materials, functionalities, as well as areas of application. When attempting to print 3D microstructures in glass, femtosecond laser induced chemical etching (FLICE) – which is a subtractive 3D printing technique – has proved itself a powerful approach. Here, we demonstrate fabrication of macro-scale 3D glass objects of large heights up to ~3.8 cm with an identical lateral and longitudinal spatial resolution of ~20 μm. The remarkable accomplishment is achieved by revealing an unexplored regime in the interaction of ultrafast laser pulses with fused silica which results in aberration-free focusing of the laser pulses deeply inside fused silica.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201903.0269.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: Femtosecond laser; Ultrafast laser; Laser micromachining; Laser drilling; diamond
Online: 28 March 2019 (13:49:58 CET)
A Micro holes in a diamond are presented by using a homemade femtosecond (fs) Yb:KGW laser. An fs laser source was used emitting pulse duration of 230 fs at 1030 nm wavelength, whereas the spot size amounted to 8.9 μm. Parameters like pulse energy, and pulse number were varied over a wide range in order to evaluate their influence both on the micro hole geometry like hole diameter, circularity, taper angle, and on the drilling quality. Hourglass-shaped micro holes whose diameters decrease and increase again after a certain depth have important applications. The results demonstrate the feasibility of extending the drilling of an hourglass-shaped hole in a diamond sample, which has similar diameters at the hole entrance (92 μm) and exit (95 μm), but a much smaller diameter (28 μm) at a certain waist section inside the hole.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0351.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Optics Keywords: Optical biopsy; Raman spectroscopy; Micro-optics; Ultrafast laser assisted etching; Femtosecond laser micromaching
Online: 29 January 2020 (10:38:18 CET)
Optical biopsy describes a range of medical procedures in which light is used to investigate disease in the body, often in hard-to-reach regions via optical fibres. Optical biopsies can reveal a multitude of diagnostic information to aid therapeutic diagnosis and treatment with higher specificity and shorter delay than traditional surgical techniques. One specific type of optical biopsy relies on Raman spectroscopy to differentiate tissue types at the molecular level and has been used successfully to stage cancer. However, complex micro-optical systems are usually needed at the distal-end to optimise the signal-to-noise properties of the Raman signal collected. Manufacturing these devices remains a critical challenge, particularly in a way suitable for large scale adoption. In this paper, we describe a novel fibre-fed micro-optic system designed for efficient signal delivery and collection during a Raman spectroscopy based optical biopsy. Crucially, we fabricate the device using a direct-laser-writing technique known as ultrafast laser assisted etching which is scalable and allows components to be aligned passively. The Raman probe has a sub-millimetre diameter and offers confocal signal collection with 71.3 ± 1.5% collection efficiency over a 0.8 numerical aperture. Proof of concept spectral measurements were performed on mouse intestinal tissue and compared with results obtained using a commercial Raman microscope.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0243.v2
Online: 24 October 2022 (02:49:45 CEST)
The processes of soliton generation and interference focus on the complex nonlinear soliton dynamics resembling matter particles. In order to further understand the dynamic process of solitons from a multidimensional perspective, here we report the vectorial solitons nature under two-sets pulse splitting in a single cavity induced by dual-core fiber assisted ultrafast fiber lasers. Owing to the weakly coupled cores in symmetrical dual core fiber (SDCF), two pulse groups interaction are formed in a cavity. By using the dispersive Fourier transformation technique (DFT), it was found that the four-component polarized rotation vector solitons (PRVS) generate. Moreover, gradually increasing the power can obtain the locked soliton bound state in two core space, and the corresponding evolution is similar to that of non-degenerate bright solitons in Bose Einstein condensates (BEC). In addition, by properly controlling the soliton phase offset in SDCF, the soliton rain state of multi pulse evolution can be obtained. The related experimental results would be fruitful to the communities interested in soliton dynamics and frequency comb lasers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201611.0001.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Polymers & Plastics Keywords: direct laser writing; ultrafast laser; 3D laser lithography; 3D printing; hybrid polymer; integrated microoptics; optical damage; photonics; pyrolysis; ceramic 3D structures
Online: 1 November 2016 (04:59:50 CET)
We introduce optically clear and resilient free-form micro-optical of pure (non-photosensitized) organic-inorganic SZ2080 material made by femtosecond 3D laser lithography (3DLL). This is advantageous for rapid printing of 3D micro-/nanooptics, including their integration directly onto optical fibers. A systematic study on the fabrication peculiarities and quality of resultant structures is performed. Comparison of microlenses’ resiliency to CW and femtosecond pulsed exposure is determined. Experimental results prove that pure SZ2080 is ∼3 fold more resistant to high irradiance as compared with a standard photo-sensitized material and can sustain up to 1.91 GW/cm2 intensity. 3DLL is a promising manufacturing approach for high-intensity micro-optics for emerging fields in astro-photonics and atto-second pulse generation. Additionally, pyrolysis is employed to shrink structures up to 40% by removing organic SZ2080 constituents. This opens a promising route towards downscaling photonic lattices and creation of mechanically robust glass-ceramic structures.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0041.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Acoustics Keywords: chip-nanocalorimetry; ultrafast nanocalorimetry; interfacial thermal resistance
Online: 2 August 2021 (13:08:06 CEST)
Ultrafast chip nanocalorimetry opens up remarkable possibilities in materials science by allowing samples to be cooled and heated at extremely high rates. Due to heat transfer limitations, controlled ultrafast cooling and heating can only be achieved for tiny samples in calorimeters with a micron-thick membrane. Even if ultrafast heating can be controlled under quasi-adiabatic conditions, ultrafast controlled cooling can be performed if the calorimetric cell is located in a heat-conducting gas. It was found that the maximum possible cooling rate increases as 1/r0 with decreasing radius r0 of the hot zone of the membrane. The possibility of increasing the maximum cooling rate with decreasing r0 was successfully implemented in many experiments. In this regard, it is interesting to answer the question: what is the maximum possible cooling rate in such experiments if r0 tends to zero? Indeed, on submicron scales, the mean free path of gas molecules lmfp becomes comparable to r0, and the temperature jump that exists at the membrane/gas interface becomes significant. Considering the limitation associated with thermal resistance at the membrane/gas interface and considering the transfer of heat through the membrane, we show that the controlled cooling rate can reach billions of K/s, up to 1010 K/s.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0288.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Optics Keywords: terahertz; ultrafast photonics; nonlinear optics; lithium niobate
Online: 24 December 2018 (15:33:58 CET)
In present work an opportunity of nearly single-cycle THz pulse generation in aperiodically poled lithium niobate (APPLN) crystal is studied. A radiating antenna model is used to simulate the THz generation from chirped APPLN crystal pumped by a sequence of femtosecond laser pulses with chirped delays m (m = 1, 2, 3 …) between adjacent pulses. It is shown that by appropriative choosing m it is possible to obtain temporally overlap of all THz pulses generated from positive (or negative) domains. It results in the formation of a nearly single-cycle THz pulse, if the chirp rate of domain length in the crystal is sufficiently large. In opposite case, a few cycle THz pulses are generated with the number of the cycles depending on . The closed form expression for THz pulse form is obtained. The peak THz electric field strength of 0.3 MV/cm is predicted for APPLN crystal pumped by the sequence of laser pulses with peak intensity of the separate pulse in the sequence about 20 GW/cm2. By focusing the THz beam and by increasing the pump power the field strength can reach values of an order of few MV/cm.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0035.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Optics Keywords: Layered transition metal dichalcogenides; NbTe2 flake; ultrafast carrier dynamics; pump-probe spectroscopy
Online: 6 April 2022 (08:31:57 CEST)
As one of the representatives of emerging metallic transition metal dichalcogenides, niobium ditelluride (NbTe2) has attracted intensive interest recently due to its distorted lattice structure and unique physical properties. Here, we report on the ultrafast carrier dynamics in NbTe2 measured using time-resolved pump-probe transient reflection spectroscopy. A thickness-dependent carrier relaxation time is observed, exhibiting a clear increase in the fast and slow carrier decay rates for thin NbTe2 flakes. In addition, pump power dependent measurements indicate that the carrier relaxation rates are power-independent, with the peak amplitude of the transient reflectivity increasing linearly with pump power. Isotropic relaxation dynamics in NbTe2 is also verified by performing polarization-resolved pump-probe measurements. These results provide an insight into the light-matter interactions and charge carrier dynamics in NbTe2 and will pave the way for its applications to photonic and optoelectronic devices.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201611.0077.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Physical Chemistry Keywords: computational theoretical chemistry; photochemistry; nonadiabatic dynamics; ultrafast processes; surface hopping; nucleobases; thymine
Online: 15 November 2016 (11:06:06 CET)
After UV excitation, gas phase thymine returns to ground state in 5 to 7 ps, showing multiple time constants. There is no consensus on the assignment of these processes, with a dispute between models claiming that thymine is trapped either in the first (S1) or in the second (S2) excited states. In the present study, nonadiabatic dynamics simulation of thymine is performed on the basis of ADC(2) surfaces, to understand the role of dynamic electron correlation on the deactivation pathways. The results show that trapping in S2 is strongly reduced in comparison to previous simulations considering only non-dynamic electron correlation on CASSCF surfaces. The reason for the difference is traced back to the energetic cost for formation of a CO p bond in S2.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0035.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Acoustics Keywords: Photopolymerization; Additive manufacturing; Ultrafast laser; Multiphoton lithography; Laser 3D nanolithography; Nanoscale; Organic and hybrid materials; Bio-derived materials; Functional 3D structures; Advanced material engineering
Online: 2 October 2020 (09:30:53 CEST)
Ultrafast laser 3D lithography based on non-linear light-matter interactions, widely known as multi-photon lithography (MPL), offers unrivaled precision rapid prototyping and flexible additive manufacturing options. 3D printing equipment based on MPL are already commercially available, yet there is still no comprehensive understanding of factors determining spatial resolution, accuracy, fabrication throughput, repeatability, and standardized metrology methods for the accurate characterization of the produced 3D objects and their functionalities. The photoexcitation mechanisms, spatial-control or photo-modified volumes, and the variety of processable materials are topics actively investigated. The complexity of the research field is underlined by limited understanding and fragmented knowledge of light-excitation and material response. Research to date has only provided case-specific findings on photoexcitation, chemical modification, and material characterization of the experimental data. In this review, we aim to provide a consistent and comprehensive summary of the existing literature on photopolymerization mechanisms under highly confined spatial and temporal conditions, where, besides the excitation and cross-linking, parameters such as diffusion, temperature accumulation, and the finite amount of monomer molecules start to become of critical importance. Key parameters such as, photoexcitation, polymerization kinetics, and the properties of the additively manufactured materials at the nanoscale in 3D are examined, whereas, the perspectives for future research and as well as emerging applications are outlined.