ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0422.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: spatio-temporal; lightning; elevation; Uganda
Online: 27 October 2021 (18:13:44 CEST)
Lightning has received a lot of attention in scientific literature during the recent decade, not only because it is an impressive atmospheric phenomenon but also its associations with severe storms that cause unprecedented damages to agriculture, electric power networks, property, and life. This study assessed the Spatio-temporal characteristics of lightning occurrence with elevation in Uganda using lightning flash and elevation datasets for a period of fifteen years (1998-2013). Datasets used in this study included daily lightning flashes as captured by Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) aboard on Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission (TRMM) satellite and elevation data in form of Digital Elevation Model (DEM) obtained from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). Spatio-temporal results indicated that ~80% of areas with an elevation that ranges from 800-1200 m above mean sea level (masl) in Uganda had severe lightning occurrences and ~20% of areas with an elevation greater than 1200 m (masl) had severe lightning occurrences. The country received an enhanced number of lighting events with the highest number in 1999. Subsequently, a reduced trend was observed from 2002 to 2007 followed by an increment in the number of lightning events in (2010, 2011, 2012, and 2013). The intensity of the events decreased gradually though two peaks were observed, (1998-2001) and (2010-2013). Furthermore, results indicate escalations in the frequency and duration of lightning events from 60 times in 1998 to approximately 200 times in 2013 and from 1000 microseconds in 1998 to more than 2000 microseconds in 2013. Generally, the country experienced an enhanced increase in lighting occurrences over the study period which therefore calls for urgent actions to combat the root cause and also provide effective measures to reduce the impacts of lightning strikes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0782.v1
Online: 31 December 2020 (09:29:01 CET)
This study employed 15 CMIP6 GCMs and evaluated their ability to simulate rainfall over Uganda during 1981-2019. The models and the ensemble mean were assessed based on the ability to reproduce the annual climatologyseasonal rainfall distribution, trend, and statistical metrics, including mean bias error, root mean square error, and pattern correlation coefficient. The Taylor diagram and Taylor skill score (TSS) were used in ranking the models. The models performance varies greatly from one season to the other. The models reproduced the observed bimodal rainfall pattern of March to May (MAM) and September to November (SON) rains occurring over the region. Some models slightly overestimated, while some slightly underestimated, the MAM rainfall. However, there was a high rainfall overestimation during SON by most models. The models showed a positive spatial correlation with observed dataset, whereas a low correlation was shown interannually. Some models could not capture the rainfall patterns around local-scale features, for example, around the Lake Victoria basin and mountainous areas. The best performing models identified in the study include GFDL-ESM4, BCC-CMC-MR, IPSL-CM6A-LR, CanESM5, GDFL-CM4-gr1, and GFDL-CM4-gr2. The models CNRM-CM6-1 and CNRM-ESM2 underestimated rainfall throughout the annual cycle and mean climatology. However, these two models better reproduced the spatial trends of rainfall during both MAM and SON. The model spread in CMIP6 over the study area calls for further investigation on the attributions and possible implementation of robust approaches of Machine learning to minimize the biases.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0510.v1
Online: 26 July 2018 (11:16:23 CEST)
Uganda’s agriculture depends mainly on rainwater. As farmers are trying to increase on the food output to match the demands of a fast growing population, they are susceptible to make losses due to fluctuating weather patterns which are being caused by the global climate change. Therefore, it is necessary to explore ways of improving water use efficiency in rainfed agricultural systems to save farmers labour and input costs in situations where the grain harvest would be zero due to crop failure. The water driven FAO AquaCrop model is used as a support tool for making informed decisions during planning and situation analysis. In this study, AquaCrop model was evaluated for prediction of maize growth and yields at MUARIK in Uganda, for rainfed agriculture in three growing seasons. The model efficiency (E) and root mean square value (RMSE) for the maize canopy simulation during the September–December 2015 season was 0.945 and 7.24 respectively. The deviation of the simulated final biomass from measured data ranged from −15.4 to 11.6%, while the deviation of the final yield ranged from −2.8 to 2.0. The results suggest that the model can be used in the prediction of rainfed agricultural outputs, hence helping in guiding on management practices to increase food production.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0509.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: Hygiene; Cleanliness; Water; Rural water facility; Water shortage; Uganda
Online: 30 September 2021 (11:02:14 CEST)
This research contributes to the detailed discussion about the approach to secure, hygienic water and cleanliness in Uganda and its pastoral regions. The relationship between the sanitation and clean water access with destitution is also discussed. Although this document is not leading towards the policy recommendation but it is an overall idea of how Uganda progressed because of the provisions adopted by the government, local and international organizations, and NGOs, and how the country lacked before these steps taken. Most of the data mentioned is taken from the house surveys of a decade 2002-2013 alongside the qualitative data. Literature review is also considered and is divided in two sections: first included researches related to water accessibility and usage, while the second section included researches related to work done and progress for diarrheal diseases and sanitation. Afterwards, methodologies were discussed where, firstly, trends and then the limitations in access to the basic necessities of life that is clean water and hygiene are mentioned. At last, the implementations and how they affected the rural Ugandans was discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0267.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: Dioscorea; yield stability; environments; genotype; dry matter; disease resistance; Uganda
Online: 18 July 2022 (10:56:10 CEST)
Often yam varieties grown in different agro-ecologies show differential responses across production environments, a term known as genotype-by-environment interaction. Genotype-by-environment interaction makes selecting the best genotypes under varied production environments more complex. This study tested twenty yam genotypes evaluated in six test environments to assess genotype, environment, and the interaction between genotypes and environmental effect for tuber yield, yam mosaic virus, and dry matter content. The experiments were conducted in two seasons across three locations in Uganda using a randomized complete block design with three replications. The results showed a significant effect (p ≤ 0.001) for genotype (G), environment (E), and genotype by environment interaction for all the traits. Serere 2021 and Namulonge 2021 were identified as the most discriminating and representative environments for testing the yam mosaic virus, respectively. Serere 2021 was recognized as the most discriminating environment, whereas Arua 2021 was identified as the closest to an ideal environment for assessing yam tuber yields. The tested genotypes also exhibited high resistance to yam mosaic virus disease, high tuber yields, and high dry matter content. Genotypes UGY16020, UGY16034, UGY16042, and UGY16080 demonstrated great resistance to yam mosaic virus disease, high yielding, and considerable dry matter content and are thus potential parents for yam improvement. Further evaluation of the four genotypes should be done under farmers' production systems for selection, improvement, and release as new yam varieties for Uganda
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0048.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography Keywords: Sustainable Development Goals; SDGs; land conflicts; land tenure security; Uganda
Online: 5 May 2022 (16:03:11 CEST)
Land tenure security is important for achieving a number Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). The purpose of this paper was to investigate variation in land tenure security across three districts located in different geographical regions of Uganda. Using a quantitative cross-sectional survey data collected in early 2019. The findings show that Kanungu district found in South-Western Uganda had significantly higher levels of land tenure security as compared to Nakasongola (Central) and Nwoya (Northern). Research findings have implications on further study and benchmarking land governance systems in Kanungu. Furthermore, they have implications on implementation of government and donor land titling or registration programs in terms of priority areas. They further sheds light on the importance of accounting for geographical context in land tenure studies.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0151.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Microbiology Keywords: One Health; Schistosoma mansoni; Giardia duodenalis; Sanitation and Hygiene (WASH); Uganda
Online: 8 July 2020 (11:32:56 CEST)
Both intestinal schistosomiasis and giardiasis are co-endemic throughout many areas of sub-Saharan Africa, significantly impacting the health of millions of children within endemic areas. While giardiasis is not considered a neglected tropical disease, intestinal schistosomiasis is formally grouped within the NTD umbrella and, as such, receives significant advocacy and financial support for large-scale control, annually. Given the many epidemiological similarities between intestinal schistosomiasis and giardiasis, in this review, we critically discuss why disease surveillance and control activities for giardiasis are largely absent within low- and middle-income countries. With advances in new methods of parasite diagnostics and provision of existing anti-parasitic medications, better management of intestinal schistosomiasis and giardiasis co-infection could, not only be better understood but also, more effectively controlled. In this light, we appraise the suitability of a One Health approach for intestinal schistosomiasis, for if adopted more broadly, could also pave a way forward for more inclusive public health actions against giardiasis.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0216.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: antiophidic; antivenin plants; envenomation; ethnobotany; ethnomedicine; phospholipase A2; snakebite; traditional medicine; Uganda
Online: 18 October 2019 (11:41:08 CEST)
Snakebite envenomation, cognized as a neglected tropical disease, is a dread public health concern with the most susceptible groups being herdsmen, the elderly, active farmers, hunters, fishers, firewood collectors, 10 to 14-year old working children and individuals with limited access to education and health care. Snakebites are fragmentarily documented in Uganda primarily because most occur in rural settings where traditional therapists end up being the first line defence for treatment. Ethnobotanical surveys in Uganda have unveiled that some plants are used to antagonize the activity of various snake venoms. This review was sought to compile the sporadic information on the vegetal species reported as antivenins in Uganda. Electronic data indicate that no study entirely reported on antivenin plants in Uganda. A total of 77 plant species belonging to 65 genera, distributed among 42 botanical families claimed as antiophidic in Uganda are used for treatment of snakebites. Majority of these species belong to family Fabaceae (30.9%), Euphorbiaceae (14.3%), Asteraceae (11.9%), Amaryllidaceae (9.5%) and Solanaceae (9.5%). The antiophidic species listed are shrubs (40.5%), trees (32.9%) and herbs (17.7%), usually found in the wild and uncultivated. Antivenin extracts are primarily prepared from roots and leaves, through decoctions, infusions, powders and juices and administered orally or topically. The most frequently encountered therapeutically important species are Allium cepa L., Carica papaya L., Securidaca longipedunculata Fres., Harrisonia abyssinica Oliv. and Nicotiana tabacum L. Baseline epidemiological data on snake envenomation and antivenin plants in Uganda remain incomplete due to inadequate research and diverse ethnic groups in the country. There is a dire need to isolate and characterize the bioactive compounds in the claimed plants to enable their adroit utilization in handling the plague of snake envenomation. More baseline data should be collected on snake ecology and human behaviour as well as antivenin plants in Uganda. Indigenous knowledge on the use of plant preparations in traditional medicine in Uganda is humongous, but if this is not quickly researched and appropriately documented, indications as to the usefulness of this vegetal treasure house will be lost in the not so distant future.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0298.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geochemistry & Petrology Keywords: artisanal gold mining; Busia; environmental impacts; mercury pollution; Namukombe stream; panning; Syanyonja; Uganda
Online: 27 October 2019 (10:09:44 CET)
Syanyonja village in the gold district of Busia, South East of the Republic of Uganda contain geologically epigenetic gold quartz vein deposits in carbonate-altered mafic metavolcanic rocks, deposited as quartz reefs in mineralized shear zones. In supracrustal rocks, alluvial gold is obtained from weathered auriferous quartz veins, which are of late orogenic granitic activity. The Syanyonja gold deposits have long been subjected to artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM) by the locals for livelihood. This study determined the amount of mercury discharged with tailings into Namukombe stream, a major water body in Syanyonja village and investigated the impacts of ASGM on the mining population and the environment. Quantitation of mercury discharged with tailings was done by mass balance method. Field survey at the mining sites was done followed by administration of questionnaires to 50 stampeders in the village. The study indicates that about 8% of mercury mixed with auriferous materials are lost in tailings, accounting for an annual mercury release of about 1.757 kg into the environment. Socio-demographic results indicate that the majority of the mining population (64%) are male and ASGM have left health and environmental footprints, which directly or indirectly affects the population. The most common health problems among miners are malaria (36%) and abdominal pain (20%). The standard of living of the miners are evidently low, and most mines are characterized by school dropouts, prostitutes and thieves. Mining sites have deplorably poor hygiene, with evident burning of amalgams to recover gold. ASGM have been accompanied by wanton mowing down of vegetation, land degradation as well as mercuric pollution of water, air, land and aquatic ecosystems. It is suggested that the Ugandan government should re-enforce committees to follow up on ASGM activities, train artisans on sustainable gold mining using borax, magnets, sluice boxes as well as take up farming actively as an alternative.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0037.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: Rainfall; Trends analysis; Mann-Kendall test; CHIRPS; Rossby Centre regional Atmospheric model (RCA4); Uganda.
Online: 4 January 2021 (12:43:03 CET)
The lack of reliable rainfall projection records remains a major challenge to Uganda. In the advent of extreme wetness or drought events, reliable rainfall estimates for local planning and adaptation are essential. The present study used two main datasets to conduct a historical analysis from 1981 to 2019, coupled with future projections under representative concentration pathway (RCP 8.5) for the period 2020-2050. Historical analysis revealed bimodal annual rainfall pattern for March-May (MAM) and September-November (SON) gradients representing heavier to lighter rainfall events respectively over the study area. Investigation of recent trends in rainfall patterns revealed an upward trend from 2010 onwards in annual and seasonal rainfall. Moreover, results for future projections show wet conditions are projected to occur over the study area between the months of April/May and October. Contrarily, March is likely to experience a reduction in wet conditions. Mann-Kendall test employed to make future projections of rainfall depicted decreasing patterns during MAM season whilst increasing tendencies with strong shift was highlighted for SON season over the study region. Meanwhile, annual projections indicate huge variations with linear trends showing a marginal increase as compared to historical trends. Findings would serve as baseline print to propel further studies that could delve into impact analysis of drought extreme events which pose significant threats to the agricultural sector which is heavily reliant on rainfall.
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: antimicrobial resistance; antimicrobial stewardship; antiviral resistance; antibacterial resistance; antimalarial resistance; antifungal resistance; One Health; Uganda
Online: 14 April 2021 (12:57:40 CEST)
The global burden of antimicrobial resistance is on the rise, resulting in higher morbidity and mortality in our communities. The spread of antimicrobial resistance in the environment and development of resistant microbes is a challenge to the control of antimicrobial resistance. Approaches, such as antimicrobial stewardship programmes, and enhanced surveillance, have been devised to curb its spread. However, particularly in lower- and middle-income countries, the overall extent of antimicrobial resistance, and knowledge on on-going surveillance, stewardship or investigation efforts, re often poorly understood. This study aimed to look at the efforts that have been undertaken to combat antimicrobial resistance in Uganda as a means of establishing an overview of the situation, to help inform future decisions. We conducted a systematic literature review of the PubMed database to assess the efforts that have been done in Uganda to investigate and combat antimicrobial resistance. A search combining keywords associated with antimicrobial resistance were used to look up relevant studies between 1995 and 2020 on surveillance of antimicrobial resistance in Uganda, and susceptibility of microbes to different drugs. The search yielded 430 records, 163 of which met the inclusion criteria for analysis. The studies were categorized according to country and region, the type of antimicrobial resistance, context of the study, study design and outcome of the study. Antibacterial resistance and antimalarial resistance had the most published studies while antiviral and antifungal resistance each were represented by very few studies. Most studies were conducted in humans and hospital settings, with very few in veterinary and One Health contexts. The results from our work can inform public health policy on antimicrobial stewardship as it contributes to understanding the status of antimicrobial resistance surveillance in Uganda, and can also help to guide future research efforts. Notably, a One Health approach needs to be followed with re-spect to surveillance of antimicrobial resistance to better understand the mechanisms of resistance transfer across the human-animal–environment interface, including additional investigation in antiviral and antifungal resistance.