REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0040.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Cardiology Keywords: Triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells, DNAX-activating protein 12, cardiovascular diseases, atherosclerosis, coronary arteries diseases, acute myocardial infract, endocarditis
Online: 3 September 2018 (14:50:17 CEST)
Cardiovascular Diseases (CVDs) are still menacing and killing adults worldwide, notwithstanding the tremendous effort, to decrease their related mortality and morbidity. Lately, a growing body of evidences indicated that inflammation plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis and complications of CVDs. A receptor of the immunoglobulin superfamily, triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells -1 (TREM-1) was shown to induce and to amplify the inflammation in both acute and chronic diseases pathogenesis and progression and hence it is one of the important factors that complicates CVDs. Thus, studies endeavored to investigate the role played by TREM-1 in CVDs with respect to their etiologies, complications and possible therapeutics. We examined here, for the first time, the most relevant studies regarding TREM-1 involvement in CVDs. We summarized the finding after critically analyzing them and made some suggestions for furtherance of the investigations with the aim to utilize TREM-1 and its pathways for diagnostic, management and prognosis of CVDs. Overall, TREM-1 was found to be involved in the pathogenesis of acute and chronic cardiovascular conditions like Acute myocardial infraction (AMI) and atherosclerosis as well. Although most therapeutic approaches are yet to be elucidated, present research outcome displays a promising future to utilize TREM-1 pathway as potential target to understand and manage CVDs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0182.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: rainfall intensity; debris flow forecasting; rainfall triggering index (RTI); critical accumulated rainfall (Rc); nomogram
Online: 17 September 2019 (06:09:31 CEST)
Ongoing climate change causes abnormal climate events worldwide such as increasing temperatures and changing rainfall patterns. With South Korea facing growing damage from the increased frequency of localized heavy rains, the country is not an exception. In particular, its steep slope lands, including mountainous areas, are vulnerable to damage from landslides and debris flows. In addition, localized short-term heavy rains that occur in urban areas with extremely high intensity tend to lead a sharp increase in damage from soil-related disasters and cause huge losses of life and property. Currently, South Korea predicts landslides and debris flows using the standards for forecasting landslides and heavy rains. However, as the forecasting is conducted separately for rainfall intensity and accumulated rainfall, this lacks a technique that reflects both amount and intensity of rainfall in an episode of localized heavy rainfall. This study, therefore, aims to develop such a technique by collecting past cases of debris flow occurrences and rainfall events that accompanied debris flows to calculate the rainfall triggering index (RTI) reflecting accumulated rainfall and rainfall intensity. In addition, the RTI is converted into the critical accumulated rainfall (Rc) to use precipitation information and provide real-time forecasting. The study classifies the standards for flow debris forecasting into three levels: ALERT (10%–50%), WARNING (50%–70%), and EMERGENCY (70% or higher), to provide a nomogram for 6 hr, 12 hr, and 24 hr. As a result of applying this classification into the actual cases of Seoul, Chuncheon, and Cheongju, it is found that about 2–4 hr of response time is secured from the point of the Emergency level to the occurrence of debris flows.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0032.v2
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: triggering of debris flows; overland flow; infiltration; laboratory experiments; modelling; rain intensity-duration threshold curves
Online: 13 June 2018 (08:37:32 CEST)
Many studies, which try to analyze conditions for debris flow development, ignore the type of initiation. Therefore this paper deals with the following questions: What type of hydro-mechanical triggering mechanisms for debris flows can we distinguish in upstream channels of debris flow prone gullies? Which are the main parameters controlling the type and temporal sequence of these triggering processes and what is their influence on the meteorological thresholds for debris flow initiation? A series of laboratory experiments were carried out in a flume, 8 m long and with a width of 0.3 m. to detect the conditions for different types of triggering mechanisms. The flume experiments show a sequence of hydrological processes triggering debris flows, namely erosion and transport by intensive overland flow and by infiltrating water causing failure of channel bed material. On the basis of these experiments an integrated hydro-mechanical model was developed, which describes Hortonian and Saturation overland flow, maximum sediment transport, through flow and failure of bed material. The model was calibrated and validated using process indicator values measured during the experiments in the flume. Virtual model simulations, carried out in a schematic hypothetical source area of a catchment show that slope angle and hydraulic conductivity of the bed material determine the type and sequence of these triggering processes. It was also clearly demonstrated that the type of hydrological triggering process and the influencing geometrical and hydro-mechanical parameters may have a great influence on rainfall intensity-duration threshold curves for the start of debris flows.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0612.v2
Subject: Engineering, Biomedical & Chemical Engineering Keywords: centrifugal microfluidics; Lab-on-a-Disc; centrifugo-pneumatic flow control; integration; multiplexing; parallelization; sample-to-answer; reliability; tolerances; design-for-manufacture; digital twin; event-triggering
Online: 8 June 2021 (11:23:58 CEST)
Fluidic larger-scale integration (LSI) resides at the heart of comprehensive sample-to-answer automation and parallelization of assay panels for frequent and ubiquitous bioanalytical testing in decentralized the point-of-use / point-of-care settings. This paper develops a novel “digital twin” strategy with an emphasis on rotational, centrifugo-pneumatic flow control. The underlying model systematically connects retention rates of rotationally actuated valves as a key element of LSI to experimental input parameters; for the first time, the concept of band widths in frequency space as the decisive quantity characterizing operationally robustness is introduced, a set of quantitative performance metrics guiding algorithmic optimization of disc layouts is defined, and the engineering principles of advanced, logical flow control and timing are elucidated. Overall, the digital twin enables efficient design for automating multiplexed bioassay protocols on such “Lab-on-a-Disc” (LoaD) systems featuring high packing density, reliability, configurability, modularity and manufacturability to eventually minimize cost, time and risk of development and production.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0118.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geology Keywords: statistics-based estimation model (sem); different geological condition; permeability coefficient; shearing strength; landslide-triggering factor
Online: 10 October 2019 (14:53:30 CEST)
In South Korea, landslides are caused by localized heavy rainfall and typhoons, which often occur in the summer season at natural slopes in mountainous areas and artificial slopes in urban surroundings. Flow-type landslides frequently occur in mountainous areas. To evaluate flow-type landslides, it is essential to identify the physical characteristics of soil, giving focus to the soil on the top layers of various types of slope. This study conducts a survey and an analysis of the characteristics of landslides that occurred in the study area with different geological conditions of granite and gneiss. The characteristics of soil in the area and its surroundings that have or have not undergone landslides for every geological condition is also evaluated. Based on these characteristics and a statistics method, it extracts the triggering factors, permeability coefficients (k), and shearing strength with cohesion (c) and internal friction angel (φ) of soils that are highly related to landslides around weathered soil layers. As a result, the permeability coefficients show significant relevance with void ratio (e), the effective size of grains (D10), and uniformity coefficient (cu), while the shearing strength with the proportion of fine-grained soil (Fines), uniformity coefficient (cu), degree of saturation (S), dry weight density (rd), and void ratio (e). By obtaining this result, the study uses the regression analysis to suggest models to estimate the permeability coefficients and shearing strength. For the gneiss area, the statistics-based estimation model (SEM) is proposed as kgn = (1.488 × 10-02 × e) + (1.076 × D10) + (-1.629 × 10-04 × cu) - (1.893 × 10-02) for permeability coefficients; cgn = (-0.712 × Fines) + (-0.131 × cu) + 15.335 for cohesion; and φgn = (27.01 × rd) + (-12.594 × e) + 6.018 for internal frictional angle of soils. For the granite area, the statistics-based estimation model (SEM) is proposed as kgr = (8.281 × 10-03 × e) + (0.639 × D10) + (-2.766 × 10-05 × cu) - (9.907 × 10-03) for permeability coefficients; cgr = (-0.689 × Fines) + (-0.0744 × S) + 18.59 for cohesion; and φgr = (33.640 × rd) + (-0.875 × e) - 9.685 for internal frictional angle of soils. The use of statistics-based estimation models (SEMs) for landslide-triggering factors that trigger landslides will support the simple calculation of permeability coefficient and shearing strength (cohesion and internal frictional angle), only requiring information about the physical properties of soil at the natural slopes that have different geological features such as gneiss and granite areas.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0686.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: H2O networks; Aqua biomolecule complexes; Thermodynamic mechanism; “Aquamoleculosome"; Entropic systems biology; Self-organized criticality (SOC); Self-organization triggering factor (SOTF); Bioinformatics of aquamoleculomics.
Online: 26 April 2021 (20:02:20 CEST)
Systems biology has been established for more than a decade in the post-genomic era. With the help of the computational and mathematical tools, systems biology reconstitutes the entire scenario of the cell, tissue and even organism from the pieces data generated in the past decades. However, the modern biology is mainly focusing on the structure and function of the biomolecule, cell, tissue or organ, which are far from the essence of the life because of missing thermodynamic information. It is doubtable that the current systems biology-based omics is no-how to fully understand the dynamic courses of the structure, function and information in life. For this reason, we promote a novel concept of aquamoleculomics, in which the biological structure and function as well as thermodynamic characteristics and bioinformation of the aquamolecule complexes are included in this theoretical model of systems biology. Water is mother of life, matter and matrix of organism. Indeed, the fundamental roles of H2O molecules in biological processes might be dramatically underestimated. Extremely speaking, H2O networks in the living system might be engaged in all the biological processes including building all the biological structures, the residential places of the motherhood molecules as the honeycombs of honeybees.
HYPOTHESIS | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0233.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: Mind-body problem; Mind-body coupling phenomenon; Entropic system; Entropic system equation; Law of entropic system; Self-organized criticality (SOC); Self-organized critical triggering factor (SOCTF); Conscious strength; Macrostates of consciousness; Self-organization of minds.
Online: 10 February 2021 (12:45:03 CET)
The mind-body problem is the central issue in both of philosophy and life science for several centuries. To date, there is still no conclusive theory to interpret the relation between the mind and the body, even just the mind alone. Here, we promote a novel model, a derived mathematic equation called the entropic system equation, to describe the innate characters of the mind and the mechanism of the mind-body coupling phenomenon. As the semi-open thermodynamic systems far from equilibrium, the living organisms could be logically considered as an entropic system. In the living organisms or the entropic systems, there also are three essential existing elements including mass, energy and information, in which the mind and the body are hypothetically coupled by free energy and entropic force.
HYPOTHESIS | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0760.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Complementary and alternative medicine; Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM); Thermodynamic mechanism; Entropic systems biology; Self-organized criticality (SOC); Self-organization triggering factor (SOTF); Wuxing (five phases), Qi, Meridians (Jingluo); Acupuncture points; Chinese herbs; Aquamoleculomics; Modernization of TCM
Online: 28 April 2021 (17:12:29 CEST)
As a complementary and alternative medicine in the western countries for decades, traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been used for more than 2000 years in China. Because of the characteristics of the philosophical style and the unknown mechanism of action, TCM sometimes has been biasedly described as "fraught with pseudoscience". From the scientific basis of the systems biology, here we promoted a novel medical model called the entropic systems medicine which could be applied to scientize TCM in future. In entropic systems medicine, TCM and Western modern biomedicine target the different variables of the entropic system. For instance, while Western modern biomedicine directly targets the phenotypes and its SOCs of macrostates, TCM differently targets the microstates, entropy and entropic force to generate SOTFs gradually causing the differentiated syndromes to be slowly rearranged. The prerequisites to modernize TCM are the entropic systems biology having been well established so that the variables could be precisely monitored and mathematically calculated.