ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0544.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: recharge area; karst aquifers; stable isotope, environmental tracer
Online: 27 July 2018 (14:30:08 CEST)
Water resources management is one of the most important challenges worldwide because water represents a vital resource for sustaining life and environment. In the aim of sustainable groundwater management, the identification of aquifer recharge areas is a useful tool for water resources protection. In a well-developed karst aquifer, environmental isotopes provide support for identifying aquifer recharge areas, residence time and interconnections between aquifer systems. This study deals the use of environmental isotopes to identify the main recharge area of a karst aquifer in the Upper Valley of Aniene River (Central Italy). The analysis of 18O/16O and 2H/H values and their spatial distribution in the aquifer, make it possible to trace back groundwater recharge areas based on average isotope elevations. The Inverse Hydrogeological Balance Method was used to validate spring recharge elevations obtained by the use of stable isotopes. Areas impacted by direct and rapid rainfall recharge into the study area were delineated, showing groundwater flowpaths from the boundaries to the core of the aquifer. The results of this study demonstrate the contribution that spatial and temporal isotope changes can provide to the identification of groundwater flowpaths in a karst basin, taking into account the hydrogeological setting
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1458.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Humanities Keywords: Alumni's Career Paths; College of Arts and Sciences; Tracer Study; Uncharted Odyssey
Online: 21 September 2023 (07:58:27 CEST)
In a rapidly evolving educational and economic landscape, exacerbated by the unforeseen ripple effects of the pandemic, this qualitative tracer study, encompassing 30 alumni participants from batches 2017 to 2022, delves into the professional journeys of College of Arts and Sciences alumni from St. Michael's College in Iligan City, Philippines. Combining in-depth literature reviews, astute observations, insightful informal interviews, and rigorous thematic analysis, this research unveils invaluable insights. The findings resonate with a clarion call for educational institutions to synchronize curricula with industry requisites, nurturing graduates with the critical thinking and communication skills imperative for heightened employability. Amidst this voyage, it becomes evident that personal aspirations wield remarkable influence in carving distinct career trajectories, underscoring the indispensable role of comprehensive career guidance and counseling within educational domains. Noteworthy is the profound impact of the ever-changing economic dynamics of the Philippines on the employability of these alumni, demanding perpetual adaptation in educational paradigms. Remarkably, the collective contributions of these graduates span diverse academic programs, attesting to their positive workforce imprint. Further exploration reveals a substantial proportion engaging in post-graduate education and training to enrich their qualifications. In a remarkable testament to their educational journey, alumni manifest a notably high level of job satisfaction, buoyed by facets like work-life equilibrium and employment stability. Overall, this tracer study is poised to drive transformative shifts in higher education, advocating for curricular harmonization, amplified career support, holistic skill cultivation, resilience to economic fluctuations, and sustained research to remain aligned with the dynamic job market. It serves as a catalyst in shaping an empowered, content, and adaptive workforce for tomorrow's challenges and opportunities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1560.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Fluids And Plasmas Physics Keywords: tracer clustering; compressibility; ellipsoidal vortex; random flow
Online: 24 November 2023 (05:41:18 CET)
The influence of a background vortex flow on clustering of floating tracer is addressed. The vortex flow considered is induced by an ellipsoidal vortex evolving in a deformation. The system exhibits various vortex motion regimes: (i) steady state, (ii) oscillation and (iii) rotation of the ellipsoidal vortex core. The latter two induce unsteady velocity field for the tracer thus leading to irregular (chaotic) tracer motion. Superimposing a stochastic divergent velocity field onto the deterministic vortex flow allows us to observe significantly different tracer evolution. We use the method of characteristics to integrate the floating tracer density evolution equation and the Euler-Ito scheme for obtaining the floating tracer trajectories with the random velocity field. The cluster area and cluster mass from the statistical topography were used as the quantitative diagnostics of floating-tracer’s clustering. For the case of the steady ellipsoidal vortex embedded into the deformation flow with a random velocity field component we found that clustering characteristics are weakened by the steady vortex. For the cases of an unsteady ellipsoidal vortex, we observed clustering in the floating-tracer density field if the contribution of the divergent component is higher or equal to that of the rotational (nondivergent) component. Even when the initial floating tracer patch was set on the boundary of oscillating ellipsoidal vortex, we observed formation of clusters. In the case of a rotating ellipsoidal vortex, we also observed pronounced clustering. Thus, we argue that unsteady ellipsoidal vortex regimes (oscillation and rotation), which induce chaotic motion of the nearby passive tracer’s trajectories, are still conducive to clustering of floating tracer observed in the density field despite the intense deformation introduced by strain and shear.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0029.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Cell And Developmental Biology Keywords: permeability; endothelium; epithelium; dysfunction; transendothelial resistance; fluorescent tracer; microfluidics
Online: 5 January 2022 (10:31:50 CET)
Cell monolayers, including endothelial and epithelial cells, play crucial roles in regulating the transport of biomolecules to underlying tissues and structures via intercellular junctions. Moreover, the monolayers form a semipermeable barrier across which leukocyte transmigration is tightly regulated. The inflammatory cytokines can disrupt the epithelial and endothelial permeability, thus the reduced barrier integrity is a hallmark of epithelial and endothelial dysfunction related with numerous pathological conditions, including cancer-related inflammation. Therefore, the assessment of barrier function is critical in in vitro models of barrier-forming tissues. This review summarizes the commercially available in vitro systems used to measure the permeability of cellular monolayers. The presented techniques are separated in two large groups: macromolecular tracer flux assays, and electrical impedance measurement-based permeability assays. The presented techniques are briefly described and compared.
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Positron Emission Tomography (PET); FDG; tracer kinetics; compartmental analysis
Online: 29 June 2021 (08:34:49 CEST)
Compartmental analysis is the mathematical framework for the modelling of tracer kinetics in dynamical Positron Emission Tomography. This paper provides a review of how compartmental models are constructed and numerically optimized. Specific focus is given on the identifiability and sensitivity issues and on the impact of complex physiological conditions on the mathematical properties of the models.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0499.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Sustainable Science And Technology Keywords: natural ventilation; occupant-generated CO2 tracer gas method; ventilation rates; infiltration rates
Online: 18 April 2023 (07:18:27 CEST)
Natural ventilation in a building is an effective way to achieve acceptable indoor air quality. Ventilation dilutes contaminants such as bio-effluents generated by occupants, substances emitted from building materials, and water vapor generated by occupants' activities. In a building that requires heating and cooling, adequate ventilation is crucial to minimize energy consumption while maintaining healthy indoor air quality. However, measuring the actual magnitude of the ventilation rate, including infiltration through the building envelope and airflow through building openings, is not always feasible. In this study, the occupant-generated carbon dioxide (CO2) tracer gas decay method was applied to estimate the ventilation rates in an office room in Seoul, South Korea, from summer to winter. Using the method, real-time ventilation rates can be calculated by monitoring indoor and outdoor CO2 concentrations without injecting a tracer gas. 145mm-diameter circular openings on the fixed glass were used for natural ventilation in the test room. As a result, firstly, the indoor CO2 concentrations were used as an indicator to evaluate how much the indoor air quality deteriorated when all the windows were closed in an occupied office room compared to international standards for indoor air quality. Moreover, we found out the estimated ventilation rates varied depending on various environmental conditions, even with the same openings for natural ventilation. Considering the indoor and outdoor temperature differences and outdoor wind speeds as the main factors influencing the ventilation rates, we analyzed how they affected the ventilation rates in different seasons of South Korea. When the wind speeds were calm, the temperature difference played as a factor that influences the estimated ventilation rates. On the other hands, when the temperature differences were low, the wind speed was the primary factor. This study raises awareness about the risk of poor indoor air quality in office rooms that could lead to health problems or unpleasant working environments. This study presents an example of estimating the ventilation rates in an existing building. In the same way, the ventilation rate in an existing building can be simply estimated while using the building as usual, and appropriate ventilation strategies for the building can be determined to maintain desired indoor air quality.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0196.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Geography Keywords: Landslide; Slope groundwater source; Tracer; Environmental stable isotopes; Huangtupo; Three Gorges Reservoir
Online: 10 March 2023 (13:18:35 CET)
Groundwater plays a crucial role in triggering and reactivating deep-seated landslides. However, classical hydrogeological investigations have limitations in their applicability to deep-seated landslides due to anisotropic and heterogeneous media. The Huangtupo landslide in the Three Gorges reservoir area has garnered significant attention in China due to its large volume, complex geological structure, and high hazard potential. Recent monitoring data has shown notable deformation in the NO.1 Riverside Sliding Mass (HTP-1), one of the four parts of the Huangtupo landslide, making it the primary focus of landslide research. This study aimed to investigate the water sources in the HTP-1 landslide using environmental stable isotopes as tracers. The isotopic analysis results indicated that the groundwater in the landslide area (LGW) is a mixture of remote karst groundwater (KGW) from the adjacent up-slope and local precipitation (LP). The karst groundwater is a major contributor to the recharge of the landslide groundwater system, causing a high slope groundwater level that can easily exceed the critical level during heavy rainfall events. Furthermore, based on the differential distribution of the LP fraction of LGW at different locations, the groundwater in the landslide can be classified into three groups. Groundwater at the sliding rupture surface has the highest fractions of local precipitation, followed by the groundwater at the rear of the landslide. Combined with the monitoring data of groundwater level in boreholes during the rainy season, this indicates that fissures and fractures in the sliding rupture zone and at the back of the landslide are well connected, which could be a critical factor in the mass movement of the creeping slope.
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Oceanography Keywords: radionuclide; tracer; data collection; antimony 125 (125Sb), tritium (3H), dispersion; modelling; English Channel; North Sea; Biscay Bay
Online: 24 January 2020 (16:03:50 CET)
Significant amounts of anthropogenic radionuclides were introduced in ocean waters following nuclear atmospheric tests and development of the nuclear industry. Dispersion of artificial dissolved radionuclides has been extensively measured for decades over the European continental shelf. The radionuclide measurement and release fluxes databases provided here represent an exceptional opportunity to validate dispersion hydrodynamic models. MARS hydrodynamic model have been applied at different scales to reproduce in realistic conditions the measured dispersion. Specific methods have been developed to obtain qualitative and quantitative results and perform model/measurement comparisons. Model validation concerns short to large scales with dedicated surveys following the dispersion: it was performed within two and three dimensions framework and from minutes and hours following a release up to several years. Results are presented concerning the dispersion of radionuclides in marine systems deduced from standalone measurements, or according to model comparisons. It allows characterising dispersion over the continental shelf, pathways, transit times, budgets and source terms. This review exhibits the main features retained from the point of view of radiotracers, hydrodynamic models and model/measurement methods with perspectives of applications in other areas or oceanographic domains.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1640.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: Tracer development; neuroinflammation; pneumonia; myocarditis; translocator protein (TSPO); cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2); positron emission tomography (PET); single-photon emission tomography (SPECT)
Online: 25 October 2023 (11:31:31 CEST)
Inflammation involves the activation of innate immune cells and is believed to play an important role in the development and progression of both infectious and non-infectious diseases such as neurodegeneration, rheumatoid arthritis or cancer. Inflammation in the brain is marked by the upregulation of the translocator protein (TSPO) in microglia. Moreover, high TSPO levels are found, for example in macrophages during rheumatoid arthritis and in malignant tumor cells compared to its relatively low physiological expression. The same applies for cycloxygenase-2 (COX-2), which is constitutively expressed in the kidney, brain, thymus and gastrointestinal tract, but induced in microglia, macrophages and synoviocytes during inflammation. This puts TSPO and COX-2 in the spotlight as important targets for the diagnosis of inflammation. Imaging modalities, such as positron emission tomography and single-photon emission tomography, can be used to localize inflammatory processes and to track their progression over time. They could also enable to monitor the efficacy of therapy and predict its outcome. This review focuses on the current development of PET and SPECT tracers not only for the detection of neuroinflammation, but also for emerging diagnostic measures in infectious and other non-infectious diseases like rheumatic arthritis, cancer, cardiac inflammation and in lung diseases.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0241.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: coupled chemistry-meteorology data assimilation; weak and strong data assimilation coupling; Canadian Quick Covariance method (CQC); assimilation of MIPAS temperature observations; ozone-temperature cross-covariance; tracer-wind 4D-Var assimilation
Online: 21 October 2019 (05:09:58 CEST)
We examine data assimilation coupling between meteorology and chemistry in the stratosphere from both weak and strong coupling strategies. The study was performed with the Canadian operational weather prediction Global Environmental Multiscale (GEM) model coupled online with the photochemical stratospheric chemistry developed at the Belgian Institute for Space Aeronomy, described in Part I. Here, the Canadian Meteorological Centre’s operational variational assimilation system was extended to include errors of chemical variables and cross-covariances between meteorological and chemical variables in a 3D-Var configuration, and we added the adjoint of tracer advection in the 4D-Var configuration. Our results show that the assimilation of limb sounding observations from the MIPAS instrument on board Envisat can be used to anchor the AMSU-A radiance bias correction scheme. Also, the added value of limb sounding temperature observations on meteorology and transport is shown to be significant. Weak coupling data assimilation with ozone-radiation interaction is shown to give comparable on meteorology whether a simplified linearized or comprehensive ozone chemistry scheme is used. Strong coupling data assimilation, using static error cross-covariances between ozone and temperature in a 3D-Var context, produced inconclusive results with the approximations we used. We have also conducted the assimilation of long-lived species observations using 4D-Var to infer winds. Our results showed the added value of assimilating several long-lived species, and an improvement in the zonal wind in the Tropics within the troposphere and lower stratosphere. 4D-Var assimilation also induced a correction of zonal wind in the surf zone and a temperature bias in the lower tropical stratosphere