ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0022.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: unmanned aerial vehicle; grain sorghum; herbicide injury; remote sensing; sorghum breeding
Online: 1 October 2020 (15:47:27 CEST)
Manual evaluation of crop injury to herbicides is time-consuming. Unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) and high-resolution multispectral sensors and machine learning classification techniques have the potential to save time and improve precision in the evaluation of herbicide injury in crops, including grain sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench). The objectives of this research were to (1) evaluate three supervised classification algorithms (support vector machine, maximum likelihood, and random forest) for categorizing high-resolution UAS imagery to aid in data extraction and (2) evaluate the use of vegetative indices (VIs) collected from UAV imagery as an alternative to traditional methods of visual herbicide injury assessment in mesotrione-tolerant grain sorghum breeding trials. An experiment was conducted in a randomized complete block design using a factorial treatment arrangement of three genotypes by four mesotrione doses. Herbicide injury was rated visually on a scale of 0 (no injury) to 100 (complete plant mortality). The UAS flights were flown at 9, 15, 21, 27, and 35 days after treatment. Results show the SVM algorithm to be the most consistently accurate, and high correlations (r = -0.83 to -0.94; p < 0.0001) were observed between the normalized difference vegetative index (NDVI) and ground-measured herbicide injury. Therefore we conclude that VIs collected with UAS coupled with machine learning image classification, has the potential to be an effective method of evaluating mesotrione injury in grain sorghum.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0389.v1
Subject: Engineering, Biomedical & Chemical Engineering Keywords: Yield; Fermentation; Sequential Pretreatment; Sorghum Straw
Online: 26 September 2022 (09:11:56 CEST)
The depletion and environmental problems associated with fossil fuels have encouraged us to look for alternative feedstock that do not compromise food security and the environment. Sorghum is a fast-growing crop that can be harvested twice a year and produces both food and straw that can be utilized in the production of bio-based fuels. In this study, the production of bioethanol and the effects of fermentation parameters on ethanol yield are presented. A sequential pretreatment method was employed, using dilute sulfuric acid (1%) at 125 °C in the first stage and dilute sodium hydroxide (1.25 %) at 90 °C in the second stage. The residues left after the sequential pretreatment stage were hydrolyzed using acid hydrolysis. The sugar concentration of the hydrolysates was determined using the phenol sulfuric acid method, and three hydrolysates having sugar levels of 30.42 g/L, 31.79 g/L, and 32.9875 g/L were selected for fermentation. The ethanol yield was determined after 72 hours of fermentation at 30 °C with varying inoculum sizes (5%, 10%, and 15%) and pH (4.5, 5, and 5.5). With a maximum ethanol yield of 0.617 mL/g (48.742%) produced at a sugar content of 32.9875 g/L, pH of 5, and inoculum size of 15%, statistical analysis showed that all three independent parameters affected ethanol yield. According to these findings, while raising sugar content, inoculum amount, and pH all initially result in higher ethanol yields, doing so further reduces yield. So, in order to increase ethanol yield, fermentation conditions must be carefully managed while producing ethanol from sequential acidic-alkaline pretreated sorghum straw. The strategy followed by using sequential acidic-alkaline pretreatment of sorghum straw provides prospects for efficient and effective production of biofuels from alternative feedstock.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0117.v1
Online: 13 June 2019 (09:26:20 CEST)
The whole genome sequencing (WGS) has become a crucial tool to understand genome structure and genetic variation. The MinION sequencing of Oxford Nanopore Technologies (ONT) is an excellent approach for performing WGS and has advantages in comparison with other Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS): It is relatively inexpensive, portable, has simple library preparation, can be monitored in real-time, and has no theoretical limits on read length. Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench is diploid (2n = 2x = 20) with a genome size of about 730 Mb, and its genome sequence information is released in the Phytozome database. Therefore, sorghum can be be used as a good reference. However, plant species have complex and large genomes compared to animals or microorganisms. As a result, complete genome sequencing is difficult for plant species. MinION sequencing that produces long-reads can be an excellent tool to overcome the weak assembly of short-reads generated from NGS by minimizing the generation of gaps or covering the repetitive sequence that appears on the plant genome. Here, we conducted the genome sequencing for S. bicolor cv. BTx623 using the MinION platform and obtained 895,678 reads and 17.9 gigabytes(Gb) (ca. 25X coverage of reference) from long-read sequence data. Through a de novo assembly using two different tools and mapped assembled contigs against the sorghum reference genome, a total of 6,124 contigs (covering 45.9%) were generated from Canu, and a total of 2,661 contigs (covering 50%) were generated from Minimap and Miniasm with a Racon pipeline. Our results provide a pipeline of long-read sequencing analysis for plant species using the MinION platform and a clue to determine the total sequencing scale for optimal coverage based on various genome sizes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0636.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: sorghum silage; corn silage; buffalo cows; milk; serum biochemistry
Online: 25 November 2020 (11:49:47 CET)
The influence of replacing corn silage with sorghum silage in the diet of dairy buffalo cows on metabolic status and on milk yield, chemical characteristics and fatty acid profile was studied. Forty dairy buffalo cows were included in the trial and divided into two homogeneous groups (SS, sorghum and CC, corn). Blood was collected at the end of the trial (120 days), individual milk yield was registered daily. Samples of milk were monthly collected and analyzed for fat, protein and lactose. Moreover, fatty acid profiles of silages and milk were determined. Buffalo cows fed sorghum silage showed an average milk yield higher than group CS (kg/d 10.120 vs 9.270; P<0.05), probably due to the lower lignin content of sorghum silage (31 vs 47 g/kg dry matter, respectively for SS and CS diets) and by consequence to its energy value, higher than expected. The percentage of linoleic acid was significantly higher in milk of group CS (C18:2: 1.27% vs 2.05%; P<0.01) due to the higher content of these acids in corn than in sorghum silage. The omega 6/omega 3 ratio was significantly lower in milk from buffalo cows fed sorghum than corn silage (7.8 vs 12.9; P<0.01). Serum biochemistry showed no negative effects of the corn replacing with sorghum.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0564.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Chromium; Oxidative stress; Sorghum; Biomass; Toxicity; Adversely; Nutritive; Heavy metal; Tolerant
Online: 23 November 2020 (08:57:45 CET)
Sorghum is a multipurpose crop, but Cr(VI) toxicity influenced the production of the crop and have established highlighted courtesy, due to robust toxicity and a comparatively less known mode of action. Many reports approve the negative impact of Cr(VI) on plants. Yet, it is not clear that, at what concentrations, Cr(VI) inhibits the growth and nutrient quality of Sorghum. In the present research, toxic effects appeared after 1ppm of Cr treatment. The plant growth decreased 15 – 20% and nutritional quality decreased 30 – 40% significantly with increasing concentration of Cr(VI). Toxic components increased 14 – 16% with increasing concentration of Cr(VI) in both the varieties (HJ 541 and SSG 59-3). Chromium was accumulated more in roots followed by shoots with increasing Cr(VI) treatments (0-4 ppm). Chromium at 4ppm level was becoming lethal to Sorghum. Sorghum cultivar SSG 59-3 was more tolerable to Cr toxicity than HJ 541. Chromium accumulated in Sorghum and increased HCN content and at higher doses adversely affects the nutritive values and growth making it toxic for animal consumption. These findings may be useful for scheming a mitigation strategy for chromium toxicity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201610.0084.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: intra row spacing; intercropping; land equivalent ratio; sorghum (Teshale); groundnut (Fetene)
Online: 20 October 2016 (08:45:36 CEST)
In eastern part of Ethiopia groundnut is very commonly intercropped with sorghum. Even though intercropping of sorghum with groundnut is practiced in the eastern part of Ethiopia the population density at what ratio should not be known. Therefore determining the population ratio is found to be crucial to draw management options. The study was conducted at two locations at Fadis (on station) and Babile (sub- station). Sorghum variety (Teshale) and groundnut (Fetene) were used as planting materials. All agronomic data were collected and analyzed by using GenStat software. Significant different were obtained among the treatments. The research result showed that, there were significance difference for both sorghum and ground nut yield per hectare in the years (2014 and 2015) among treatments. The result over time(in 2014 and 2015) at Fadis and Erer showed that the highest sorghum and groundnut yield per hectare were obtained/harvested from the intra row spacing of 25cmx20cm and 30cmx20cm intercropping sorghum with ground nut system with (1.27 and 1.31) respectively. The highest LER (1.31) and highest GMV (10218.00 ETBr/ha) were obtained from the intercropping of 30cmx20cm (Sorghum & groundnut). Clearly showed that, with intercropping of sorghum and Groundnut, it is possible to produce additional yield of sorghum without significant reduction in groundnut yield. As a result of this, the intra spacing of the main crop (sorghum) 25cm and 30cm and for the subsidiary crop (groundnut) 20cm was recommended for further production in the study areas of eastern Harerghe zone and similar agro-ecologies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0144.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: Deep root system; Photosynthetic rate; Root angle; Root length; Sorghum; Transpiration rate
Online: 8 November 2021 (13:27:53 CET)
Drought decreases grain yield of sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench], and understanding the mechanism(s) related to drought tolerance is critical for sustaining sorghum production. Variation in root and shoot traits associated with drought tolerance were analyzed to provide an integrated view of factors that underlie the drought tolerance of sorghum. The plants were grown in the root column up to the five-leaf stage, then exposed to either 0.9 fraction of transpirable soil water (FTSW) or 0.4 FTSW for five days. In another experiment, at the five-leaf stage, stress was imposed for 14 days. Various root and shoot traits associated with drought tolerance were recorded. The seminal root angle of IS13540 was lower (24.4) than IS23143 (42.6). Drought stress increased the maximum root length (40%) and total root length (58%) of IS13540 than its irrigated control. In contrast, the maximum root length and total root length were decreased in IS23143. Similarly, across the lines, drought stress decreased stomatal conductance (37%), transpiration rate (42%), photosynthetic rate (40%), photosystem II quantum yield (20%), photochemical quenching (44%), and total dry matter production (34%) than irrigated control. An increased transpiration rate was observed in IS23143 than IS13540 under irrigated and drought stress. In IS23143, the reduction in photosynthetic rate under drought may be a combination of stomatal and non-stomatal factors. However, in IS13540, the reduction is especially by the stomatal factors. It is evident that IS13540 is a drought-tolerant line, and tolerance is related to a deep prolific root system and reduced tran-spiration rate.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0198.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: flowering time; genotype × environment interaction; grain yield; sorghum; tillering capacity; water stress
Online: 18 September 2019 (05:23:50 CEST)
Sorghum in Australia is grown in water-limited environments of varying extent, generating substantial genotype × environment interaction (GEI). Much of the yield variation and GEI results from variations in flowering time and tillering through their effects on canopy development. The confounding effects of flowering and tillering complicate the interpretation of breeding trials. In this study, we evaluated the impacts of both flowering time (DTF) and tillering capacity (FTN) on yield of 1741 unique test hybrids derived from three common female testers in 21 yield testing trials (48 tester/trial combinations) across the major sorghum production regions in Australia in three seasons. Contributions of DTF and FTN to genetic variation in grain yield were significant in 14 and 12 tester/trial combinations, respectively. The proportion of genetic variance in grain yield explained by DTF and FTN ranged from 0.2% to 61.0% and from 1.4% to 56.9%, respectively, depending on trials and genetic background of female testers. The relationship of DTF or FTN with grain yield of hybrids was frequently positive, but varied across the genetic background of testers. Accounting for the effects of DTF and FTN using linear models did not substantially increase the between trial genetic correlations for grain yield. The results suggested that other factors affecting canopy development dynamics and grain yield might contribute GEI and/or the linear approach to account for DTF and FTN on grain yield did not capture the complex non-linear interactions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0086.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biotechnology Keywords: Cameroon; sudano-sahelian zone; sorghum; long-time fermentation; turbid beers; physicochemical changes; clustering
Online: 5 July 2020 (15:38:36 CEST)
In Cameroon, alcoholic beverages remain the main consumed drink. In the Northern regions, indigenous sorghum beers are popular and widely consumed in an actively fermenting state by the people. In this study, some physicochemical parameters of the alcoholic sorghum beverages and correlations between them were evaluated during fermentation for 10 days. The indigenous white and red beers were produced at the laboratory scale assisted by experimented producers and some parameters (pH, total acidity, alcohol, sugars, density, total solids, temperature, and conductivity) were measured on the wort and fermented beverages. The pH decreases from 3.2 to 2.4 and 3.11 to 2.41; total acidity increases from 1.07 to 5.1 g/l and 0.5 to 4.6 g/l; alcohol enhances from 0 to 9.5% and 0 to 6.8% (v/v); total solids drop from 13.6 to 5°P and 12.2 to 3.3°P were observed respectively in the white and red sorghum beers. The multivariate analysis showed a good correlation between consumption of sugar, the decrease of total solids and density with the decrease in pH. It was also shown that, a perfect link exist between the production of alcohol and organic acids. The hierarchical analysis showed that indigenous red beer samples fermented for 1 and 2 days and those fermented for 4 to 10 days are related and could be separate in two distinct groups, whereas white turbid beer samples are separated in three different groups, those fermented for 1 to 4 days, those 5 to 6 days and those 7 to 10 days. The results obtained could serve as a guide to better understand the fermentation process of the indigenous alcoholic sorghum-based beverages.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201712.0036.v1
Subject: Keywords: Sorghum bicolor leaf extract; SBLS; Jobelyn®; antioxidant; Immune-modulatory; anti-inflammatory; anti-anemia; HIV
Online: 7 December 2017 (04:37:20 CET)
The West-African variety of Sorghum bicolor leaf sheath (SBLS) Jobelyn® is a natural remedy, which has gained international recognition for its anti-anemic effect and energy boosting qualities in debilitating diseases. The widespread use of traditional medicine in the region usually confirms its safety, but not its efficacy or deep assessment of their pharmacological properties. The other major issue for herbal-based treatments is the lack of definite and complete information about the composition of the extracts. Despite limitations, efforts have been made in isolation and characterisation of active compounds in this specie of sorghum showing various subclasses of flavonoids including apigeninidin, a stable 3-deoxyanthocyanidin and potential fungal growth inhibitor, which accounts for 84% of the total extract. Non-clinical in vitro and in vivo studies support previous indications that this variety of Sorghum bicolor possesses several biologically active compounds with potent antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-aging and neuro-protective properties. Clinical studies show that SBLS has the ability to boost hemoglobin concentrations in anemic conditions and most remarkably to increase CD4 count in HIV-positive patients. The multiple effects and high safety profiles of this extract may encourage its development as a therapeutic agent for the treatment of anemia, chronic inflammatory conditions or in the symptomatic management of HIV infections. This review describes the potential therapeutic aspects of SBLS extract and its potential benefits.