REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0201.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pharmacology & Toxicology Keywords: psychedelics; language; consciousness; cognition; pharmacology; semantics
Online: 10 November 2021 (09:45:20 CET)
Psychedelics are drugs capable of eliciting profound alterations in the subjective experience of the users, sometimes with long-lasting consequences. Because of this, psychedelic research tends to focus on human subjects, given their capacity to construct detailed narratives about the contents of their consciousness experiences. In spite of its relevance, the interaction between serotonergic psychedelics and language production is comparatively understudied in the recent literature. This review is focused on two aspects of this interaction: how the acute effects of psychedelic drugs impact on speech organization regardless of its semantic content, and how to characterize the subjective effects of psychedelic drugs by analyzing the semantic content of written retrospective reports. We show that the computational characterization of language production is an emergent powerful tool to predict the therapeutic outcome of individual experiences, relate the effects elicited by psychedelics with those associated with other altered states of consciousness, draw comparisons between the psychedelic state and the symptomatology of certain psychiatric disorders, and investigate the neurochemical profile and mechanism of action of different psychedelic drugs. We conclude that researchers studying psychedelics can considerably expand the range of their potential scientific conclusions by analyzing brief interviews obtained before, during and after the acute effects. Finally, we list a series of questions and open problems that should be addressed to further consolidate this approach.
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Algebra & Number Theory Keywords: Semantic Complexity; Semantics; Text Complexity; Readability Formulae
Online: 6 September 2021 (13:33:34 CEST)
Simple measures often couldn’t count a deep complexity. In the case of semantic complexity, conventional readability formulas share a common style, a common sort of achievements and a common borders of limitation: These formulas lack a semantics-aware approach and as a result, a precise measurement of semantic complexity couldn’t be done. In this paper, we introduce DASTEX, a novel semantics-aware complexity measure for semantic complexity of text. By DASTEX, a new layer of complexity analysis are opened for NLP, cognitive and computational tasks. This measure benefits from an intuitionistic underlying formal model which consider semantic as a lattice of intuitions. This yields to a well-defined definition for semantic of a text and its complexity. DASTEX is a practical analysis method upon this formal model. So a complete suite of idea, model and method are prepared to result in a simple but yet deep measure for semantic complexity of text. The evaluation of the proposed approach is done by 4 Experiments. The results show DASTEX is capable of measuring the semantic complexity of text in 6 application-tasks.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0006.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Information Technology & Data Management Keywords: semantics; process cycle; subjectivity; quantum cognition; qubit
Online: 1 September 2021 (11:24:31 CEST)
The paper describes a model of subjective goal-oriented semantics extending standard "view-from-nowhere" approach. Generalization is achieved by using a spherical vector structure essentially supplementing the classical bit with circular dimension, organizing contexts according to their subjective causal ordering. This structure, known in quantum theory as qubit, is shown to be universal representation of contextual-situated meaning at the core of human cognition. Subjective semantic dimension, inferred from fundamental oscillation dynamics, is discretized to six process-stage prototypes expressed in common language. Predicted process-semantic map of natural language terms is confirmed by the open-source word2vec data.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0226.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Logic Keywords: intuitionistic logic; quantum computing; Kripke-style semantics
Online: 9 November 2018 (03:03:59 CET)
We know that quantum logics are the most prominent logical systems associated to the lattices of closed Hilbert subspaces. But what does it happen if, following a quantum computing perspective, we want to associate a logic to the process of quantum registers measurements? This paper gives an answer to this question, and, quite surprising, shows that such a logic is nothing else that the standard propositional intuitionistic logic.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0379.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Cognitive & Experimental Psychology Keywords: core affect; emotion; semantics; process cycle; quantum cognition; qubit
Online: 22 November 2021 (11:04:58 CET)
The paper describes model of human affect based on quantum theory of semantics. The model considers emotion as subjective representation of behavioral context relative to a basis binary choice, organized by cyclical process structure and an orthogonal evaluation axis. The resulting spherical space, generalizing well-known circumplex models, accommodates basic emotions in specific angular domains. Predicted process-semantic structure of affect is observed in the word2vec data, as well as in the previously obtained spaces of emotion concepts. The established quantum-theoretic structure of affective space connects emotion science with quantum models of cognition and behavior, opening perspective for synergetic progress in these fields.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0223.v1
Online: 10 September 2020 (05:56:54 CEST)
Occasionally, officials of the world’s regulatory agencies embark upon attempts at bringing previously unregulated physical systems under regulation by them. Each such attempt raises an epistemological issue. At issue is whether enough information about the outcomes of the events of the future, given the outcomes of the events of the present, will be in the hands of a would-be regulator for this regulator to regulate effectually. If present, this information is provided by runs of a model of the physical system that is slated for regulation. Ideally, this model makes an argument that draws its conclusion from the evidence presented to it. If so, this argument is of the form of a predictive inference. However, the process by which an argument draws its conclusion from the evidence may go awry. This happens, for example, when the axiom of probability theory called unit measure is falsified by a conclusion that is drawn from the evidence by this argument.A method is derived from first principles for determination of whether unit measure is satisfied or falsified by an argument made by a model, given that this argument may attach unusual meanings to statistical terms. This method is used in a study of whether unit measure is satisfied or falsified by the arguments that are made by a pair of models. Both models are in active use by regulatory agencies around the world. Under neither argument do runs of the model provide an official of a regulatory agency with the information gain aka mutual information that he or she would need to regulate effectually. Under both arguments, attachment of unusual meanings to statistical terms creates the illusion that such an official can and does regulate effectually.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0207.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Behavioral Neuroscience Keywords: language; motor system; event related potentials; action simulation; embodied semantics
Online: 21 January 2019 (11:03:56 CET)
The link between language processing and motor systems has been the focus of increasing interest to Cognitive Neuroscience. Some classical papers studying Event Related Potentials (ERPs) induced by linguistic stimuli have found differences in electrophysiological activity when comparing action and non-action words; more specifically, a bigger p200 for action words. On the other hand, a series of studies have validated the use of a grip force sensor (GFS) to measure language-induced motor activity during both isolated words and sentence listening, finding that action words induce an augmentation in the grip force around 250-300 ms after the onset of the stimulus. The purpose of the present study is to combine both techniques to assess if the p200 is related to the augmentation of the grip force measured by a GFS. We measured ERP and GFS changes elicited by listening to action and non-action words while maintaining an active grasping task in 10 healthy subjects. Our results show that the amplitude of the p200 in central electrodes is correlated to the augmentation in the GFS around 300 ms induced by linguistic stimuli. To our knowledge, this is the first study where the electrophysiological activity and the changes in the grip force induced by auditory language processing are put together, opening new venues of interpretation for the sensorimotor interaction in language processing.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0338.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geoinformatics Keywords: crowdsourced data; relevance; semantics; geographic information retrieval; natural language processing
Online: 26 April 2018 (10:19:02 CEST)
Crowdsourced Data (CSD) generated by citizens is becoming more popular as its potential utilisation in many applications is increasing due to its currency and availability. However, the quality of CSD, including its relevance, is often questioned as the data is not generated by professionals nor follows standard data collection procedures. The quality of CSD can be assessed according to a range of attributes including its relevance. Information relevance has been explored through using in Geographic Information Retrieval (GIR) techniques to identify relevant information. This research tested a relevance assessment approach for CSD by adapting relevance assessment techniques available in the GIR domain. The thematic and geographic relevance were assessed using the Term Frequency-Inverse Document Frequency (TF-IDF), Vector Space Model (VSM) and Natural Language Processing (NLP) techniques. The thematic and geographic specificities of the queries were calculated as 0.44 and 0.67 respectively, which indicates the queries used were more geographically specific than thematically specific. The Spearman's rho value of 0.62 indicated that the final ranked relevance lists showed reasonable agreement with a manually classified list and confirmed the potential of the approach for CSD relevance assessment for other possible crowdsourced data analysis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0066.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Linguistics Keywords: Linear Lengthening Intonation; Iwaidja; Australian languages; scalarity; semantics pragmatics; discourse structure
Online: 6 December 2021 (12:09:58 CET)
This paper investigates the meaning of a specific intonation contour found in the Northern Australian language Iwaidja called Linear Lengthening Intonation (LLI). Using an experimental field work approach, we analysed approximately 4,000 utterances. We demonstrate that the semantics of LLI is broadly event-quantificational as well as temporally scalar. LLI imposes aspectual selectional restrictions on the verbs it combines with (they must be durative, i.e. cannot describe ‘punctual’, atomic events), and requires the event description effected by said verbs to exceed a contextually-determined relative scalar meaning (e.g., a ‘typical duration’ à la (Tatevosov 2008)). Iwaidja differs from other Northern Australian languages with similar intonation patterns (see e.g. (Bishop 2002: 2002; Simard 2013)), in that it does not seem to have any argument NP-related incremental or event scalar meaning. This suggests that LLI is a decidedly grammatical, language-specific device; not a purely iconic kind of expression (even though it also possibly has an iconic dimension).
TECHNICAL NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0505.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: Semantics; standards; clinical research infrastructure; terminology; graph data; data-driven medicine
Online: 29 September 2021 (17:32:40 CEST)
Health-related data originating from diverse sources are commonly stored in manifold databases and formats, making it difficult to find, access and gather data for research purposes. In addition, so-called secondary use scenarios for health data are usually hindered by local data codes, missing dictionaries and the lack of metadata and context descriptions. Following the FAIR principles (Findable, Accessible, Interoperable and Reusable), we developed a decentralized infrastructure to overcome these hurdles and enable collaborative research by making the meaning of health-related data understandable to both, humans and machines. This infrastructure is currently being implemented in the realm of the Swiss Personalized Health Network (SPHN), a research infrastructure initiative for enabling the use and exchange of health-related data for research in Switzerland. The SPHN ecosystem for FAIR data consists of the SPHN Dataset (semantic definitions), the SPHN RDF Schema (linkage and transport of the semantics in a machine-readable format), a project RDF template, extensive guidelines and conventions on how to generate SPHN RDF schema, a Terminology Service (converter of clinical terminologies in RDF), and a Quality Assurance Framework (automated data validation with SHACLs and SPARQLs). The SPHN ecosystem has been built in a way that it can easily be adapted and extended by any SPHN project to fit individual needs. By providing such a national ecosystem, SPHN supports researchers in generating, processing and sharing FAIR data.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0486.v2
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Information Technology & Data Management Keywords: knowledge representation; curation; biocuration; semantics; systems biology; ontology; user interface; VSM
Online: 29 July 2020 (17:29:20 CEST)
Scientific progress is increasingly dependent on knowledge in computation-ready forms. In the life sciences, among others, many scientists therefore extract and structure knowledge from the literature. In a process called manual curation, they enter knowledge into spreadsheets, or into databases where it serves their and many others' research. Valuable as these curation efforts are, the range and detail of what can practically be captured and shared remains limited, because of the constraints of current curation tools. Many important contextual aspects of observations described in literature simply do not fit in the form defined by these tools, and thus cannot be captured. Here we present the design of an easy-to-use, general-purpose method and interface, that enables the precise semantic capture of virtually unlimited types of information and details, using only a minimal set of building blocks. Scientists from any discipline can use this to convert any complex knowledge into a form that is easily readable and meaningful for both humans and computers. The method VSM forms a universal and high-level language for encoding ideas, and for interacting with digital knowledge.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0557.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Information Technology & Data Management Keywords: knowledge representation; curation; biocuration; semantics; systems biology; ontology; user interface; VSM
Online: 23 July 2020 (12:23:10 CEST)
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0388.v2
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Information Technology & Data Management Keywords: Adaptive Educational System; E-Learning; Machine Learning; Semantics; Recommendation System; Ontologies Matching.
Online: 24 August 2020 (09:46:19 CEST)
The implementation of teaching interventions in learning needs has received considerable attention, as the provision of the same educational conditions to all students, is pedagogically ineffective. In contrast, more effectively considered the pedagogical strategies that adapt to the real individual skills of the students. An important innovation in this direction is the Adaptive Educational Systems (AES) that support automatic modeling study and adjust the teaching content on educational needs and students' skills. Effective utilization of these educational approaches can be enhanced with Artificial Intelligence (AI) technologies in order to the substantive content of the web acquires structure and the published information is perceived by the search engines. This study proposes a novel Adaptive Educational eLearning System (AEeLS) that has the capacity to gather and analyze data from learning repositories and to adapt these to the educational curriculum according to the student skills and experience. It is a novel hybrid machine learning system that combines a Semi-Supervised Classification method for ontology matching and a Recommendation Mechanism that uses a hybrid method from neighborhood-based collaborative and content-based filtering techniques, in order to provide a personalized educational environment for each student.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0366.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Organizational Economics & Management Keywords: ontology; semantics; safety; security; risk; performance; definitions; concepts; safety science; ISO 31000
Online: 31 October 2019 (09:36:29 CET)
When discussing the concepts of risk, safety, and security, people have an intuitive understanding of what these concepts mean, and, to a certain level, this understanding is universal. However, when delving into the real meaning of these concepts, one is likely to fall into semantic debates and ontological discussions. In industrial parks, it is important that (risk) managers from dierent companies, belonging to one and the same park, have the same understanding of the concepts of risk, safety, and security. It is even important that all companies in all industrial parks share a common understanding regarding these issues. As such, this paper explores the similarities and dierences behind the perceptions of these concepts, to come to a fundamental understanding of risk, safety, and security, proposing a semantic and ontological ground for safety and security science, based on an etymological and etiological study of the concepts of risk and safety. The foundation has been induced by the semantics used in the ISO 31000 risk management guidance standard. Hence, this article proposes a coherent, standardized set of concepts and definitions with a focus on the notion “objectives” that can be used as an ontological foundation for safety and security science, linking “objectives” with the concepts of safety, security, risk, performance and also failure and success, theoretically allowing for an increasingly more precise understanding and measurement of (un)safety across the whole range of individuals, sectors and organizations, or even society as a whole.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0336.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: natural language processing; semantics; word embeddings; multilingual embeddings; translation; artificial neural networks
Online: 29 July 2019 (11:05:16 CEST)
A novel method for finding linear mappings among word embeddings for several languages, taking as pivot a shared, universal embedding space, is proposed in this paper. Previous approaches learn translation matrices between two specific languages, but this method learn translation matrices between a given language and a shared, universal space. The system was first trained on bilingual, and later on multilingual corpora as well. In the first case two different training data were applied; Dinu’s English-Italian benchmark data, and English-Italian translation pairs extracted from the PanLex database. In the second case only the PanLex database was used. The system performs on English-Italian languages with the best setting significantly better than the baseline system of Mikolov et al. , and it provides a comparable performance with the more sophisticated systems of Faruqui and Dyer  and Dinu et al. . Exploiting the richness of the PanLex database, the proposed method makes it possible to learn linear mappings among an arbitrary number of languages.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0268.v1
Online: 29 January 2018 (05:29:38 CET)
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0132.v3
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, General & Theoretical Computer Science Keywords: formal semantics; quality attenuation; distributed systems; system design; scalability; performance; feasibility; blockchain; ΔQ.
Online: 24 January 2022 (11:43:32 CET)
This paper directly addresses a long-standing issue that affects the development of many complex distributed software systems: how to establish quickly, cheaply, and reliably whether they can deliver their intended performance before expending significant time, effort and money on detailed design and implementation. We describe ∆QSD, a novel metrics-based and quality-centric paradigm that uses formalised outcome diagrams to explore the performance consequences of design decisions, as a performance blueprint of the system. The distinctive feature of outcome diagrams is that they capture the essential observational properties of the system, independent of the details of system structure and behaviour. The ∆QSD paradigm derives bounds on performance expressed as probability distributions encompassing all possible executions of the system. The ∆QSD paradigm is both effective and generic: it allows values from various sources to be combined in a rigorous way, so that approximate results can be obtained quickly and subsequently refined. ∆QSD has been successfully used by Predictable Network Solutions for consultancy on large-scale applications in a number of industries, including telecommunications, avionics, and space and defence, resulting in cumulative savings worth billions of US dollars. The paper outlines the ∆QSD paradigm, describes its formal underpinnings, and illustrates its use via a topical real-world example taken from the blockchain/cryptocurrency domain. ∆QSD has enabled challenging throughput targets to be met for a globally distributed blockchain operating on the public internet.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0338.v2
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Cognitive & Experimental Psychology Keywords: Semantics and meaning; Context representation; Quantum cognition; Subjectivity; Quantum phase; Behavioral modeling; Qubit
Online: 22 December 2020 (11:58:16 CET)
The paper describes an algorithm for semantic representation of behavioral contexts relative to a dichotomic decision alternative. The contexts are represented as quantum qubit states in two-dimensional Hilbert space visualized as points on the Bloch sphere. The azimuthal coordinate of this sphere functions as a one-dimensional semantic space in which the contexts are accommodated according to their subjective relevance to the considered uncertainty. The contexts are processed in triples defined by knowledge of a subject about a binary situational factor. The obtained triads of context representations function as stable cognitive structure at the same time allowing a subject to model probabilistically-variative behavior. The developed algorithm illustrates an approach for quantitative subjectively-semantic modeling of behavior based on conceptual and mathematical apparatus of quantum theory.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201712.0079.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Logic Keywords: Łukasiewicz logic; semantics; fuzzifying topology; fuzzifying compactness; strong compactness; fuzzifying locally compactness; locally strong compactness
Online: 13 December 2017 (06:43:52 CET)
In this paper, some characterizations of fuzzifying strong compactness are given, including characterizations in terms of nets and pre -subbases. Several characterizations of locally strong compactness in the framework of fuzzifying topology are introduced and the mapping theorems are obtained.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0102.v2
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: machine learning; algorithms; natural language processing, deep learning, vector space models, semantic similarity, distributional semantics, latent semantic analysis, word2vec
Online: 10 May 2018 (05:56:56 CEST)
“You should know the words by the company they keep!” has been one of the most famous slogans attributed to John Rubert Firth, 1957. This has ignited a whole school in linguistic research known as the British empiricist contextualism. Sixty years later, many un- or semi-supervised machine learning algorithms have been successfully designed and implemented aiming at extracting word meaning from within the context of a text corpus. These algorithms treat words, more or less, as vectors of real numbers representing frequencies of word occurrences within context and word meaning as positions of words in a high-dimensional vector space model. Word associations, in turn, are treated as calculated distances among them. With the rise of Deep Learning (DL) and other artificial neural networks based architectures, learning the positioning of words and extracting word associations as measured by their distances has further improved. In this paper, however, we revisited the main stream of algorithmic approaches and set the stage for a partly cross-disciplinary evaluation framework to judge about the nature of the extracted word associations by state-of-the-art machine learning algorithms. Our preliminary results are based on word associations extracted from the application of DL framework on a Google News text corpus, as well as on comparisons with human created word association lists such as word collocation dictionaries and psycholinguistic experiments. The results and conclusions provide some insights into the inherited limitations in interpreting the type of word associations and underpinning relations between words with inevitable consequences in other areas, such as extraction of knowledge graphs or image understanding.