ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0311.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Economics Keywords: risks; COVID-19 pandemics; Russian economy, financial stimulation, risk management.
Online: 17 March 2023 (01:44:15 CET)
The research objects are the tax and budgetary policies of the Russian Federation. In this research, financial (budgetary) risks are understood as a decrease in the balance of the state (national) budget resulting from a reduction in revenues or an increase in expenditures. This research considers production in the main sectors of the economy as a key factor of financial risk in the COVID-19 pandemic. The research aims to analyze the main directions of the budgetary and tax policy of the Russian Federation aiming at supporting the economy and the population during the spread of COVID-19, which is especially relevant in connection with the expected recession in a number of sectors of the economy and a decrease in the level of employment and, accordingly, the well-being of citizens. In these conditions, it is necessary to adjust the budgetary and tax policy to preserve the state’s social obligations and expand social and economic support for businesses and citizens to smooth out the negative consequences of the impact of restrictive measures. The authors applied systemic and institutional approaches and statistical methods. The main results of the research reflect the need to (1) implement support measures (tax and budgetary incentives) for small and medium-sized enterprises, on which the crisis provoked by the COVID-19 pandemic has had the most destructive impact, and (2) to expand the volume of budgetary financing of social programs for financial risk management of the Russian economy during the COVID-19 pandemics.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0379.v2
Subject: Biology, Animal Sciences & Zoology Keywords: animal nocardiosis; Nocardia; veterinary mycology; actinomycetes; Russian Federation; pet; dermatitis; Nocardia asteroides
Online: 3 December 2019 (12:15:22 CET)
Two cases of cutaneous nocardiosis in a cat and in a dog have been described. Diagnosis was made on basis of direct microscopy and cultural mycological analysis. Phenotypic characteristics of two indigenous Nocardia strains are presented. The strain isolated from cat was presumably identified as N. asteroids. There have been no reports of suchlike cases in pets in Russia so far.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0143.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: participatory modelling; causal loop diagram development; structural analysis; systems modelling; construction innovation; Russian Federation
Online: 15 August 2016 (08:56:30 CEST)
This research integrates systemic and participatory techniques to model the Russian Federation construction innovation system. Understanding this complex construction innovation system, and determining the best levers for enhancing it, requires the dynamic modelling of a number of factors such as flows of resources and activities, policies, uncertainty and time. To build the foundations for such a dynamic model, the employed study method utilised an integrated stakeholder-based participatory approach coupled with structural analysis (MICMAC - Matrice d'Impacts Croisés Multiplication Appliquée à un Classement Cross-Impact Matrix). This method identified the key factors of the Russian Federation construction innovation system, their causal relationship (i.e. influence/dependence map) and ultimately a causal loop diagram. The generated model reveals pathways to improving construction innovation in the Russian Federation, and underpins the future development of an operationalised systems dynamic model.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0056.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geophysics Keywords: Novaya Zemlya; Altimetry; Gravity; Russian High Arctic; Glaciers and Ice Caps; Remote Sensing; Climate Change;
Online: 3 October 2018 (14:37:48 CEST)
We examine the mass balance of the glaciers in the Novaya Zemlya Archipelago, located in the Russian High Arctic using time series of time-variable gravity from the NASA/DLR Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) mission, laser altimetry data from the NASA Ice Cloud and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat) mission, and radar altimetry data from the ESA CryoSat-2 mission. We present a new algorithm for detecting changes in glacier elevation from these satellite altimetry data and evaluate its performance in the case Novaya Zemlya by comparing the results with GRACE. We find that the mass loss of Novaya Zemlya increased from 10±5 Gt/yr over 2003-2009 to 14±4 Gt/yr over 2010-2016, with a brief period of near mass balance between 2009 and 2011. The results are consistent across the gravimetric and altimetric methods. Furthermore, the analysis of elevation change from CryoSat-2 indicates that 60\% of the mass loss occurs at low elevation, where thinning rates are highest. We also find that marine-terminating glaciers in Novaya Zemlya are thinning significantly faster than land-terminating glaciers, which indicates an important role of ice dynamics of marine-terminating glaciers. We posit that the glacier changes have been caused by changes in atmospheric and ocean temperatures. We find that the increase in mass loss after 2010 is associated with a warming in air temperatures, which increased the surface melt rates. There is no enough information on the ocean temperature at the front of the glaciers to conclude on the role of the ocean, but we posit that the temperature of subsurface ocean waters must have increased during the observation period.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0503.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: permafrost hydrology; Russian Arctic; water tracks; hydrological connectivity; stable water isotopes; dissolved organic carbon; electrical resistivity tomography; taliks
Online: 21 June 2021 (11:15:37 CEST)
Hydrochemical and geophysical data collected during a hydrological survey in September 2017, reveal patterns of small-scale hydrological connectivity in a small water track catchment, north-European Arctic. Elevated tundra patches underlain by sands were disconnected from the stream and stored precipitation water from previous months. At the catchment surface and in the water track thalweg, some circular hollows, from 0.2 to 0.4 m in diameter, acted as evaporative basins with low d-excess values, from 2 to 4‰. Other hollows were connected to shallow subsurface runoff, yielding d-excess values between 12 and 14‰. ‘Connected’ hollows yielded a 50% higher dissolved organic carbon (DOC) content, 17.5±5.3 mg/L, than the ‘disconnected hollows, 11.8±1.7 mg/L. Permafrost distribution across the landscape is continuous, but highly variable. Open taliks exist under fens and small hummocky depressions, as revealed by electric resistivity tomography surveys. Isotopic evidence supports upward subpermafrost groundwater migration through open taliks under water tracks and fens/bogs/depressions, and its supply to streams via shallow sub-surface compartment. Temporal variability of isotopic composition and DOC in water track and a major river system, the Vorkuta R., evidence the widespread occurrence of the described processes in the large river basin. Water tracks effectively drain the tundra terrain and maintain xeric veg-etation over the elevated inter-track tundra patches.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0471.v2
Subject: Life Sciences, Genetics Keywords: DNA oligomers; harmonic progression; hyperbolic rules; matrices; tensor product; quantum informatics; oligomer sums method; genomes; genes; viruses; proteins; long Russian texts; phonetic sequences
Online: 21 June 2020 (15:26:04 CEST)
The author's method of oligomer sums for analysis of oligomer compositions of eukaryotic and prokaryotic genomes is described. The use of this method revealed the existence of general rules for cooperative oligomeric organization of a wide list of genomes. These rules are called hyperbolic because they are associated with hyperbolic sequences including the harmonic progression 1, 1/2, 1/3, .., 1/n. These rules are demonstrated by examples of quantitative analysis of many genomes from the human genome to the genomes of archaea and bacteria. The hyperbolic (harmonic) rules, speaking about the existence of algebraic invariants in full genomic sequences, are considered as candidates for the role of universal rules for the cooperative organization of genomes. The described phenomenological results were obtained as consequences of the previously published author's quantum-information model of long DNA sequences. The oligomer sums method was also applied to the analysis of long genes and viruses including the COVID-19 virus; this revealed, in characteristics of many of them, the phenomenon of such rhythmically repeating deviations from model hyperbolic sequences, which are associated with DNA triplets. In addition, an application of the oligomer sums method are shown to the analysis of the following long sequences: 1) amino acid sequences in long proteins like the protein Titin; 2) phonetic sequences of long Russan literary texts (for checking of thoughts of many authors that phonetic organization of human languages is deeply connected with the genetic language). The topics of the algebraic harmony in living bodies and of the quantum-information approach in biology are discussed.