ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0129.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: Pineapples; Ripening; Proximate composition; Sensory evaluation
Online: 10 January 2022 (16:15:22 CET)
The number of artificially ripened pineapples is outnumbered than the naturally ripened pineapples. However, there is a lack of understanding between artificially ripened and naturally ripened pineapples. Thus the inquiry was anticipated to explore the physicochemical changes and organoleptic acceptability of the naturally ripened and artificially ripened pineapples. Farmers used different chemicals such as calcium carbide, ethylene, besides growth hormones to reduce production loss. Here we evaluated the content of moisture, ash, protein, fat, crude fiber, reducing sugar, total sugar, titratable acidity, sucrose, and vitamin C in both naturally ripened and artificially ripened pineapples. Artificially ripened pineapples showed a significantly lower vitamin C than naturally ripened ones, but arsenic content was nil in both samples. In the case of color and appearance, there was no significant difference between the two samples, but in case of the other organoleptic properties, such as flavor, sweetness, sourness, the natural one was more acceptable. Thus naturally ripened pineapples are more beneficial to consumers than artificially ripened ones.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0090.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: Carbon dioxide; Chilling injury; Ethylene response factor; Ripening; Tomato
Online: 2 February 2021 (14:26:34 CET)
The effect of CO2 pre-treatments on tomato quality prior to cold storage was investigated using physiochemical and transcriptome changes. Three hours CO2 treated fruits were firmer than untreated fruits and had a good appearance even after being transferred from 4°C storage to 20°C for 8 d. CO2 pretreatment with cold storage showed a synergistic effect on delayed ripening through reduced respiration; these tomatoes exhibited a lower lycopene content than untreated fruit under cold storage. Tomatoes treated with 30% CO2 had fewer pits than untreated fruits subjected to chilling temperatures, even after being transferred to 20°C for 8 d. Functional enrichment analyses from transcriptome and metabolome commonly showed that CO2-responsive genes or metabolites were involved in the sucrose and starch and biosynthesis of secondary metabolisms. The most frequently detected domain, ethylene-responsive factor domain and reduced glycolysis provide insights into the mechanism that CO2 regulates tomato quality.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0336.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: apple; fruit size; fruit development; cell division; cell expansion; ripening
Online: 24 June 2022 (09:46:09 CEST)
Apple (Malus x domestica) fruit size is dependent on cell division and cell expansion, processes which are subsequently regulated by plant hormones such as auxins, gibberellins, and cytokinins. In this study, we investigated the role of cell division and cell expansion in apple growth and identified which of the two was more deterministic to final fruit size. Three cultivars of different sizes were selected, namely, ‘Twenty Ounce’ (large-sized), ‘Royal Gala’ (medium-sized), and ‘Crabapple’ (small-sized). Gene expression and cell size analyses were conducted over the course of two consecutive seasons. The expression patterns of three classes of genes were markedly similar across all cultivars. Two cell division markers, namely, MdCDKB2;2 and MdANT2, were discovered to be correlatively expressed as both displayed initially high expression levels, which gradually declined from the early to late stages of growth time course. For cell expansion markers, MdEXP3 was upregulated as the cells expanded, while MdARF106 was expressed in both the cell division and expansion stages. Meanwhile, the ripening related gene MdACO1 was expectedly expressed only during the ending stages associated with ripening. Interestingly, the cell measurements taken regularly from each cultivar throughout the same eperimental timespan showed that cell sizes were unaltered and remained constant from initial pollination at the zeroth Days After Pollination (DAP), to ripening at 120 Days After Full Bloom (DAFB).
Subject: Biology, Horticulture Keywords: Flesh firmness; fruit ripening; ethylene production; ascorbic acid; fruit color
Online: 21 March 2019 (04:50:34 CET)
The peach industry faces serious economic losses because of the short “green” life of the fruit at postharvest. In the present study, we investigated the effects of putrescine (PUT) application on the quality characteristics, pattern of ripening, storage behavior, and shelf life of peach fruit during low-temperature storage. The aqueous solution of PUT (0, 1, 2, and 3 mM) was applied onto the peach trees at three distinctive stages of fruit growth and development. The fruit, harvested at the commercial stage of maturity, were stored at 1 ± 1 °C and 90 ± 2% relative humidity for 6 weeks. The data for fruit firmness, total soluble solids (SSC), titratable acidity (TA), ascorbic acid (AsA) content, rate of ethylene production, chilling injury (CI) index, and color perception were collected at harvest and then on a weekly basis throughout the storage period. The results showed that spray application of PUT significantly reduced the incidence of CI and reduced the rates of fruit softening, loss in fruit weight, SSC, TA, AsA content, and fading of skin color during storage, regardless of the doses of PUT applied or time of application. However, the positive effects on the quality characteristics of peach fruit, including CI, were more pronounced with the higher doses of PUT, specifically when applied at 2 mM. In conclusion, CI in peach fruit may be substantially alleviated by the spray application of 1–3 mM PUT during fruit growth without compromising the quality of the fruit for up to 6 weeks of low-temperature storage.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201712.0200.v1
Subject: Biology, Plant Sciences Keywords: Actinidia deliciosa; ethylene; fruit ripening; mass spectrometry; post-harvest; proteomics
Online: 29 December 2017 (09:01:57 CET)
An understanding of the mechanism underlying fruit ripening is critical for fruit quality improvement. Although post-harvest ethylene application is known to enhance the onset of fruit ripening, exact mechanisms remain unclear. To characterize the fruit ripening process and mechanism, we investigated the effects of exposing kiwifruit cultivars ‘Hayward’ and ‘Gamrok’ to exogenous ethylene treatment post-harvest using comprehensive proteomic analyses. Comparative two-dimensional gel electrophoresis showed that most of the proteins aggregated in ethylene-treated samples compared to the control (non-treated). We observed that among all ethylene treatments, 95 proteins from ‘Hayward’ and 106 from ‘Gamrok’ were differentially expressed. Interestingly, among the elicited protein successfully identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization tandem time-of-flight mass spectrometry, 50% from “Hayward’ and 60% from ‘Gamrok’ are associated with fruit ripening. Furthermore, 18% and 10% of proteins, respectively, are associated with defense response, whereas other major proteins are related to protein biosynthesis and photosynthesis/Calvin cycle. Interactions between identified proteins were demonstrated by bioinformatic analysis, providing insights into biological pathways and molecular functions in post-harvest kiwifruit ripening elicited by ethylene application. The present proteomic study in accordance with physiological analysis provides a quantitative evaluation of fruit ripening in response to exogenous ethylene in post-harvest kiwifruit.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0030.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Kamias (Averrhoa bilimbi); Ripening; Cavendish Banana (Musa acuminata); Experimental; Davao City
Online: 3 May 2020 (07:40:40 CEST)
This paper aims determine the efficacy of Kamias (Averrhoa bilimbi) fruit as a ripening agent for Cavendish banana (Musa acuminata). A quantitative experimental research design was employed in the study. Unripe Cavendish bananas and Kamias fruits were procured from the local market and the fruits were extracted to three different concentrations. Calcium carbide was used as positive control. Six bunches of unripe bananas were allowed to ripe and labeled according to the type of treatment. Ripe bananas were then subjected to sensory evaluation, titratable acidity and Benedict’s tests. Results showed that the use of Kamias fruit allowed ripening of banana for 76 hours while a 25-75% concentration of Kamias fruit extract allowed ripening for 76-96 hours. The bananas treated with Kamias Extract 75% had the highest level of acceptability and titratable acidity while the bananas treated with Kamias fruit had the highest level of reducing sugar. One-Way MANOVA reported that there is a significant difference in the duration of ripening, level of acceptability, titratable acidity and level of reducing sugar when treated with various ripening agents (p<0.05).
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0734.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: abscisic acid; after-ripening; desiccation tolerance; dormancy; germination; gibberellins; LAFL; longevity; seeds
Online: 30 November 2020 (14:41:46 CET)
Desiccation tolerance appeared as the key adaptation feature of photoautotrophic organisms for survival in terrestrial habitats. During the further evolution, vascular plants developed complex anatomy structures and molecular mechanisms to maintain the hydrated state of cell environment, which essentially increased their ability to sustain water deficit and dehydration. However, the role of the genes encoding the mechanisms behind this adaptive feature in the higher vascular plants is restricted to the dehydration protection of spores, seeds and pollen, whereas the mature vegetative stages became sensitive to desiccation. During maturation, orthodox seeds lose up to 95% of their water and successfully enter dormancy. This feature allows seeds maintaining their viability even under strongly fluctuating environmental conditions. The mechanisms behind the desiccation tolerance are activated at the late seed maturation stage and are associated with the accumulation of late embryogenesis abundant proteins (LEA proteins), small heat shock proteins (sHSP), non-reducing oligosaccharides, and antioxidants of different chemical nature. The main regulators of maturation and desiccation tolerance onset are abscisic acid and protein DOG1, which control the network of transcription factors, among which are LEC1, LEC2, FUS3, ABI3, ABI5, AGL67, PLATZ1, PLATZ2. This network is complemented by epigenetic regulation of gene expression by methylation of DNA, post-translational modifications of histones and chromatin remodeling impact on seed desiccation tolerance and longevity. Moreover, orthodox seeds are able to maintain desiccation tolerance during germination up to the stage of radicle protrusion. This time point is critical in the process of seed development, as the seeds lose desiccation tolerance at this moment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0262.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: Metal 3D printing; Computer simulation; Liquid phase sintering; Microstructure; Oswald-Ripening effect
Online: 12 September 2020 (03:46:46 CEST)
The growth of solid particles during liquid phase sintering was modeled by the Cellular Automata method. The binary phase diagram and Fickian approach for the diffusion process were applied to simulate the chemical composition variation in liquid and solid phases during sintering. The Oswald-Ripening effect was considered during the dissolution of the solid phase in the liquid phase. It is used to define the probability of solid-phase dissolution by the liquid phase and develop the model to simulate the alloy with solid solubility. So, the microstructure could be modeled in the liquid phase sintering process.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0252.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: vaginal administration; preterm birth; progesterone; cervical ripening; uterine first-pass effect; vaginal nanoformulation
Online: 15 August 2022 (08:13:44 CEST)
Preterm birth is a leading cause of infant morbidity and mortality in the world. In 2020, 1 in 10 infants were born prematurely in the United States. Globally, the World Health Or-ganization estimates 15 million infants are born prematurely. The efficacy of current ther-apeutic interventions for preterm birth have been called into question due to limited repli-cable success. Recent advancements in the field of nanomedicine have made it possible to utilize the vaginal administration route to effectively and locally deliver drugs to the fe-male reproductive tract. Also, studies using murine models have provided important in-sights about the cervix as a gatekeeper for pregnancy and parturition. It seems plausible that the field of reproductive biology is on the cusp of a paradigm shift in the context of treating preterm birth. The present review focuses on the complexities associated with treating the condition and novel therapeutics that have produced promising results in pre-clinical studies.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0334.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: ethylene; ripening; alternative oxidase; alternative respiration; post-harvest; phytohormone; system 2 ethylene; fruit
Online: 27 November 2019 (06:46:00 CET)
Climacteric fruits are characterized by a dramatic increase in autocatalytic ethylene production, which is accompanied by a spike in respiration, at the onset of ripening. The change in the mode of ethylene production from autoinhibitory to auto-stimulatory is known as the system 1 (S1) to system 2 (S2) transition. Existing physiological models explain the basic and overarching genetic, hormonal, and transcriptional regulatory mechanisms governing the S1 to S2 transition of climacteric fruit. However, the links between ethylene and respiration, the two main factors that characterize the respiratory climacteric, have been largely understudied at the molecular level. Results of recent studies indicate that the AOX respiratory pathway may play an important role in mediating cross talk between ethylene response, carbon metabolism, ATP production, and ROS signaling during climacteric ripening. New genomic, metabolic, and epigenetic information sheds light on the interconnectedness of ripening-associated metabolic pathways, necessitating expanding the current, ethylene-centric physiological models. Understanding points at which ripening responses can be manipulated may reveal key, speciesand cultivar-specific targets for regulation of ripening enabling superior strategies for reducing postharvest wastage.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0136.v1
Subject: Biology, Other Keywords: Electrical anisotropy, Freeze-thaw cycles, Meat electrical bioimpedance, Meat ripening process, Slaughtered meat
Online: 10 May 2019 (15:10:17 CEST)
A portable, electrical impedance spectroscopy device to monitor the bioimpedance’s resistive component of beef meat by injecting a sinusoidal current of 1mA at 65.5 kHz was developed. In 4 slaughtered beef both right and left longissimus dorsi muscles where trimmed and left muscle portion was frozen to -18° C up to 7th day while right one was meantime maintained at 5° C. Median value of specific resistivity of not-frozen sample was about twice Ω cm-1 with respect of that of frozen-thawed sample (P = 0.004). It was concluded that the device is reliable to monitoring the ripening of beef meat in situ.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0089.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: firmness; Vaccinium; ripening; cell wall; crispy; quantitative genetics; breeding; molecular markers; genome editing
Online: 5 August 2018 (10:11:33 CEST)
Blueberry (Vaccinium spp.) has been recognized worldwide as a valuable source of health-promoting compounds, becoming a crop with some of the fastest rising consumer demand trends. Fruit firmness is a key target for blueberry breeding as it directly affects fruit quality, consumer preference, transportability, shelf life, and the ability of cultivars to be machine harvested. Fruit softening naturally occurs during berry development, maturation, and postharvest ripening. However, some genotypes are better at retaining firmness than others, and some are crispy, which is a putatively extra-firmness phenotype that provides a distinct eating experience. In this review, we summarized important studies addressing the firmness trait in blueberry, focusing on physiological and molecular changes affecting this trait at the onset of ripening and also the genetic basis of firmness variation across individuals. New insights into these topics were also achieved by using previously available data and historical records from the blueberry breeding program at the University of Florida. The complex quantitative nature of firmness in an autopolyploid species such as blueberry imposes additional challenges for the implementation of molecular techniques in breeding. However, we highlighted some recent genomics-based studies and the potential of a QTL mapping analysis and genome editing protocols such as CRISPR to further assist and accelerate the breeding process for this important trait.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0325.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: phenotyping; proximal sensing; reflectance imaging; vegetation indices; hyperspectral reflectance; chlorophylls; carotenoids; anthocyanins; senescence; ripening
Online: 21 December 2021 (12:23:13 CET)
Hyperspectral reflectance imaging is an emerging method for rapid non-invasive quantitative screening of plant traits. This method is essential for high-throughput phenotyping and hence for accelerated breeding of crop plants as well as for precision agriculture practices. However, extraction of sensible information from reflectance images is hindered by the complexity of plant optical properties, especially when they are measured in the field. We propose using reflectance indices (Plant Senescence Reflectance Index, PSRI; Anthocyanin Reflectance Index, ARI; and spectral deconvolution) previously developed for remote sensing of vegetation and point-based reflectometers to infer the spatially resolved information on plant development and biochemical composition using ripening apple fruit as the model. Specifically, the proposed approach enables capturing data on distribution of chlorophylls and primary carotenoids as well as secondary carotenoids (both linked with fruit ripening and leaf senescence during plant development) as well as the information on spatial distribution of anthocyanins (known as stress pigments) over the plant surface. We argue that the proposed approach would enrich the phenotype assessments made on the base of reflectance image analysis with valuable information on plant physiological condition, stress acclimation state, and the progression of the plant development.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0675.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: Fruit ripening; gingerglycolipid A; HPLC-HRMS; melatonin; nitric oxide; phytosphingosin; quercetin; transcriptomics; L-tryptophan
Online: 26 March 2021 (15:44:51 CET)
Plant species are precursors of a wide variety of secondary metabolites that, besides having useful activity for themselves, can also be used by humans for their consumption and economic benefit. Pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) fruit is not only a common food and spice source, but it also stands out for containing high amounts of antioxidants (such as vitamins C and A), polyphenols and capsaicinoids. Particular attention has been paid to capsaicin, whose anti-inflammatory, antiproliferative and analgesic activities, have been proven. Due to the potential interest in pepper metabolites for human use, in this project, we carried out an investigation to identify new bioactive compounds of this crop is carried out. To achieve this, we developed a metabolomic approach, using an HPLC (high-performance liquid chromatography) separative technique coupled to metabolite identification by high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS). After chromatographic analysis and data processing against metabolic databases, 12 differential bioactive compounds were identified in sweet pepper fruits, including quercetin and its derivatives, L-tryptophan, phytosphingosin, FAD, gingerglycolipid A, tetrahydropentoxylin, blumenol C glucoside, colnelenic acid and capsoside A. The abundance of these metabolites varied depending on the ripening stage of the fruits, either immature green or ripe red. We also studied the variation of these 12 metabolites upon treatment with exogenous nitric oxide (NO), a free radical gas involved in a good number of physiological processes in higher plants such as germination, growth, flowering, senescence, and fruit ripening, among others. Overall, it was found that the content of the analysed metabolites was modulated by the ripening stage and by the presence of NO. The metabolic pattern followed by quercetin and its derivatives, as a consequence of the ripening stage and NO treatment, was also corroborated by transcriptomic analysis of genes involved in the synthesis of these compounds. This opens new research windows on the pepper fruit’s bioactive compounds with nutraceutical potentiality, where biotechnological strategies can be applied for optimizing the level of these beneficial compounds.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0082.v1
Subject: Materials Science, General Materials Science Keywords: bismuth vanadate, molten salt synthesis, platelet morphology, multi-foil shape, Wulff shape, Ostwald ripening
Online: 12 March 2018 (06:46:50 CET)
10% copper substituted (BiCUVOX/Bi2V0.9Cu0.1O5.5−δ) and 5% copper/titanium double-substituted bismuth vanadate (BiCUTIVOX/Bi2V0.9(Cu0.05Ti0.05)O5.5−δ) platelets were formed by molten salt synthesis (MSS) using a eutectic KCl/NaCl salt mixture. The product was phase pure within the limits of X-ray diffraction. The size and form of the platelets could be controlled by changing the heating temperature and time. The crystallite growth rate at a synthesis temperature of 650 °C, and activation energy for grain growth were determined for BICUTIVOX, which experienced inhibited growth compared to BICUVOX. Quasi-equilibrium, multi-foil shapes consisting of lobes around the perimeter of the platelets were observed and explained in the context of relative two-dimensional nucleation and edge growth rates.