ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0459.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: bioactivity; phytochemistry; cytostatic, cytotoxicity; microalga
Online: 20 May 2021 (09:11:44 CEST)
New resources of food, pharmaceuticals or biotechnological products are needed. The huge biodiversity of aero-terrestrial lichen-symbiont microalgae remains unexplored. Viability of these for human consumption demands the demonstration of the absence of toxic effects. In vitro biocompatibility of crude homogenates of axenic microalga Asterochloris erici, symbiotic in the lichen Cladonia cristatella, was analyzed after treatment of cultured L929 fibroblasts with different doses of microalgal homogenates. The results show that crude homogenates of A. erici do not induce fibroblast cytotoxicity but seem to have some cytostatic effect inducing slight cell cycle alterations and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) increase at the highest dose. Carotenoid analysis demonstrates high content of lutein, a xanthophyll with antioxidant and cytostatic properties in vivo. These findings confirm that Asterochloris erici can be considered suitable for the development of alimentary or pharmaceutical applications. The cytostatic effects should be further investigated for antitumor agents.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0219.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Medicinal Chemistry Keywords: phytochemistry; biological activities; Apocynaceae family
Online: 21 June 2019 (18:28:55 CEST)
This review aims at studying the phytochemistry and biological activities of some selected Apocynaceae plants. Eleven members of this family were reviewed for their phytochemistry and biological activities. Interestingly, the commonly isolated compounds reported from Mondia whitei (Hook.f.) Skeels, Secondatia floribunda A. DC, Carissa carandas, Tabernaemontana divaricate, Nerium oleander, Wrightia tinctoria, T. divaricate, Alstonia scholaris, Carrisa spinarum Linn, Thevetia peruviana and Caralluma lasiantha were triterpenoids, flavonoids, phytosterols, cardiac glycosides and lignans. All of them exhibited remarkable biological activities, mostly similar to each other. This review provides a detailed insight into the pharmacological activities of these selected members of this family.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0020.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: Ehretia laevis; Pharmacological Activities; Phytochemistry; Traditional Use
Online: 4 May 2021 (13:59:18 CEST)
Ehretia laevis Roxb. (Boraginaceae) has been extensively used as a traditional remedy for the treatment of a diverse range of ailments related to the respiratory system, the gastrointestinal tract, the reproductive system, and against several infections. This review critically assesses and documents, for the ﬁrst time, the fragmented information on E. laevis, including its botanical description, folklore uses, bioactive phytometabolites and pharmacological activities. The goal is to explore this plant therapeutically. Ethnomedicinal surveys reveal that E. laevis has been used by tribal communities in Asian countries for the treatment of various disorders. Quantitative and qualitative phytochemical investigations of E. laevis showed the presence of important phytoconstituents such as pentacyclic triterpenoids, phenolic acids, flavonoids, fatty acids, steroids, alkaloids, aliphatic alcohols, hydrocarbons, amino acids, carbohydrates, vitamins and minerals. Fresh plant parts, crude extracts, fractions and isolated compounds have been reported to exhibit broad spectrum of therapeutic activities viz., antioxidant, antiarthritic, antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory, antiulcer, antidiarrheal, antidysenteric, wound healing and anti-infective activities. E. laevis is shown to be an excellent potential source of drugs for the mitigation of jaundice, asthma, dysentery, ulcers, diarrhea, ringworm, eczema, diabetes, fissure, syphilis, cuts and wounds, inflammation, liver problems, venereal and infectious disorders. Although few investigations authenticated its traditional uses but employed uncharacterized crude extracts of the plant, the major concerns raised are reproducibility of therapeutic efficacy and safety of plant material. The outcomes of limited pharmacological screening and reported bioactive compounds of E. laevis suggest that there is an urgent need for in-depth pharmacological investigations of the plant.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201711.0148.v1
Online: 23 November 2017 (04:04:18 CET)
Baobab (Adansonia digitata) leaves are usually used in dry form in the preparation of a soup known as ‘miyan kuka’ in Northern Nigeria. The leaves are believed to have nutritional and medicinal benefits and have been used for those purposes in Africa and Asia. However there has been limited research on the detailed constituents of the dry leaves. In this study, phytochemical, elemental and proximate analyses of stored, sun and shade-dried baobab leaves were conducted. The results revealed a great variation in the nutritional contents of the leaves. The study reveals that the leaves are rich in phytochemicals such as glycosides, saponins, steroids and flavonoids while alkaloids, tannins and resins are absent. Also, they are important source of minerals such as zinc, copper, iron and manganese. In addition, they are rich in fibre, crude protein, nitrogen and ash. Contrasting responses were obtained in the samples studied. The implications of these responses are discussed in relation to crop yield.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0387.v1
Subject: Biology, Plant Sciences Keywords: Artocarpus; Artocarpus camansi; kamansi; phytochemistry; pharmacology; secondary metabolites
Online: 26 July 2022 (05:52:46 CEST)
Artocarpus camansi Blanco or breadnut (Family: Moraceae) is primarily found in tropical regions of the world. Different parts of the plant provide potential use in medicine, nutraceutical development, and livelihood. The present review attempts to document literature on the traditional use, nutritional value, phytochemistry, and pharmacological investigation carried out with breadnuts. The included literatures of the plant were collected from various sources and databases like Google scholar, PubMed, ScienceDirect, Crossref, and Scopus. Breadnuts are rich in secondary metabolites. Studies have reported the isolation of several triterpenoid compounds and the broad spectrum of its pharmacological activities such as antidiabetic, antimalarial, antioxidant, anti-tumor, antibacterial, and immunomodulatory properties. The approximate composition of the seed and the fruit also highlights the nutritional importance of this plant. A. camansi Blanco is an underutilized tree that holds significant potential if further research and sustainable conservation is applied. Efforts to mainstream its use as functional food and increase awareness among the locals should also be given attention.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0271.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pharmacology & Toxicology Keywords: Annonaceae; Annona; custard apple; phytochemistry; bioactivity; pharmacological activity
Online: 28 April 2022 (04:16:02 CEST)
In 1789, the Annonaceae family was cataloged by de Jussieu. It encompasses tropical and subtropical plants which are widespread in distribution across various continents such as Asia, South and Central America, Australia and Africa. The genus of Annona is one of the 120 genera of the Annonaceae family and contains more than 119 species of trees and shrubs. The majority of these species are found in tropical America with more than 105 species (26 of them are endemic). Due to its edible fruits and medicinal properties, Annona is the most important genus of Annonaceae family. Despite Annona having many species, only limited species of this family are economically important such as A. squamosa L. (sugar apple), A. cherimola Mill. (Cherimoya), A. muricata L. (guanabana or soursop), A. atemoya Mabb. (atemoya), a hybrid between A. cherimola and A. squamosa, A. reticulata L. (custard apple), A. glabra L. (pond-apple) and A. macroprophyllata Donn. Sm. (ilama). Phytochemically, several classes of secondary metabolites such as acetogenins, essential oils, alkaloids, terpenoids and flavonoids have been described in this genus. A variety of pharmacological activities have been reported from various parts of Annona species specially leaves and seeds including applications against antibacterial, anticancer, antidiabetic and anti-inflammatory.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0304.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Other Keywords: Pedicularis L. genus; Orobanchaceae family; Phytochemistry; Chemotaxonomy; Ethnopharmacology
Online: 29 June 2019 (10:34:48 CEST)
In this review, the relevance of plants belonging to the Pedicularis L. genus was explored from different points of view. Particular emphasys was given especially to the phytochemistry and the ethnopharmacology of the genus since several classes of natural compounds have been evidenced within it and several Pedicularis species are well known to be employed in the traditional medicine of many Asian countries. Nevertheless, some important conclusions on the chemotaxonomic and chemosystematic aspects of the genus were also provided for the first time. This work represents the first total comprehensive review on the genus Pedicularis.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201612.0048.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pharmacology & Toxicology Keywords: Cortex Periplocae; traditional Chinese medicines; periplocin; phytochemistry; biological activities
Online: 8 December 2016 (10:24:43 CET)
Cortex Periplocae, as a traditional Chinese herbal medicine, has been widely used for autoimmune diseases, especially rheumatoid arthritis. Due to its potential pharmaceutical values, more studies about the biological activities of Cortex Periplocae have been conducted recently. Meanwhile, the adverse reaction of Cortex Periplocae is not a negligible problem in clinic. In this article, we reviewed a series of articles and summarized the recent studies of Cortex Periplocae in the areas of phytochemistry and pharmacology. More than 100 constituents have been isolated and identified from Cortex Periplocae, including steroids, cardiac glycosides, terpenoids, and fatty acid compounds. The crude extracts of Cortex Periplocae and its active compounds exhibit various biological activities, such as cardiotonic effect, anticancer action, and anti-inflammatory effect. This paper aims to provide an overall review on the bioactive ingredients, pharmacological effect, and toxicity of this plant. Furthermore, this review suggests investigating and developing new clinical usages according to the above pharmacological effects.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0130.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Rivea hypocrateriformis (Desr.) Choisy; Traditional medicines; Phytochemistry; Biological activity; Pharmacology
Online: 3 March 2021 (11:46:16 CET)
Rivea hypocrateriformis (Desr.) Choisy is a robust woody climbing shrub of the genus Rivea which is found in India, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Myanmar and Thailand. R. hypocrateriformis is a promising medicinal herb with enormous helpful and wellbeing advancing impacts. R. hypocrateriformis has been utilized as a customary medication for a long time to treat rheumatic pain, fever, urogenital problem, snake bite, cough, piles, malaria, and skin disease. Apart from the traditional uses its leaves and young shoots are cooked and eaten as a vegetable and for preparation of bread with millet flour. This review comprehensively summarizes the up-to-date information on the botanical characterization, distribution, traditional uses, phytochemistry, pharmacology and toxicity study of R. hypocrateriformis. Phytochemical investigation has been revealed that alkaloids, glycosides, coumarins, flavonoids, xanthones, stilbenes, and other organic compounds are contained in R. hypocrateriformis. Crude extracts and isolated compounds have exhibited numerous pharmacological activities such as anovulatory effect, antifertility activity, antiarthritic, antimicrobial, anticancer, antioxidant, hepatoprotective, antilithiatic, antimitotic. R. hypocrateriformis is a promising restorative spice with monstrous remedial and wellbeing advancing impacts. Along these lines, further investigations on the bioactive mixtures and systems of R. hypocrateriformis are justified. Extra clinical and toxicological examinations are expected to assess its wellbeing.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0272.v1
Subject: Biology, Plant Sciences Keywords: Apiaceae plant; Traditional use; Phytochemistry; Bolting and flowering; Controlling approach; Lignification
Online: 15 December 2022 (07:18:54 CET)
Ethnopharmacological relevance: Apiaceae plants have been widely used as traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) for the treatment of removing dampness to relieve pain, relaxing tendons, and activating blood, as well as relieving superficies and dispelling cold. Aim of the review: This review aims to summarize the traditional use, phytochemistry, and modern pharmacological use of Apiaceae medicinal plants (AMPs), highlight the effect of bolting and flowering (BF) on yield and quality, and provide a basis for controlling the BF. Materials and methods: All literatures involved in AMPs were searched using various online databases (e.g., PubMed, Web of science, Google Scholar, Springer, and CNKI). Additional information was collected from ethnobotanical literature focusing on herbs from Flora of China and local herbal classic literature. Result: A total of 228 AMPs have been recorded to be used as TCMs, with 6 medicinal parts (i.e., the whole plants, rhizomes and/or roots, stems, leaves, fruits, and seeds) categorized, 72 traditional uses (e.g., relieving pain, dispelling wind, and eliminating dampness) enriched, 62 modern pharmacological uses (e.g., anti-inflammatory, antioxidative, and antitumor activities) enriched, and 5 main kinds of metabolites (i.e., polysaccharides, alkaloids, phenylpropanoids, flavonoids, and terpenoids) categorized. Based on the influence level of BF on the yield and quality, 38 rhizomatous AMPs are categorized into 3 classes including: significantly affected, differently affected to some extent, and no significantly affected. Although the mechanism of BF inducing the rhizome lignification has been revealed to some extent, and several attempts have been made to control the BF, especially in Angelica sinensis, the problem of BF has not been solved in the practical production. Conclusions: So far, the traditional use of the 228 AMPs has been recorded, while the phytochemistry and modern pharmacological researches are still limited, thus, it is a treasure to find out new therapeutic agents. Since the BF regulated by internal factors and external factors have been demonstrated, and several key genes involved in BF have been identified, thus, it is available to control the BF by planting with standard techniques and innovating new cultivars using the CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing system. This review will provide useful references for the exploration and utilization, as well as the improvement of yield and quality of AMPs.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0277.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Solidago vigaurea L.; European goldenrod; Asteraceae; ethnomedicinal; phytochemistry; distribution; pharmacological activity
Online: 13 October 2020 (11:38:26 CEST)
Solidago virgaurea L. (European goldenrod, Woundwort), Asteraceae, is a familiar medicinal plant in Europe and other parts of the world, widely used and among the most researched species from its genus. The aerial parts of European goldenrod have long been used for urinary tract conditions and as an anti-inflammatory agent in the traditional medicine of different peoples. Its main chemical constituents are flavonoids (mainly derived from quercetin and kaempferol), C6-C1 and C6-C3 compounds, terpenes (mostly from the essential oil), and a large number of saponin molecules (mainly virgaureasaponins and solidagosaponins). Published research on its potential activities is critically reviewed here: antioxidant, antiinflammatory, analgesic, spasmolitic, antihypertensive, diuretic, antibacterial, antifungal, antiparasite, cytotoxic and antitumor, antimutagenic, antiadipogenic, antidiabetic, cardioprotective, and antisenescence. The evidence concerning its potential benefits is mainly derived from non-clinical studies, some effects are rather modest, whereas others are more promising, but need more confirmation in both non-clinical models and clinical trials.