REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0498.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Immunology Keywords: Secretory IgA; IgA class switching; SARS-CoV-2; respiratory pathogens; nasal vaccines; vaccine adjuvants
Online: 30 August 2022 (02:33:19 CEST)
Nasal cavity is a primary checkpoint for the invasion of several respiratory pathogens. Numerous pathogens including SARS-CoV-2, S. pneumonia, S. aureus, etc., adhere to the nasal epithelium or mucus to invade and trigger an infection. IgA serves as the first line of defense against foreign antigens and pathogens. They exhibit cross-reactivity against a diverse variety of antigens through immune exclusion, which intercepts the invasion of pathogens through the mucosal lining. Advances in intranasal immunization technology underscore the elevated neutralizing IgA levels at local and distal mucosa in contrast to the parenteral vaccines. This review highlights the adjuvants that induce IgA class switching and the challenges of maintaining nominal IgA levels at the mucosal surface. Finally, the review features the paradigm-shifting of conventional immunization techniques to IgA-inducing vaccines to enhance protection against homologous and heterologous pathogens.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0408.v1
Online: 15 April 2021 (12:06:40 CEST)
Background: The ongoing outbreak of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) represents a major threat to human health, which impairs the functionality of several organs. One of the hardest challenges in the fight against COVID-19 is the development of wide-scale, effective, and rapid laboratory tests to control disease severity, progression, and possible sudden worsening. Monitoring patients in real-time is indeed highly demanded in this pandemic era when physicians need reliable and quantitative tools to prioritize patients’ access to intensive care departments. In this regard, salivary biomarkers are extremely promising, as they allow for a fast and non-invasive specimens’ collection, which can be repeated multiple times. Methods: We compare salivary levels of immunoglobulin A subclasses (IgA1 and IgA2) and free-light chains (FLC k and λ) in a cohort of 29 SARS-CoV-2 patients and 21 healthy subjects. Results: We found that each biomarkers differs significantly between the two groups, with p-values ranging from 10-8 to 10-4. The performance ranking of these markers, shows that λFLC level (p=1.4e-8) is the best-suited candidate to discriminate the two groups, with an accuracy of 0.94 (0.87-1.00 95% CI), a precision of 0.91 (0.81-1.00 95% CI), a sensitivity of 1.00 (0.96-1.00 95% CI) and a specificity of 0.86 (0.70-1.00 95% CI). Conclusion: These results suggest λFLC as an ideal indicator of patient conditions. This is more strengthened in consideration that λFLC half-life (approximately 6 hours) is significantly shorter than the IgA one (21 days): thus λFLC appears displaying the potential to effectively monitor patients fluctuation in real-time.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0337.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pharmacology & Toxicology Keywords: Periostracum cicadae; IgA nephropathy; inflammation; fibrosis; apoptosis
Online: 24 May 2018 (06:32:22 CEST)
Periostracum cicadae, the cast-off shell of the cicada Cryptotympana pustulata Fabricius, is used in traditional Chinese medicine for its diaphoretic, anticonvulsive, sedative, antipyretic, and antiallergic effects. However, the exact pathogenesis of immunoglobulin A nephropathy (IgAN) remains unclear, thereby hindering investigations to identify novel therapeutic agents. A rat IgAN model was established by administration of bovine serum albumin, lipopolysaccharide, and carbon tetrachloride, which simultaneously established blood stasis and a heat syndrome model. The animals were sacrificed to detect changes in protein levels in urine and blood. Immunofluorescence was performed to assess IgA deposition in the glomeruli. Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), and interleukin 6 (IL-6) levels were measured in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Hematology and eosin, periodic acid-Schiff, TUNEL, and immunohistochemical staining were performed to evaluate histopathological changes in kidney tissues. Additionally, target-related proteins were measured by western blotting. Periostracum cicadae resulted in a reduction in blood and urine protein levels. Serum TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 levels significantly decreased in the periostracum cicadae-treated groups compared to the IgAN group. Furthermore, a reduction in MCP-1, TLR4, and IgA expression levels and a dose- dependent increase in caspace-3 expression were observed in response to periostracum cicadae treatment. TGF-β1 levels decreased, whereas that of Fas increased in the kidney tissues of the periostracum cicadae-treated groups. The findings of the present study indicate that periostracum cicadae induces apoptosis and improves kidney inflammation and fibrosis in IgA nephropathy rat models.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0039.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: LAIV, Influenza, HA, IgA, IgG, vaccine, genome rearrangement
Online: 1 June 2021 (15:02:27 CEST)
Influenza B virus (IBV) is considered a major respiratory pathogen responsible for seasonal respiratory disease in humans, particularly severe in children and the elderly. Seasonal influenza vaccination is considered the most efficient strategy to prevent and control IBV infections. Live attenuated influenza virus vaccines (LAIVs) are thought to induce both humoral and cellular immune responses by mimicking a natural infection, but their effectiveness have recently come into question. Thus, the opportunity exists to find alternative approaches to improve overall influenza vaccine effectiveness. Two alternative IBV backbones were developed with re-arranged genomes, re-arranged M (FluB-RAM) and a re-arranged NS (FluB-RANS). Both re-arranged viruses showed temperature sensitivity in vitro compared to the WT type B/Bris strain, were genetically stable over multiple passages in embryonated chicken eggs and were attenuated in vivo in mice. In a prime-boost regime in naïve mice, both re-arranged viruses induced antibodies against HA with hemagglutination inhibition titers considered of protective value. In addition, antibodies against NA and NP were readily detected with potential protective value. Upon lethal IBV challenge, mice previously vaccinated with either FluB-RAM or FluB-RANS were completely protected against clinical disease and mortality. In conclusion, genome re-arrangement renders efficacious LAIV candidates to protect mice against IBV.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0180.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: LAIV, Influenza, HA, IGIP, IgA, IgG, vaccine, natural adjuvant
Online: 7 June 2021 (13:03:43 CEST)
Live attenuated influenza virus (LAIV) vaccines elicit a combination of systemic and mucosal immunity by mimicking a natural infection. To further enhance protective mucosal responses, we incorporated the gene encoding the IgA-inducing protein (IGIP) into the LAIV genomes of the cold-adapted A/Leningrad/134/17/57 (H2N2) strain (caLen) and the experimental attenuated backbone A/turkey/Ohio/313053/04 (H3N2) (OH/04att). Incorporation of IGIP into the caLen background led to a virus that grew poorly in prototypical substrates. In contrast, IGIP in the OH/04att background (IGIP-H1att) virus grew to titers comparable to the isogenic backbone H1att (H1N1) without IGIP. IGIP-H1att- and H1caLen-vaccinated mice were protected against lethal challenge with a homologous virus. The IGIP-H1att vaccine generated robust serum HAI responses in naïve mice against the homologous virus, equal or better than those obtained with the H1caLen vaccine. Analyses of IgG and IgA responses using a protein microarray revealed qualitative differences in humoral and mucosal responses between vaccine groups. Overall, serum and bronchoalveolar lavage samples from the IGIP-H1att group showed trends towards increased stimulation of IgG and IgA responses compared to H1caLen samples. In summary, introduction of genes encoding immunomodulatory functions into a candidate LAIV that can serve as natural adjuvants to improve overall vaccine safety and efficacy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0207.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Immunology Keywords: antibody; Isotype IgA; Pertuzumab; allosteric; biologics; constant region; variable region
Online: 15 May 2018 (07:51:15 CEST)
Therapeutics antibodies have increasingly shifted the paradigm of disease treatments, from small molecules to biologics, especially in cancer therapy. Despite the increasing number of antibody candidates, much remains unknown about the antibody and how its various regions interact. In fact, the constant region can govern effects that might be useful in reducing the unwanted consequences resulted from systemic circulation. For this reason, apart from the commonly used IgG isotypes, IgA antibodies are promising therapeutics drugs, given its localized mucosal effects. While the antibody Fc effector cell activity has been well explored, recent research has shown evidences that the constant region of the antibody can also influence antigen binding, challenging the conventional idea of region-specific antibody functions. To further investigate this, we analyzed the IgA antibody constant and its allosteric effects onto the antigen binding regions, using recombinant Pertuzumab IgA1 and IgA2 variants. We found mutations in the C-region to reduce Her2 binding, and our computational structural analysis showed that such allosteric communications were highly dependent on the antibody hinge, providing the evidence to consider antibodies as a whole protein rather than a sum of functional regions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0055.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: IgA vasculitis; antiphospholipid antibodies; lupus anticoagulant; anticardiolipin antibodies; anti-b2 glycoprotein antibodies
Online: 2 December 2020 (10:36:58 CET)
IgA vasculitis is a hypersensitivity vasculitis, which is usually self-limiting. Renal involvement is the most damaging long-term complication of IgA vasculitis, happening in 20% - 100% of cases. Some factors have been reported to be associated with renal involvement in IgA vasculitis; however, no biomarker has been proved as a risk factor for renal involvement and its severity yet. We followed 48 patients with a confirmed diagnosis of IgA vasculitis for six months. We checked these patients for renal involvement by microscopic urine examination. We checked aPL antibodies in all patients on admission and 12 weeks later. Urinalysis showed renal involvement in 14 of 48 patients with IgA vasculitis (29.16%). Antiphospholipid antibodies were positive in 9 patients with IgA vasculitis and renal involvement (9 out of 14, 64.28%), while they were positive in only six patients with IgA vasculitis without renal involvement (6 out of 34, 17.64%), showing a moderate correlation between positive aLP and renal involvement in patients with IgA vasculitis, with a kappa index of 0.457. Serum aPL antibodies, as a tool to predict renal involvement in IgA vasculitis, show a sensitivity of 64.3%, a specificity of 82.4%, PPV of 60.0%, and NPV of 84.8%, demonstrating that a positive serum aPL antibody can be used to positively predict the renal involvement, while a negative result is not strong enough to rule out future renal involvement.