ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0392.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biotechnology Keywords: Age-related Macular Degeneration; Artificial Intelligence; Machine Learning; Optical Coherence Tomography; Fundus Autofluorescence; regular fundus photography; Ultra-Widefield Fundus
Online: 21 November 2022 (12:14:18 CET)
Age-related Macular Degeneration (AMD) is one of the most causes for elders’ vision loss, early screening and treatment are the most efficient way to reduce the rate of blindness. AI-based methods based on ophthalmic images play a gat potential for AMD diagnosis. However, the difficulty of computing device obtaining, multiple evidence of image sources, time-wasting, and low level of explanation are challenges for AI models applicated in clinics. Thus, this study proposed a fusion learning method for AMD detection. Three steps are involved, which are image feature extraction, feature matrix fusion, and MLP-based AMD classification. Unsupervised (Hierarchical Clustering, SVM, and ResNet-K Means), supervised (VGG-16 and ResNet) methods and the proposed method are compared based on Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT), Fundus Autofluorescence (FAF), regular fundus photography (RCFP) and Ultra-Widefield Fundus (UWF), respectively and comprehensively. Findings show that the proposed method presents a high performance for integrated ophthalmic image diagnosis, it is timesaving (0.09s per image) with high precision (0.95), sensitivity (0.93), specificity (0.92) and AUC (0.94). Thus, this study concluded that the proposed method is a solution to AMD automatic quick detecting based on multiple data sources. A real-world UWF database is involved from Shenzhen Aier Hospital. Practical and theoretical contributions are delivered. A reference value for medical diagnosis based on multiple digital images is contributed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0241.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Genetics Keywords: Mfrp; Adipor1; genetic interaction; fundus spots; photoreceptor degeneration; axial length.
Online: 14 December 2021 (14:55:19 CET)
Adipor1tm1Dgen and Mfrprd6 mutant mice share similar eye disease characteristics. Previously, studies established a functional relationship of ADIPOR1 and MFRP proteins in maintaining retinal lipidome homeostasis and visual function. However, the independent and/or interactive contribution of both the genes to similar disease phenotypes, including fundus spots, decreased axial length and photoreceptor degeneration has yet to be examined. We performed a gene-interaction study where homozygous Adipor1tm1Dgen and Mfrprd6 mice were bred together and the resulting doubly heterozygous F1 offspring were intercrossed to produce 210 F2 progeny. Four-month-old mice from all nine genotypic combinations obtained in the F2 generation were assessed for white spots by fundus photo documentation, for axial length by caliper measurements, and for photoreceptor degeneration by histology. Two-way factorial ANOVA was performed to study individual as well as gene interaction effects on each phenotype. Here, we report the first observation of reduced axial length in Adipor1tmlDgen homozygotes. We show that while Adipor1 and Mfrp interact to affect spotting and degeneration, they act independently to control axial length, highlighting the complex functional association between these two genes. Further examination of the molecular basis of this interaction may help in uncovering mechanisms by which these genes perturb ocular homeostasis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0153.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: Diabetic Retinopathy; Fundus Images; Retina,; Support vector machine; K-Means Clustering.
Online: 8 November 2021 (14:59:13 CET)
The complication of people with diabetes causes an illness known as Diabetic Retinopathy (DR). It is very widespread among middle-aged and older people. As diabetes progresses, patients' vision may deteriorate and cause DR. People to lose their vision because of this illness. To cope with DR, early detection is needed. Patients will have to be checked by doctors regularly, which is a waste of time and energy. DR can be divided into two groups: non-proliferative (NPDR) while the other is proliferative (PDR). In this study, machine learning (ML) techniques are used to diagnose DR early. These are PNN, SVM, Bayesian Classification, and K-Means Clustering. These techniques will be evaluated and compared with each other to choose the best methodology. A total of 300 fundus photographs are processed for training and testing. The features are extracted from these raw images using image processing techniques. After an experiment, it is concluded that PNN has an accuracy of about 89%, Bayes Classifications 94%, SVM 97%, and K-Means Clustering 87%. The preliminary results prove that SVM is the best technique for early detection of DR.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0301.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Ophthalmology Keywords: Glaucoma; Intraocular Pressure(IOP); fundus images; early detection; Cup-to-Disk Ratio(CDR)
Online: 19 June 2018 (13:54:42 CEST)
Glaucoma is a disease associated with retina of eye. Presently, millions of human being is suffering from this disease. Early detection of these diseases can save the people from blindness. Therefore, various methods have been developed for its detection. In this paper, we have studied the reported methods and summarized their performance in terms of accuracy of detection.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0469.v2
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Other Keywords: U-shape network; fully convolutional networks; deep learning; macula fovea; ultra-widefield Fundus images
Online: 7 September 2021 (11:51:17 CEST)
Macula fovea detection is a crucial prerequisite towards screening and diagnosing macular diseases. Without early detection and proper treatment, any abnormality involving the macula may lead to blindness. However, with the ophthalmologist shortage and time-consuming artificial evaluation, neither accuracy nor effectiveness of the diagnose process could be guaranteed. In this project, we proposed a deep learning approach on ultra-widefield fundus (UWF) images for macula fovea detection. This study collected 2300 ultra-widefield fundus images from Shenzhen Aier Eye Hospital in China. Methods based on U-shape network (Unet) and Fully Convolutional Networks (FCN) are implemented on 1800 (before amplifying process) training fundus images, 400 (before amplifying process) validation images and 100 test images. Three professional ophthalmologists were invited to mark the fovea. A method from the anatomy perspective is investigated. This approach is derived from the spatial relationship between macula fovea and optic disc center in UWF. A set of parameters of this method is set based on the experience of ophthalmologists and verified to be effective. Results are measured by calculating the Euclidean distance between proposed approaches and the accurate grounded standard, which is detected by Ultra-widefield swept-source optical coherence tomograph (UWF-OCT) approach. Through a comparation of proposed methods, we conclude that, deep learning approach of Unet outperformed other methods on macula fovea detection tasks, by which outcomes obtained are comparable to grounded standard method.