ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0114.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Acoustics Keywords: sensor; virus; detection; electromagnetic echo effect
Online: 4 December 2020 (14:36:35 CET)
Early identification of viruses leads to more efficient disease management and control, and is extremely important. A possible new approach for creating virus sensors is the Electromagnetic echo effect (EMEE). An important feature is that the signal from EMEE is highly dependent on the state of the irradiated body. This makes it possible to control ongoing reactions, even if these reactions are invisible to the human eye or other equipment. This article shows the possibility of registering reaction occurring in the presence of an avian coronavirus causing infectious bronchitis, strain Massachusetts. The same methodology can be applied for other types of viruses as well.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0582.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Assessment; echo; flood; rescue; risk; swiftwater; tool; srirac
Online: 23 November 2020 (13:43:21 CET)
Currently there is no multi-hazard risk assessment tool for determining the level of complexity to swiftwater and flood rescue incidents. Traditionally, the International Scale of River Difficulty is used but it is primarily for paddlers for use in a recreational context, without much consideration to the multitude of hazards faced in swiftwater and flood rescue environments. In response to this gap, the ECHO risk assessment tool has been developed and undergone initial testing. This tool provides for simple and rapid codification of multiple hazards and response considerations and is globally applicable. The tool also assigns a final risk assessment colour making the interpretation of the assessment easy to understand and communicate. Though the proposed tool shows potential, further research is needed before it should be operationalised.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0435.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Condensed Matter Physics Keywords: spin glasses; disordered systems; magnetism; neutron spin echo
Online: 27 June 2018 (08:56:21 CEST)
Using the unique combination of atomically resolved atom probe tomography (APT) and volume averaged neutron (resonance) spin echo (NRSE and NSE) experiments, the influence of nano-scaled clusters on the spin relaxation in spin glasses was studied. For this purpose, the phase transition from the paramagnetic phase to the spin glass phase in a Fe-Cr spin glass with a composition of Fe17.8Cr82.2 was studied in detail by means of NRSE. The microstructure was characterised by APT measurements, which show local concentration fluctuations of Fe and Cr on a length scale of 2 to 5 nm, which lead i) to the coexistence of ferro- and anti-ferromagnetic clusters and ii) a change of the magnetic properties of the whole sample, even in the spin glass phase, where spins are supposed to be randomly frozen. We show that a generalized spin glass relaxation function, which was successfully used to describe the phase transition in diluted spin glasses, can also be used for fitting the spin dynamics in spin glasses with significant concentration fluctuations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0669.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: antenna; digital beamforming; reflection; frequency modulated continuous wave; target echo
Online: 26 November 2020 (11:20:08 CET)
In this paper, a high-performance antenna array system model is presented to analyze moving-object-skin-returns and track them in the presence of stationary objects using frequency modulated continuous wave (FMCW). The main features of the paper are bonding the aspects of antenna array and electromagnetic (EM) wave multi-skin-return modeling and simulation (M&S) with the aspects of algorithm and measurement/tracking system architecture. The M&S aspect models both phase and amplitude of the signal waveform from a transmitter to the signal processing in a receiver. In the algorithm aspect, a novel scheme for FMCW signal processing is introduced by combining time- and frequency-domain methods, including a vector moving target indication filter and a vector direct current canceller in time-domain, and a constant false alarm rate detector and a mono-pulse digital beamforming angle tracker in frequency-domain. In addition, unlike previous designs of using M×N fast Fourier transform (FFT) for an M×N array, only four FFTs are used, which tremendously saves time and space in hardware. With the presented model, the detection of the moving-target-skin-return in stationary objects under a noisy environment is feasible. Therefore, to track long range and high-speed objects, the proposed technique is promising. Using a scenario having 1) a target with 17 dBm2 radar cross section (RCS) at about 40 km range with 5.93 Mach speed and 11.6 dB post processing signal to noise ratio, and 2) a strong stationary clutter with 37 dBm2 RCS located at the proximity of the target, it demonstrates that the root-mean-square errors of range, angle and Doppler measurements are about 26 meters, 0.68 degree and 1100 Hz, respectively.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0032.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: Social network; Twitter; Structural analysis; Echo chamber; Detection; Case study; German language; Disinformation
Online: 2 February 2023 (06:54:35 CET)
Background: This study presents a graph-based and purely structural analysis to detect echo chambers on Twitter. Echo chambers are a concern as they can spread misinformation and reinforce harmful stereotypes and biases in social networks. Methods: The study recorded the German-language Twitter stream over two months, recording about 180.000 accounts and their interactions. The study focuses on retweet interaction patterns in the German-speaking Twitter stream and found that the greedy modularity maximization and HITS metric are the most effective methods for identifying echo chambers. Results: The purely structural detection approach was able to identify an echo chamber (red community) that was focused on a few topics with a triad of Anti-Covid, right-wing populism, and pro-Russian positions (very likely reinforced by Kremlin-orchestrated troll accounts). In contrast, a blue community was much more heterogeneous and showed "normal" communication interaction patterns. Conclusions: The study highlights the effects of echo chambers as they can make political discourse dysfunctional and foster polarization in open societies. The presented results contribute to identifying problematic interaction patterns in social networks often involved in the spread of disinformation by problematic actors. It is important to note that not the content but only the interaction patterns would be used as a decision criterion, thus avoiding problematic content censorship.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0740.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Decision Sciences Keywords: political polarization; echo-chambers; social networks; binary voter model; discussion dynamics; opinion dynamics model
Online: 17 December 2018 (10:11:31 CET)
Polarization in online social networks has gathered a significant amount of attention in the research community and in the public sphere due to stark disagreements with millions of participants in topics surrounding politics, climate, the economy and other areas where an agreement is required. There are multiple approaches to investigating the scenarios in which polarization occurs and given that polarization is not a new phenomenon but that its virality may be supported by the low cost and latency messaging offered by online social media platforms; an investigation into the intrinsic dynamics of online opinion evolution is presented for complete networks. Extending a model which utilizes the Binary Voter Model (BVM) to examine the effect of the degree of freedom for selecting contacts based upon homophily, simulations show that different opinions are reinforced for a period of time when users have a greater range of choice for association. The facility of discussion threads and groups formed upon common views further delays the rate in which a consensus can form between all members of the network. This can temporarily incubate members from interacting with those who can present an alternative opinion where a voter model would then proceed to produce a homogeneous opinion based upon pairwise interactions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0533.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Data Structures, Algorithms And Complexity Keywords: reservoir computing; deep echo state network; neuronal similarity-based iterative pruning merging algorithm; chaotic time series forecast
Online: 30 January 2023 (02:34:13 CET)
Recently, a layer-stacked ESN model named deep echo state Network (DeepESN) has been established. As an interactional model of recurrent neural network and deep neural network, investigations of DeepESN are of significant importance in both areas. Optimizing the structure of neural networks remains a common task in artificial neural networks, and the question of how many neurons should be used in each layer of DeepESN must be stressed. In this paper, our aim is to solve the problem of choosing the optimized size of DeepESN. Inspired by the sensitive iterative pruning algorithm, a neuronal similarity-based iterative pruning merging algorithm (NS-IPMA) is proposed to iteratively prune or merge the most similar neurons in DeepESN. Two chaotic time series prediction tasks are applied to demonstrate the effectiveness of NS-IPMA. The results show that the DeepESN pruned by NS-IPMA outperforms unpruned DeepESN with the same network size, and NS-IPMA is a feasible and superior approach to improving the generalization performance of DeepESN.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0298.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Library And Information Sciences Keywords: information field; social energy; social atom; spontaneous and stimulated emission; information excitation; social lasing; Echo Chambers; boson fields; coherence; information tsunami
Online: 17 April 2020 (09:15:09 CEST)
During the last years our society was permanently disturbed by the coherent information waves of high amplitudes. These are waves of huge social energy. Often they are of the destructive character, a kind of information tsunami. But, they can carry as well positive improvements in the human society, as waves of decision making matching rational recommendations of societal institutes. The main distinguishing features of these waves are their high amplitude, coherence (homogeneous character of social actions generated by them), and short time needed for their generation and relaxation. We show that such social phenomenon can be modeled on the basis of the recently developed social laser theory. This theory can be used to model stimulated amplification of coherent social actions. ``Actions'' are treated very generally, from mass protests to votes and other collective decisions, as, e.g., acceptance (often unconscious) of some societal recommendations. We point to the main distinguishing features of the modern society simplifying social lasing: a) transformation of humans into social atoms - lost of individuality; b) generation by mass-media of powerful information fields leading to information overload of social atoms; c) creation of powerful social resonators based on internet Echo Chambers. In this paper, we analyze in very detail their functioning leading to increasing of the power fo the quantum information field as well as its coherence.