ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0053.v1
Online: 2 April 2021 (11:32:05 CEST)
As an export commodity coffee industry contributes to the economies of both exporting and importing countries. The aim of the study involves competitiveness and determinant of coffee export in Ethiopia through the period of 1990–2018 observations. To explain the level of comparative advantage and competitiveness respectively Revealed Comparative Advantage and Syematric Revealed Comparative Advantage were employed. To capture determinans of coffee ARDL model with bound testing to co-integration approach was employed to investigate the long-run association between Ethiopian total coffee export in bags (60kg each) with domestic coffee production, world coffee price, real exchange rate, FDI, world coffee production and price ratio. Even though Ethiopia has the comparative advantage in the export of coffee, however, the share it in the international market low in amount and not inlined with RCA. Bound testing to co-integration approach result confirmed the existence of a long-run relationship between total coffee exports of Ethiopia with its independent variables. The analysis pointed out that in the long run the extent of domestic coffee production, world price, and real exchange rate positively and significantly affects total coffee export. However, FDI, price ratio, world production of coffee have negative & significant effects. In the short-run Ethiopian total coffee export defined as a positive significant function of domestic coffee production and real exchange rate positive but insignificant effect with Level of RCA and world price as well as a negative function of FDI, price ratio, and world production of coffee. Coefﬁcient Error Correction Model (ECM (-1)) was negative and signiﬁcant with a value of 134.4 % of the adjustment would make each year and return to its long-run equilibrium after 1.3 years. The policy implication calls for addressing issues of the combined effect of the policy setting, institutions, and market failures to avoid the evil effect of the sector.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0095.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: Pakistan; Climate change; Rice production; ARDL
Online: 7 December 2018 (17:26:03 CET)
This research paper aims to examine the relationship between CO2, temperature, area, fertilizers and rice production in Pakistan. This study used Augmented Dickey Fuller (ADF) and Phillips Perron (PP) unit root tests to check the order of integration of each variable. The cointegration analysis with ARDL bounds testing approach is used to examine the impact of climate change on rice production in Pakistan over time series data from the period 1968 to 2014. The parameter stability test of the model is also checked at the end. The results of estimation show that the important variables of the study are cointegrated demonstrating the presence of long-run association among them. Furthermore, climate change factors, e.g. CO2 and temperature have a long-run and short-run positive effect on the production of rice in Pakistan. This present work is original and it is first time empirically tested the impact of climate change on rice production in Pakistan. The annual time series data of 47 years enhances the validity of the empirical findings. The most fruitful finding of this research is that rice production in Pakistan is positively influenced by emission of carbon dioxide (CO2) at 5 percent significance level in both long-run and short-run.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201610.0053.v1
Online: 14 October 2016 (10:30:30 CEST)
In this study the impact of terrorist attacks on exchange rate is estimated. Particularly, the study focuses on Turkish terrorist attacks and its implication on Turkish lira versus pound sterling exchange rate. In order, to find the causal effect the study employed Autoregressive distributive lag (ARDL) bound testing approach as an estimation technique. Accordingly, the analysis reveals that terrorist attack has a negative impact on the exchange rate in both short and long-run. However, the negative effect of terrorism tends to be small in both the short-run and long-run. More precisely, terrorist attack depreciates the exchange rate between Turkish lira and pound sterling by approximately 0.00072 in the next trading day. The long-term effect also shows that terrorist attack depreciates the exchange rate on average by 0.00212.
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: Foreign direct investment; technological innovation; ARDL approach
Online: 20 May 2021 (11:04:28 CEST)
Fostering innovation is considered one of the key policy priorities in most governments' agendas in developing countries, and foreign direct investment (FDI) is considered a principal resource for financing sustainable development, corresponding to 17 sustainable development goals (SDGs). This study analyzes the extent to which inward FDI affects innovation (proxied with patent applications) in Sri Lanka using secondary data from 1990 to 2019. We used the Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) cointegration procedure to examine the long-run relationships between variables. As per the study results, the coefficient of inward FDI is a negative sign while the coefficients of per capita gross domestic product (GDP) and high technology exports (HEX) show positive signs 2.142 and 0.414, respectively, and statistically significant in the long run. It is demonstrated that per capita GDP and high technology exports are an important variable in explaining technological innovation, and inward FDI and education expenditure (EDU) did not contribute towards widening technological innovation in Sri Lanka. Shaping the future of FDI in Sri Lanka is essential to foster innovation capability.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201712.0028.v1
Online: 4 December 2017 (17:33:46 CET)
Oil revenues and external debt might have stimulated economic growth in the oil exporting countries via investment in capital projects. The paper estimated economic growth on oil revenues and external debt after controlling public investment and population growth over the period 1970-2015. Following the confirmation of the order of integration, our analysis is based on autoregressive distributed lag bound testing to cointegration approach. The key findings are that oil revenues and public investment contributes to Nigeria’s economic growth. However, our findings also indicate that external debt and population growth retards growth. The study suggests that minimizing fiscal deficits and unnecessarily foreign loans by creating tax avenues through the development of the non-oil sectors would reduce the dependency syndrome on a single commodity (oil) in Nigeria.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0491.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: Financial Innovation; Economic Policy Uncertainty; ARDL; NARDL; Toda-Yamamoto
Online: 18 November 2020 (23:53:19 CET)
The study's motivation is to gauge the nexus between economic policy uncertainty and financial innovation for the period 2004M1 to 2018M12 in BRIC nations. For establishing a long-run cointegration study applied Autoregressive Distributed Lagged (ARDL) and asymmetry effects of economic policy uncertainty investigated following nonlinear framework known as NARDL. Furthermore, directional causality is established by performing a non-granger causality test. Cointegration test results of Fpss, Wpss, and tBDM confirmed the long-run association between EPU and financial innovation. On the other hand, the Wald test results proved asymmetry effects furring from EPU to financial innovation both in the long-run and short-run. Referring to asymmetry effects that positive and negative shocks in financial innovation, the study revealed that negative linkage between shocks in EPU and financial innovation in the long-run but short-run effects are insignificant. Furthermore, financial innovation measured by R&D investment exhibits positive linked with shocks in EPU, implying that uncertainty induces innovation in the economy. Refers to directional causality estimation, the study revealed evidence supporting the feedback hypothesis between EPU and financial innovation in all sample countries.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0129.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Economics Keywords: global emission reduction; trade; FDI; BRICS countries; Bootstrap ARDL
Online: 12 November 2019 (15:50:57 CET)
We used the Bootstrap ARDL method to test the relationship between the export trades, FDI and CO2 emissions of the BRICS countries. We found that China's foreign direct investment and the lag one period of CO2 emissions have a cointegration on exports. South Africa's foreign direct investment and CO2 emissions have a cointegration relationship with the lag one period of exports, and South Africa's the lag one period of exports and foreign direct investment have a cointegration relationship with the lag one period of CO2 emissions. But whether it is China or South Africa, these three variables have no causal relationship in the long-term. Among the variables of other BRICS countries, Russia is the only country showed degenerate case #1 in McNown et al. mentioned in their paper. When we examined short-term causality, we found that CO2 emissions and export trade showed a reverse causal relationship, while FDI and carbon emissions were not so obvious. Export trade has a positive causal relationship with FDI. Those variables are different from different situations and different countries.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0183.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Probability And Statistics Keywords: ARDL; Inflation; Interest; Long-run; RGDPPC; Short-run; Unemployment
Online: 16 October 2019 (09:40:00 CEST)
Research background: Relationship between inflation rate, unemployment rate, interest rate and real gross domestic product per capita in Nigeria. However, there seems to be a short-run or long-run relationship among the macroeconomic variables.Purpose: This study investigated the impact of the inflation rate, unemployment rate and interest rate on real gross domestic product per capita (RGDPPC) (proxy for economic growth) and proffered recommendations towards enhancing economic growth and to reduce the distasteful effects of inflation rate, unemployment rate and interest rate in Nigeria in this present time economic challenges.Research methodology: This study applied a linear dynamic model Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) modeling technique to analyze the short-run dynamics and long-run relationship of the economic growth in Nigeria over the sample period between 1984 and 2017 using annual secondary data extracted from World Bank Development Indicators Report (last updated January 2019).Results: The empirical results showed that there was long-run relationship between inflation rate, unemployment rate and interest rate on real gross domestic product per capita (proxy for economic growth) in Nigeria. The result further revealed that only unemployment rate had a significant positive impact on real gross domestic product per capita in the long-run and inflation rate had a significant negative impact on real gross domestic product per capita in the short-run.Novelty: Therefore, the study concluded that unemployment rate and inflation rate proved to have significant impacts on economic growth in the long-run and short-run respectively. Formulation of policies to reduce unemployment through the adoption of labour concentrated technique of production, entrepreneurship development and policy to keep the inflation rate at single digit.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0068.v2
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: economic growth; electricity access, energy production, population growth; ARDL
Online: 8 November 2018 (10:32:08 CET)
The major aim of this study was to investigate and explores the linkage between economic growth, electricity access, energy use and population growth in Pakistan. To check the variables stationarity, Augmented Dickey-Fuller (ADF) and Phillips-Perron unit root test was applied and an Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) bounds testing approach to co-integration was applied to investigate the dynamic causality link among the study variables. These tests shed light on the long-run connection among the variables; further, the results revealed that electricity access to population, electricity access to urban population, energy usage, population growth, and urban population growth had a significant impact on economic growth, while the electricity access to rural population and rural population growth has a negative impact on the economic growth in Pakistan. According to these findings, study commends that government of Pakistan pay further attention to increase its electricity production from different sources including, hydroelectric, solar, oil and gas and nuclear in order to fulfill the country’s demands. By using ARDL bounds testing approach, this study filled the literature gap regarding economic growth, electricity access, energy use and population growth in Pakistan.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0051.v1
Online: 3 October 2018 (13:25:52 CEST)
The paper investigated the components of savings accumulation in Nigeria over the period 1980 to 2017. Secondary data were collated from World Development Index (WDI). In evaluating the objectives, the study employed the Auto Regressive Distributive Lag (ARDL) and Vector Error Correction Model (VECM) estimation methods. The key findings of the study show that the components of savings identified in literature understudied in the paper specifically, GDP per capita, foreign direct investment, financial deepening, interest rate, inflation rate exchange rate significantly influence savings accumulation in Nigeria either in short run, long run or both. Financial deepening was found statistically significant but influences savings negatively. Inflation rate was statistically insignificant although negative. The result from the VECM causality test revealed that short run and long run causal relationship exist between savings and the afore mentioned components in Nigeria. Hence, the study recommends careful manipulation of the identified savings components in a manner that they will not yield a counterproductive result in the economy rather contribute to the growth of savings and ultimately, the growth of Nigeria economy as a whole. It further recommends that the Nigerian government through its financial institutions encourage savings from both small and big savers which to large extent will assuage the perceived undeserved influence of financial deepening on savings accumulation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0142.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Economics Keywords: Tax Revenue; FDI; Inflation; Gross Savings; Economic Growth; ARDL Model
Online: 11 January 2022 (13:05:45 CET)
This study examined the link between tax revenue components and economic growth in South Africa, utilizing time series data for the period of 22 years. The stationarity of the variables was established using the Phillips-Perron (PP) unit root test, and the existence of long-run and short-run equilibrium conditions was tested using the Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) model. As a proxy for economic growth, the study used the real GDP growth rate as the dependent variable, with company income tax, personal income tax, taxes on international trade and transactions, taxes on income, profits, and capital gains tax, foreign direct investment, inflation, and gross savings as the independent variables. According to the PP findings, none of the variables are integrated at a higher order than one, i.e. (1). All variables are found to be cointegrated, and all explanatory variables have a long-run link with economic growth. According to the ARDL findings, company income tax, personal income tax, and taxes on international trade and transactions all have a positive long-run and short-run link with economic growth, whereas capital gain tax, foreign direct investment, and gross savings all have a negative long-run and short-run link with economic growth. The long-run coefficient is negatively related to RGDP, while the short-run coefficient revealed a positive link between inflation and economic growth, among other findings. Heteroskedasticity and autocorrelation are not present in our model, according to diagnostic tests. The CUSUM and CUSUMSQ values indicate that the model is structurally sound.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201612.0128.v1
Subject: Keywords: forestry production; carbon dioxide emissions; ARDL; Granger-causality; Ghana; econometrics
Online: 26 December 2016 (10:06:54 CET)
In this study, the causal-effect between carbon dioxide emissions and forestry production and trade was investigated in Ghana by employing a data spanning from 1961 to 2014 by using the VECM and ARDL model. Evidence of the long-run equilibrium relationship in the VECM shows that, a 1% increase in veneer sheet production reduces carbon dioxide emissions by 1.47% in the long-run. There was evidence of a bidirectional causality between carbon dioxide emissions and veneer sheet production, carbon dioxide emissions and wood charcoal production, and a unidirectional causality running from carbon dioxide emissions to wood fuel production and plywood production to carbon dioxide emissions. Evidence from the long-run equilibrium relationship in the ARDL model shows that; a 1% increase in plywood production will increase carbon dioxide emissions by 0.17% in the long-run, a 1% increase in sawnwood production will increase carbon dioxide emissions by 0.17% in the long-run, a 1% increase in wood charcoal production will increase carbon dioxide emissions by 0.36% in the long-run and a 1% increase in wood fuel production will increase carbon dioxide emissions by 0.37% in the long-run.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0204.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Probability And Statistics Keywords: gross domestic product (GDP); lending rates; savings; loans and advances; ARDL
Online: 21 January 2019 (10:02:52 CET)
In most econometrics literature, the Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) model is often applied in many economic analyses to study short and long run relationships. This is because ARDL model can deal with economic variables that are integrated of different order (I(0), I(1) or combination of both) and also it is robust where there is single long-run relationship between the underlying variables in a simple sample size. This study applied the ARDL model to examine the contributions of commercial Banks to GDP growth in Nigeria. To achieve this, annual data covering 1981 to 2015 for loans and advances, savings, lending rates and GDP of Financial Institutions were collected from CBN bulletin. The ADF test revealed that the variables are I(1) except for lending rate which was of I(0) order. The ARDL(1,1,1,2) model revealed that loans and advances, and lending rates are significantly positively related to GDP in Nigeria but savings was not significant in the model. The model revealed some evidence of short run relationships while the ecm(-1) was -0.6156 (P-value=0.0038<0.05) which means that the rate of the speed of adjustment to equilibrium is 61.56% annually. The estimated model is free from serial correlation, multicollinearity, heteroscedasticity while the model is stable and the residuals are normally distributed. The study recommends that savings and savings culture should be encouraged in Nigeria since economic theory states that savings and investment are related in any economic development.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201612.0127.v1
Subject: Keywords: Granger-causality; carbon dioxide emissions; ARDL; Kenya; variance decomposition; climate change
Online: 26 December 2016 (10:02:23 CET)
In this study, an attempt was made to investigate the Kenya case of multivariate causality of carbon dioxide emissions by employing a time series data spanning from 1961-2011 using the ARDL method of cointegration analysis. The long-run elasticities show that, a 1% increase in financial development increases carbon dioxide emissions by 0.28%, a 1% increase in GDP per capita increases carbon dioxide emissions by 1.32% and a 1% increase in urbanization decreases carbon dioxide emissions by 1.14%. There was a unidirectional causality running from financial development, food production index, GDP per capita, industrialization and urbanization to carbon dioxide emissions. The innovation accounting shows that 20% of future shocks in carbon dioxide emissions are due to fluctuations in financial development, 9% of future shocks in financial development are due to fluctuations urbanization and 22% of future shocks in food production index are due to fluctuations in carbon dioxide emissions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0289.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Probability And Statistics Keywords: Exchange rate, Inflation rate; Gross Domestic Product, Broad Money, Monetary Policy, ARDL Cointegration
Online: 29 January 2019 (09:28:19 CET)
The present reality of the Nigerian economy is the fact that inflation has remained unabated in spite of all exchange rate measures that have been adopted by the monetary authority. This calls for investigation into the extent to which exchange rate impact on inflation in Nigeria. The research paper examined the impact of exchange rate depreciation on inflation in Nigeria for the period 1981–2017, using Auto Regressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) Bounds Test Cointegration Procedure. The research shows that inflation rate in Nigeria is highly susceptible to lagged inflation rate, exchange rate, lagged exchange rate, lagged broad money, and lagged gross domestic product at 5% level of significance. A long run relationship was also found to exist between inflation rate, gross domestic product and general government expenditure, indicating that the model has a self-adjusting mechanism for correcting any deviation of the variables from equilibrium. Therefore, this study concludes that exchange rate is an important tool to manage inflation in the country; thus, this paper recommends that policies that have direct influence on inflation as well as exchange rate policies that would checkmate inflation movement in the country, should be used by the Central Bank of Nigeria. Also, monetary growth and import management policies should be put in place to encourage domestic production of export commodities, which are currently short-supplied. In addition, policy makers should not rely on this instrument totally to control inflation, but should use it as a complement to other macro-economic policies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0060.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Econometrics & Statistics Keywords: carbon dioxide emissions; Ecological footprint; Economic growth; EKC hypothesis; Environmental degradation; ARDL; Methane emissions
Online: 4 January 2023 (03:44:17 CET)
Climate change has become a major concern for developing countries given the risk that it posses on energy and food independence, and on general productivity. Despite having an energy system with low carbon intensity when compared to other Latin American countries, Colombia is already facing climate change impacts and requires urgent efforts to mitigate them. As a developing country, the challenge is bigger as policies for economic growth should be in line with the global commitment of reducing greenhouse gas emissions. With the aim of contributing to the design of climate policies, this study assesses the impact of economic development on the environment by examining the validity of the Environmental Kuznets Curve hypothesis for Colombia. Statistically validated and stable autoregressive distributed lag models are estimated for three different environmental indicators: carbon dioxide emissions, methane emissions, and ecological footprint. Moreover, the effects of other variables such as urbanization, foreign direct investment, value added of agricultural and industrial sectors, and energy use are analyzed with dynamic simulations. Empirical evidence supports a long-run equilibrium relationship among investigated variables and the existence of an inverted U-shaped EKC relationship between Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and methane emissions, and GDP and ecological footprint. Shifting to renewable energy sources and leveraging the use of cleaner technologies in agricultural and industrial sectors are found to be key for economic growth without harming the environment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0257.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Economics Keywords: FDI; Domestic Investment; Government Investment Expenditure; Economic Growth; Real exchange rate; Gross Domestic Savings; Trade openness; ARDL-ECM Approach and South Africa
Online: 18 January 2022 (12:42:00 CET)
The aim of this study is to empirically examine the link between foreign direct investment (FDI) and domestic investment (DI) in South Africa over the period of 41 years (1975-2016). Accurately, it attempts to determine whether FDI crowds in or crowds out DI in South Africa. DI is sub-divided into private domestic investment (credit to domestic private sector) and public corporation investment (state owned enterprises). We used the Autoregressive Distributed Lag-Error Correction Model (ARDL-ECM) technique to ascertain long run and short run effects concurrently after establishing that the variables were stationary (using the PP test). The results of the unit root test shows that all variables are integrated of order zero I(0) or integrated of order one I(1), indicating that the series of variables are stationary in the level or first difference form. The findings revealed that variables are cointegrated in the long run. The ARDL model found a negative link between FDI and domestic investment. The result implies that FDI crowds out domestic investment. Moreover, the long run estimate revealed that domestic investment is crowded in by government investment expenditure (GINV). Other findings uncovered that, GDP crowds out private domestic investment while crowding in public corporation investment. Moreover, the long run estimate revealed that domestic investment is crowded in by gross domestic savings (SAV). On the other hand, the real exchange rate (EXCR) crowds out private domestic investment while crowding in public corporation investment. Trade openness (TRA) crowds out domestic investment. Additionally, the short run estimate uncovered that private domestic investment is crowded out by FDI, EXCR, and TRA whereas GINV, GDP and SAV is crowding in private domestic investment. Other findings discovered that, in the short run, public corporation investment is crowded out by FDI, GDP, EXCR and TRA, while GINV and SAV crowd in public corporation investment. The CUSUM confirms that the models are structurally firmness.