Working Paper Article Version 10 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

Heat and Photon Energy Phenomena: Dealing with Matter at Atomic and Electronic Level

Version 1 : Received: 5 January 2017 / Approved: 5 January 2017 / Online: 5 January 2017 (09:55:07 CET)
Version 2 : Received: 19 January 2017 / Approved: 19 January 2017 / Online: 19 January 2017 (11:05:14 CET)
Version 3 : Received: 13 March 2017 / Approved: 14 March 2017 / Online: 14 March 2017 (07:40:28 CET)
Version 4 : Received: 19 April 2017 / Approved: 19 April 2017 / Online: 19 April 2017 (11:26:33 CEST)
Version 5 : Received: 8 May 2017 / Approved: 8 May 2017 / Online: 8 May 2017 (10:36:08 CEST)
Version 6 : Received: 19 June 2017 / Approved: 20 June 2017 / Online: 20 June 2017 (05:07:01 CEST)
Version 7 : Received: 22 August 2017 / Approved: 22 August 2017 / Online: 22 August 2017 (05:58:38 CEST)
Version 8 : Received: 25 October 2017 / Approved: 25 October 2017 / Online: 25 October 2017 (08:15:34 CEST)
Version 9 : Received: 7 December 2017 / Approved: 8 December 2017 / Online: 8 December 2017 (03:46:45 CET)
Version 10 : Received: 27 December 2017 / Approved: 27 December 2017 / Online: 27 December 2017 (09:21:19 CET)
Version 11 : Received: 17 January 2021 / Approved: 19 January 2021 / Online: 19 January 2021 (10:57:31 CET)
Version 12 : Received: 24 April 2022 / Approved: 25 April 2022 / Online: 25 April 2022 (05:40:32 CEST)
Version 13 : Received: 27 July 2022 / Approved: 27 July 2022 / Online: 27 July 2022 (05:30:24 CEST)
Version 14 : Received: 19 September 2022 / Approved: 20 September 2022 / Online: 20 September 2022 (10:36:29 CEST)

How to cite: Ali, M. Heat and Photon Energy Phenomena: Dealing with Matter at Atomic and Electronic Level. Preprints 2017, 2017010028 Ali, M. Heat and Photon Energy Phenomena: Dealing with Matter at Atomic and Electronic Level. Preprints 2017, 2017010028


Technology is reaching its climax, but the basic understanding of science in numerous phenomena is still required. A misconception in the use of terms, photon and electron, exists in different areas of the science. When an electron of the outer ring of silicon atom executes interstate dynamics for only one cycle, it generates the force and energy equal to the unit photon. So, interstate dynamics of the electron for one forward cycle and one reverse cycle generate the overt photon having the least measured length. Thus, a unit photon is a subset of the overt photon. When the photon of suitable length interacts with the side of laterally orientated electron clamped by the energy knot of atom, photon divides into the tits and bits of heat. When the photon interacts with the tip of laterally orientated electron by making the approximate angle of 90º, photon divides into the bits of energy having shape like integral symbols. In silicon atom, electrons of the outer ring execute confined interstate dynamics upon exerting forces along the poles; centre of the atom acts as the reference point for electrons executing interstate dynamics and the lateral-wise lengths of the electrons are along the north-south poles. In neutral-state silicon atom, the involved heat energy starts wrapping the force shaping along the trajectory of electron executing interstate dynamics of forward and reverse cycles. The force is being shaped on the sides of electron not dealing with the exertion of forces. In interstate dynamics, electron of the outer ring first reaches to the ‘maximum limit point’, where energy of one bit engaged to wrap force shaping along the trajectory. From the ‘maximum limit point’, electron completes the second half cycle by dealing with the exerting forces, where again energy of one bit is engaged. In this way, an electron depicts the force and energy relation in the form of unit photon. The shape of unit photon is like Gaussian distribution turned from both ends. If the uninterrupted supply of heat energy is available for neutral-state silicon atom, interstate dynamics of the electron generate the photon (energy) having the shape like wave. Path independent forces (but interstate dependent forces) take over the control of electron, thus electron executes dynamics nearly in the speed of light. A photon can be in the continuous and unending length if the changing aspect of the electron remains uninterrupted. In the interstate dynamics, conservative forces exert to position-acquiring electron as per the natural viability. Electron of interstate dynamics recalls auxiliary moment of inertia at each point of turning as it does not have contact to energy knots confining the dynamics. Under neutral states, different atoms generate photon energy of different shapes. So, atoms change correspondence according to the mechanism of electron dynamics. Here, heat and photon energy discuss the matter at atomic and electronic levels to explore the foundation of science.


Heat energy; Photons; Fundamental forces; Electron dynamics; Atomic scale phenomenon; Electronic scale phenomenon



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