Urban Studies and Planning
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ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0455.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Urban Studies And Planning Keywords: green space; green urban agenda; green space attributes; mixed-method approach; Zurich
Online: 6 June 2023 (11:50:17 CEST)
There is an overall scientific consensus that public space and, mainly, space with a high ecological index – most notably experienced in green areas – positively affects individual and collective well-being and urban dwellers’ physical and mental health. However, the ‘reality check’ indicates difficulties in translating the assumed benefits of green space into implementable interventions in urban environments. To examine such an ‘implementation gap’ on the case of Zurich seems valid, given that the ‘green urban agenda’ debate has been embedded in numerous Swiss policies (from the federal to the municipal levels). In narrow terms, the research first focuses on Zurich’s district 9 consisting of two neighborhoods (Altstetten and Albisrieden) – the area under ongoing densification yet with a variety of green spaces, to then elucidate four green space clusters and their 400-meter catchment areas in the mentioned district. The mixed-method approach has been applied at three analytical levels: 1) documentary analysis of multi-scale national policy toolkits, to identify the critical tenets associated with the ‘green urban agenda’, 2) assessment of green spaces in Zurich’s district 9 based on online available quantitative data and on-site observation, to determine their provision, types, size and mutual connectivity, and 3) analysis of four green space clusters within the mentioned district through on-site observation, to identify green space attributes and main activities. Through critical mutual examination of the identified ‘green urban agenda’ principles in the national policies, on the one hand, and green space attributes, on the other, the research findings reveal the extent of the convergence and/or divergence between the ‘green urban agenda’ policy trends and their implementation in practice.
Mon, 5 June 2023
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0352.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Urban Studies And Planning Keywords: Travel behaviour; Attitudes towards public transportation; social change; Ordinal Logistic Regression (OLR); Vision 2030; KSA
Online: 5 June 2023 (16:30:36 CEST)
The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) is known for its high car ownership and usage as well its high GDP per capita. This is combined with low/ or no provision of public transportation (PT) systems, has been resulting in perceptual attitudes of full dependency on private car travel. The level of awareness of the benefits of reducing car use and increasing the travel by more sustainable options, has a great impact on social change and behaviour. The Kingdom is currently progressing towards a new phase of “national transfer” through implementation of strategic and sustainable measures and programs. The city of Riyadh is construction a massive metro-system in Riyadh, that is nearing completion and operation. The public is aware of the national agenda, aware of the newly constructed projects and aware of the needed social change to realize the new vision of the country. This paper aims to assess travel behaviour and attitudes towards public transportation of Saudi travellers’ who are witnessing the new transformation in the Kingdom and who are aware of the new sustainable projects. Depicted from the theory of random utility, a discrete choice model of the intent to use public transportation is calibrated as a function of social and attitudinal factors. An online survey was designed and carried out using social media means; a completed 399 questionnaires have been obtained and studied. The methodology includes examining attitudes and preferences of the participants towards using public transportation options against participants’ socio-economic data. The analysis was carried out using ordinal logistic regression analysis (OLR) which is an efficient technique that is derived from the theory of random utility. The results show a good support for PT; a higher support for public transportation modes, form participants who are young females, lower income groups and the university graduates were reported. The level of support seems higher with the higher level of awareness about the new PT system.
Fri, 2 June 2023
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0137.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Urban Studies And Planning Keywords: urban park; carbon saving potential; high spatial resolution; Shangqiu
Online: 2 June 2023 (05:22:05 CEST)
This article investigates the potential for carbon reduction in urban parks in Shangqiu City using high-resolution remote sensing imagery. The aim is to guide modern urban carbon neutrality strategies. The carbon reduction potential is estimated based on the mitigation of the urban heat island effect by park greenery, which reduces energy consumption. The parks are regarded as cool island centers, and 100 cooling gradients are gradually formed outward until the temperature reaches that of impermeable urban surfaces. The energy saved by the parks in mitigating the heat island effect is statistically calculated as the carbon reduction potential of urban park greenery. Additionally, this article classifies the sample parks into different categories and selects 26 landscape metrics to analyze their relationship with carbon-saving potential and driving factors.
Thu, 1 June 2023
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0048.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Urban Studies And Planning Keywords: covid 19; urban life; behaviour; change; impact; pandemic
Online: 1 June 2023 (07:26:39 CEST)
During the Covid 19 pandemic, we saw a huge impact on the lives of individuals in cities. The way people responded was controlled and limited. The lockdown restricted a lot of movements in the cities as well as contained the citizens in their houses. Through a semi-structured interview, the research aims to understand the change in behaviour and response of individuals across various cities. The paper aims to understand how people change their day-to-day life in cities during the pandemic and while the restrictions getting released post the first wave. The paper also understands how the pandemic impacted urban spaces and what value they hold for people. By interviewing individuals from different cities, the data were transcribed and analysed to understand this behavioural change and the attitude of people. The outcome of the research was derived as a concept map through the codes generated during the research.
Mon, 29 May 2023
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.2012.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Urban Studies And Planning Keywords: spatial aging; elderly population; spatial distribution; spatial evolution; Wuhan
Online: 29 May 2023 (12:43:33 CEST)
Understanding the spatial distribution pattern and evolution characteristics of the elderly population in urban areas is of great significance for the development of urban planning and the implementation of public management policies in the context of rapid aging. Accurately identifying the spatial distribution and evolution characteristics of the elderly population in the city requires a comprehensive analysis of multiple indicators and large-scale data. Taking Wuhan city as an example, this article measures the spatial distribution characteristics and evolution trend of the elderly population from 2000 to 2020 at the street/township level, based on the fifth, sixth, and seventh census data, using methods such as kernel density hotspot detection, spatial clustering analysis, and standard deviation ellipse analysis. The results show that: ① there are significant differences in the aging spatial pattern between the central area and the suburban areas of Wuhan; ② overall, Wuhan's aging rate shows a typical "core-periphery" growth mode in space, while the density of the elderly population has significant spatial aggregation characteristics and shows an evolution trend of "centralized concentration, peripheral outliers, axial development, and near-field growth"; ③the center of gravity of the elderly population remains relatively stable over time.
Fri, 19 May 2023
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1392.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Urban Studies And Planning Keywords: Smart City; Smart City Assessment; Developing Economies; PRISMA; Assessment Tools
Online: 19 May 2023 (07:31:05 CEST)
There are limited research articles focusing on Smart City Assessment (SCA) applications since it is a relatively new field of research and practice. However, numerous studies have been conducted and published to date, particularly in developing countries, with the broad objective of building theoretical frameworks that are centered on smart city assessments. This scoping review systematically provides an examination on the available literature on SCA, with a goal of synthesizing smart city assessments in developing economies. In order to improve the quality and transparency of the reviews and meta-analysis, as well as to reduce the risk of bias, this paper adopted the PRISMA scoping review research design to analyze 25 journal articles. Results showed that conceptual modeling appears to be the most common method identified while industrial development emerged as the most common objective identified in the MFO Model. On the other hand, ISO 37122:2019 was the most prevalent framework used in the collected sample size with 6 journal articles followed by IoT-Enabled Smart City Framework with 5 journal articles while Smart Cities Index Framework obtained 3. Meanwhile, India emerged as a leader in the global Smart City movement followed by Malaysia and Africa. The Qualitative Research Design approach was the most common among the literatures while social science was the most common subject area among the 25 journals being studied. More so, sustainability and renewable energy are the two most important assessment categories in SCA tools. By collating and evaluating different criteria and metrics in existing SCA, cities can learn from their successes and failures, adjust their strategies, and share best practices with other cities. This can foster a culture of continuous improvement and innovation in urban governance, and ultimately lead to more livable, resilient, and prosperous cities for all.
Tue, 9 May 2023
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0646.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Urban Studies And Planning Keywords: metro station; varying pattern of ridership; pedestrian catchment area; built environment; multinomial logistic regression analysis
Online: 9 May 2023 (11:54:24 CEST)
The metro station ridership features are associated significantly with the built environment factors of the pedestrian catchment area surrounding metro stations. The existing studies have focused on the impact on total ridership at metro stations, ignoring the impact on varying patterns of metro station ridership. Therefore, the reasonable identification of metro station categories and built environment factors affecting the varying patterns of ridership in different categories of stations is very important for metro construction. In this study, we developed a data-driven framework to examine the relationship between varying patterns of metro station ridership and built environment factors in these areas. By leveraging smart card data, we extracted the dynamic characteristics of ridership and utilized hierarchical clustering and K-means clustering to identify diverse patterns of metro station ridership, and finally identified six main ridership patterns. We then developed a new built environment measurement framework and adopted multinomial logistic regression analysis to explore the association between ridership patterns and built environment factors. (1) The clustering analysis result revealed that six station types were classified based on varying patterns of passenger flow, representing distinct functional characteristics. (2) The regression analysis indicated that diversity, density, and location factors were significantly associated with most station function types, while destination accessibility was only positively associated with employment-oriented type station, and centrality was only associated with employment-oriented hybrid type station. These results could inform the coordinated development of rail transit and land use, and the renewal and enhancement of the built environment in the pedestrian catchment area surrounding metro stations.
Thu, 4 May 2023
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0235.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Urban Studies And Planning Keywords: land actions; political will; cadastral project; land management; Benin
Online: 4 May 2023 (08:29:12 CEST)
Land registry is one of the instruments most mentioned by public actors in land management in Benin to solve land problems faced by the country. Its implementation and functioning depend not only on technical actions but also on political will. Through a methodology based on participant observation, semi-structured interviews, focus group, as well as on the theory of "change in public action" by P. Muller (2005), legal and institutional changes have been observed in the implementation of the cadastral project. It is a project whose political component is readable through government action and the legal reforms carried out. At the technical level, the land data collected are processed by computer systems that can facilitate the mass production of land titles.
Wed, 3 May 2023
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0144.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Urban Studies And Planning Keywords: Urban Regeneration; Civic Actors; Revitalisation Processes
Online: 3 May 2023 (11:22:06 CEST)
In Italy, the number of buildings that have fallen into disuse is huge; also the normative and regulative framework promoting public portfolio’s re-use and revitalisation is still unclear and blurred. Nevertheless, in the last ten years, these buildings have become fertile ground for innovation and creative experiences by civic actors. The rise of this new category of civic actors plays an important role, both from the institutional side and the kind of initiatives and practices they process. They act in different manners but according to an in-depth analysis they share similar patterns of behaviour. What has emerged is that, although the different contexts, where they operate, the institutional performances might be successful if only certain kinds of conditions are taken into consideration. Based on some basic features, civic actors and their dynamics with public administrations are analysed to understand conditions that allow revitalisation processes to be successful in unused public buildings.
Tue, 2 May 2023
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0084.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Urban Studies And Planning Keywords: Dark Store; Micro-Fulfillment Center; Case Study; Online Shopping, COVID-19
Online: 2 May 2023 (10:58:28 CEST)
This study examines the negative impacts of dark stores on the urban environment from three perspectives: land use, transportation, and streetscape. It is conducted on B-Mart, a representative dark store in South Korea. First, in terms of land use, we find that dark stores that function as logistics facilities conflict with the surrounding land use. Second, by analyzing the location of dark stores and the hourly traffic volume of delivery vehicles, we find that the impact on the surrounding transportation infrastructure and pedestrian traffic is not as significant as previously claimed. However, during the transportation and loading process of the dark store, several problems such as traffic violations, illegal parking, and illegal loading were observed, posing a risk to nearby vehicles and pedestrians. Third, in terms of streetscapes, the location of dark stores on the ground floor of buildings can harm streetscapes. The current urban planning system in South Korea does not clearly define the status and function of dark stores, making it unclear how to manage them. Therefore, it is necessary to clarify their legal definition and introduce urban planning and design guidelines that are consistent with their appropriate location and appearance.
Sat, 29 April 2023
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.1196.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Urban Studies And Planning Keywords: Insecure Tenure; Land Tenure; Urban Housing; Conurbation, Benin
Online: 29 April 2023 (03:30:31 CEST)
This study focuses on land tenure in an urban environment. Specifically, it intends to elucidate the influence of land tenure security on access to housing in urban communities. The conurbation of Grand Nokoué, which is an agglomeration of five cities in the Republic of Benin, West Africa, captures attention due to its particular features as a developing city. Based on the literature, this study outlined three major factors of insecure land tenure, namely, lack of recognition by authorities, lack of protection from eviction or expulsion, and informal community-based rights. In addition, we examined four characteristics of relevant housing issues, namely, the development of shantytowns, the multiplicity of precarious housing, the loss of housing for the development of public projects, and exposure to house demolition under judicial decision to formulate our hypotheses. The results of a field observation and semi-structured interviews supported the hypotheses and demonstrated that the legal access to land, the protection of the population from anarchic eviction and informal community-based rights may positively influence the development of sustainable urban housing.
Tue, 18 April 2023
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0463.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Urban Studies And Planning Keywords: Belgium; spatial capital; sprawl, ageing; ageing in place
Online: 18 April 2023 (03:12:02 CEST)
Flanders (Belgium) is ageing at a rapid pace. Elderly people will continue to live at home in large numbers, partly because this is encouraged by the government. However, many homes are not adapted to reduced mobility. For example, it is not possible to circulate with a wheelchair. But also the living environment poses challenges for the elderly. Flanders is known for a far-reaching spread of housing and facilities, with the result that daily facilities can often only be reached by car. As a result of this spatial fragmentation, the elderly themselves often live for care providers in unreachable places. This ensures, among other things, that the in-home help travels several car kilometers. And research shows that so-called informal care is not self-evident either. Because what about the elderly who don't have children living nearby? Or with the residents who only see their next neighbor hundreds of meters away, who is also often a little mobile peer? The (untouched) appropriateness of the home, the presence or absence of facilities or neighbors, all of which belongs to what we can call the spatial capital of an environment. If this is not present, an autonomous life for a less mobile elderly person is not possible. The argument is that without sufficient spatial capital, the policy options are to allow the elderly to live in their homes for as long as possible or caring neighborhoods dead ends.
Mon, 17 April 2023
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0390.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Urban Studies And Planning Keywords: Investment; university; campus open spaces; student experience; typology; assessment; intensity of use.
Online: 17 April 2023 (03:53:06 CEST)
As universities increasingly compete to improve students’ experience through investment in their campuses, well-designed Campus Open Spaces (COSs) become a major feature as well as a marketing tool. Well-designed and managed COSs are increasingly attractive to students and increase the number of public visits to university campuses (footfall). Current literature does not provide planners with evidence of what makes a COS add value to the student experiences. As such, this paper aims to find the nexus between the value/cost of COS and the attractiveness to - and enhanced experience of - students. This aim is approached via a three-phase integrative framework and results in a validated assessment model with a ‘COS Exp score’ that quantifies the most used/vital, best used/engaging, and most valued/beneficial COS. The data was gathered from in-depth analysis of 21 universities in the UK & USA. The conclusion offers valuable insights into improving experience-based outdoor space developments.
Mon, 10 April 2023
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0142.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Urban Studies And Planning Keywords: night-time economy (NTE); sustainable development (SD); promote and share (QB); infrastructure and safety (HT)
Online: 10 April 2023 (04:15:20 CEST)
In this study, we aimed to identify the factors affecting the night-time economy in Hanoi to achieve the sustainable development of this economy. We surveyed four selected groups of subjects: people, tourists, business establishments, and managers in Hanoi City, in which tourists were nationwide but have been on a night tour in Hanoi. We chose a nonrandom convenience sample. With the above sample size, the number of respondents was insufficient, so we selected districts with potential for night economic development including Hoan Kiem, Tay Ho, Dong Da, Nam Tu Liem, Ha Dong, and Gia Lam. We obtained 463 usable surveys. We processed and analyzed the data using SPSS Statistics 26.0 software. Our quantitative study included: (1) testing the suitability of the scale for the variables using Cronbach’s alpha, (2) analyzing the EFA factors to check the convergence of the observed variables and the separation between the independent variables, (3) checking the correlation to evaluate the problem of multicollinearity of the model; , and (4) performing regression analysis to evaluate the impact of the factors on night-time economic development in Hanoi City. The results showed that the variables positively impacted night-time economic development in Hanoi, but we found differences in the levels of their impact. Among the four factors, factor 3 (promotion and sharing) had the strongest impact on night-time economic development, followed by factor 2 (infrastructure and safety), factor 1 (institutions and environment), and factor 4 (nature and resources.)
Mon, 26 September 2022
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0399.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Urban Studies And Planning Keywords: Bibliometric Analysis; Correlations; Energy consumption; Urban Density
Online: 26 September 2022 (11:39:48 CEST)
Although impending urbanization is a well-acknowledged problem, there is a rising concern about how the urban forms will change and what can be the impacts on the global energy demand. As hubs of economic, social and cultural activities, cities are major energy consumers and GHG emissions. Energy consumption is a technical or a spatial problem? From Newman and Kenworthy to today, several studies have tried to shed light on this nexus. In this work, the controversial paradigm of urban density is discussed as a key component of the fight against climate change impacts. Concerning energy consumption, an in-depth bibliometric analysis is developed to identify the interdependencies of the terms. As a key ‘promise’ of an efficient urban configuration, density has been the core of diverse studies but with still under exploration arguments. This work provides a way forward for planners seeking to design strategies related to dense urban tissues exploring controversial paradigms as a key solution for energy-efficient problems.
Wed, 22 June 2022
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0318.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Urban Studies And Planning Keywords: port-city sustainable development; culture and creativity; port heritage enhancement; evaluation and planning
Online: 22 June 2022 (15:37:50 CEST)
Port cities’ sustainable development can start from innovation in maritime culture to build new urban visions based on the goals of Agenda 2030 and oriented towards local and international cooperation. In the international debate innovative strategies on cultural heritage enhancement contaminate the research and production contexts of ports. In addition, numerous cities have implemented creative and cultural responses to climate change and environmental sustainability. Creativity and cultural heritage enhancement can guide the definition of new trajectories of sustainable urban development, particularly in port-city interaction areas. In Europe, port-city interaction areas have been transformed into laboratories of cultural and creative experimentation for the sustainable management of cultural heritage and the urban quality of public spaces. In this perspective, the paper, starting from the studies developed on the main measurement frameworks of creative cities and sustainable development policies, aims to investigate the possibility of developing a "Port-cities Creative Heritage Enhancement" approach to assess and plan possible cultural and creative transformations of historical-architectural buildings, industrial archaeologies and symbolic urban spaces in the port-city interaction areas of Naples.
Mon, 7 February 2022
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0095.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Urban Studies And Planning Keywords: energy transition; qualitative research; housing in Bulgaria; collective decision-making
Online: 7 February 2022 (15:57:42 CET)
Stemming from the Bulgarian case study developed within a European research project (ECHOES, Horizon 2020), the paper discusses the links between: (a) the urgent need to operationalize EU energy transition policy in the housing domain; (b) the complexity of factors influencing the policy implementation in different contexts – geographical, economic, and technical but also social and cultural; and (c) the important role of the urban level in policy implementation. Under the specific spatial planning context of Bulgaria, the local collective energy-related decision-making in the housing field evolves through the interaction – formal (at the municipal level of governance) and informal (individuals, households and homeowners’ associations taking decisions on self-organization and collective action). The authors claim that interdisciplinary context-sensitive research would contribute to a better understanding for the ongoing energy-related decision-making processes at the local level and would enable the development and implementation of effective and efficient policy instruments in support of energy transition in the housing sector in Europe.
Fri, 14 January 2022
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0214.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Urban Studies And Planning Keywords: spatial analysis; innovation flows; urban transition; inclusive; clusters; lagging regions; network analysis, data city.
Online: 14 January 2022 (13:55:41 CET)
The economy is a complex system, and the interactions between different agents are still not easy to quickly see-through. This complexity should reflect in a spatial dimension; in this way, tracking the tradeoffs opens a new window to the nexus of place and flow. Due to the fact, the economic systems often go through transitions and end up in another state, and this evolution is embedded in cities as the new motor of paradigm shift. To adequately represent and study these dynamics, we aim to develop an integrated method based on network analysis science and geographic economy synthesis to detect a multiscale navigator to track the transition from regional to the local level. This paper seeks to explore the specialization of regional clusters and their innovative behaviour in a particular lagging region, hence unfolding the innovation ecosystem to the smallest granularity then simulating the emergence phase of this complex system. First, our findings reveal that the local scale is relevant to start a bottom-up planning approach on policy implementation. Second, the global challenges could be addressed on a regional scale if we investigate the local complexity to unfold the innovation flow over its complex ecosystem and lead the knowledge as a critical element for inclusive transition, most probably into cities. Finally, the innovation network is an existing fact which can translate as a host for prosperity; In this line of reasoning, we intend to spatialize the track of the innovation flow to achieve transition hotspots and respond adequately to upcoming world concerns.
Wed, 27 October 2021
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0405.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Urban Studies And Planning Keywords: UN SDGs; urban agenda; goal 11; relative efficiency; data envelopment analysis (DEA)
Online: 27 October 2021 (12:30:11 CEST)
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the implementation level of urban Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) in the Republic of Korea and to measure the extent of internal and external impacts on the implementation level. An evaluation framework was established based on relative efficiency theory, and the implementation level of urban SDGs at the local government unit in the Republic of Korea was examined by performing an analysis of each stage. First, in reference to the 2018 cross-section, the implementation level of target 11.2 (public transportation) was assessed as excellent across the country, compared with the implementation level of targets 11.5 (disaster safety), 11.6 (environment), and 11.7 (public space), which were assessed as needing improvement. Second, the factors positively impacting the implementation level of target 11.2 were urban population, GRDP, financial independence, urbanization area, and bus-only lanes, whereas the factors positively impacting the implementation level of target 11.5 were population density and GRDP. The positive factors influencing the implementation level of target 11.6 (air quality sector) were found to be GRDP, financial independence, administrative area, and renewable energy generation, whereas the effective factors of the implementation level of target 11.6 (waste management sector) were analyzed as GRDP, financial independence, and the population density of households in the waste management area. The positive factors influencing the implementation level of target 11.7 were GRDP, financial independence, administrative area, and green area.
Fri, 17 September 2021
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0306.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Urban Studies And Planning Keywords: urbanization; urban growth urban hierarchy; urban system
Online: 17 September 2021 (11:22:00 CEST)
The objectives of this paper are to analyze the urban growth and urbanization phenomenon in Algeria. Two processes that originated respectively by the expansion of existing urban areas and the process of urbanization that took place between 1954 and 2008, a period marked by significant economic, social and political changes in Algerian society. Our analysis was mainly based on the Algerian general census of population and habitat (2008) and on the application of rank-size distribution of cities according to Zipf’s rule. This study revealed that in Algeria, the urban system is particularly marked by the dramatic expansion of small cities. Indeed, the development of small towns, through the transition from rural to urban and the residential loosening of large cities have influenced the trend towards the balance of the urban system in Algeria. Results revealed also how the "primatial" city is undergoing profound economic and social changes at the national level. These changes are most often imposed from the top as part of land-use planning policy. This study provides some insights into the demographic dynamics of cities and the evolution of urban hierarchies in Algeria, through the comparison of the different rank-size distributions of Algerian cities in space and time. Our results suggest that land-use planning strategies are the only policies capable of influencing the future of the Algerian urban system.
Mon, 9 August 2021
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0187.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Urban Studies And Planning Keywords: urban development; land use/ land cover; Soviet Union; major cities; Afghanistan
Online: 9 August 2021 (10:00:02 CEST)
The rapid increase in population along with the economic activities led to rapid depletion of natural resources. Land use studies help us analyze the impacts of urban development on environment. Given the political upheavals in Afghanistan, this study aims to analyze how urban development evolved from 1978 to 2018 in six major cities- Kabul, Kandahar, Kunduz, Herat, Mazar-e Sharif and Jalalabad- in Afghanistan using Landsat Satellite Images. This study is based on quantitative approach. ArcGIS 9.4 software was used to synchronize the Landsat Satellite Images within the area of study. The results of the study show that the Annual rate of urban land expansion in Afghanistan was the lowest (average 1.07 square kilometers per year) during the military presence of Soviet Union in Afghanistan while it was the highest (3.35 square kilometers per year) from 2001 to 2018 due to the military presence of US-led NATO forces, relative security and rapid economic activities in Afghanistan. The authors believe that this study could be further explored if other inter-connected factors, e.g., the role of culture, literacy, immigration etc., are incorporated into the study of urban development processes in Afghanistan.
Tue, 3 August 2021
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0080.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Urban Studies And Planning Keywords: intelligent city; smart city; ecosystem; city planning; urban project; city smartness; innovation
Online: 3 August 2021 (13:12:25 CEST)
Intelligent cities or smart cities evolve bottom-up along with the digitisation and the creation of digital entities linked to human activities, physical space, and institutional settings of cities; but also, they progress top-down through smart city strategies and projects designed and implemented by public authorities. Yet, thirty-five years since the first use of the term “smart city” or “intelligent city” in the second half of the 1980s, and more than ten years of intense publications in this field, since 2009, there is still a great deal of fuzziness about the projects that make cities intelligent or smart. There is low awareness about the big differences between large, complex urban projects, such as ‘Zero Energy Districts’ or “Mobility-as-a-Service” and projects for automation of city infrastructures, such as smart city lighting, smart metering or finding a parking place. There is a widespread misconception that city intelligence or smartness, the core attribute of smart cities, can be achieved through automation of the city infrastructure. This paper focuses on projects that make cities intelligent or smart. Our intention is to show the complexity and effort needed to achieve this objective. It is an inquiry on projects and data from a large number of smart cities around the world. We analyse core properties of smart city projects, such as (a) interventions on the physical, social, and digital space of cities, (b) the relation to city sectors and ecosystems, (c) engagement of users and stakeholders in decision-making, and (c) impact through optimisation and innovation of city processes and routines. We discuss also projects we have designed and implemented in the framework of URENIO Research and ITI-CERTH. Our conclusions are two-fold. First, we propose a typology of smart city projects along 3 axes and 9 properties. Second, we argue that success and failure to achieve city smartness are mainly institutional. Most barriers to implementation are organisational, legal, and institutional. This can be explained by the social and institutional inertia of the urban system against new solutions, especially when innovation and radical change of existing routines take place. Change management should be a permanent companion of smart city projects implementation, and the modification of routines should be clearly defined and considered already at the design phase of projects.
Fri, 9 July 2021
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0226.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Urban Studies And Planning Keywords: Socio-Equity; Urban Transport; Policies; India
Online: 9 July 2021 (13:55:49 CEST)
Public Transport has been seen since ages as the most environmentally sustainable mode of transport. The users of public transport are diverse and have different socio-economic character. Hence the public transport which is not only supposed to be environmentally sustainable but also envisaged to ensure equity amongst various stakeholders of society like the females, elderly and other vulnerable groups through its service. Gender in binary terms of being differentiated based on men and women is a social construct. Public transport systems in developing countries like India witness socio-cultural factors that shape the experience of women in public spaces by social norms extant in society. Along with this, gender-based issues related to public transport are social and behavioural shortcomings as a consequence of a lack of gender sensitivity. On similar lines, elderly have a negative experience involving safety threats, physical and psychological discomfort while accessing public transport systems. The literature published regarding such issues on the gender and elderly question in public transport systems have been studied and has been brought forth under a stand- alone narrative literature review. A literature review is a prerequisite to conducting either stand-alone reviews or as a preliminary study to be supported with quantitative or qualitative analysis. Here, a stand-alone literature review concerning issues in the public transport system in India has been performed. A narrative type of review is conducted to provide an overview of pre- existing published literature. Narrative overviews are useful educational articles as they help present a broad perspective on a topic and often define the development of a problem and/or ways to manage it. The semi-systematic or narrative-review approach is designed for topics that have been theorized differently and studied within diverse disciplines making it unfavourable to study under a full systematic-review process which majorly caters to reviewing quantitative researches. As narrative-styled literature reviews prefer a semi- systematic data collection method, utmost care has been taken to include perspectives from diverse disciplines. The scope of this review is restricted to summarizing the Indian policies, schemes of public transport in light of socio-equity consideration while narrowing the inherent discrepancies within the socio-cultural ethos of the Indian society which influences socio-equity consideration in public spaces in general and the modes of public transport in particular. Research articles from electronic databases were selected based on relevance to understand the issues this viewpoint, their essential findings and possible recommendations are formulated to provide a comprehensive summary of previous researches.
Thu, 1 July 2021
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0011.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Urban Studies And Planning Keywords: Flash floods; Hydro-Geomorphology; Rainstorms management; GIS; RS.
Online: 1 July 2021 (11:07:40 CEST)
Flash flooding is one of the most devastating natural events that leads to enormous and recurring loss of life. Kuwait was subjected to severe rainstorms in the winter of 2018 and 2020 followed by an extreme violent flood that had not been known in Kuwait since 1976. It resulted in several geomorphological and environmental impacts in urban and desert areas. This produced some positive results, such as geomorphological activity in landforms, the flow of some valleys and the prosperity of wildlife in the Kuwaiti desert. Negative results included some problems in the metropolitan area and destruction of some road networks that intersect the main valleys, and which were not equipped with crossings for avoiding floods. There was also the emergence of some problems in the infrastructure. Study of flash floods requires the involvement of all scientific and executive bodies to avoid environmental risk. The study aims to: 1- Monitor geomorphological and environmental changes. 2- Assess the impact of floods in the urban areas and on infrastructure. 3- Modeling the impact. 4- Creating solutions and adaptions to the flash flood. The study uses several methods such as remote sensing (RS), geographic information systems (GIS), hydrologic modeling and fieldwork to evaluate the impact of flash flood hazards on the sustainable urban development of Kuwait state. This approach is rarely used in Kuwait. We propose a novel method that could help decision-makers and planners in determining inundated flood zones before planning future urban developments in Kuwait, and help them to manage flood water, by identifying the most appropriate places for storage to exploit water in agriculture and drinking.
Mon, 28 June 2021
Subject: Social Sciences, Urban Studies And Planning Keywords: Urban household, migration, connectivity, food remittances, food security, Nairobi, Kenya
Online: 28 June 2021 (11:55:04 CEST)
This paper draws on data from a representative city-wide household food security survey of Nairobi conducted in 2017 to examine the importance of food remitting to households in contemporary Nairobi. The next section of the paper provides an overview of urbanization and the rapid growth of Nairobi which has led to growing socio-economic inequality, precarious livelihoods for the majority, and growing food insecurity, as context for the more detailed empirical analysis of food security and food remittances that follows. It is followed by a description of the survey methodology and sections analyzing the differences between migrant and non-migrant households in Nairobi. Attention then turns to the phenomenon of food remitting, showing that over 50% of surveyed households in the city had received food remittances in the previous year. The paper then uses multivariate logistic regression to identify the relationship between Nairobi household characteristics and the probability of receiving food remittances from rural areas. The findings suggest that there are exceptions to the standard migration and poverty-driven explanatory model of the drivers of rural-urban food remitting and that greater attention should be paid to other motivations for maintaining rural-urban connectivity in Africa.
Wed, 28 April 2021
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0747.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Urban Studies And Planning Keywords: Dyson Development Model, Strategic Success, Baghdad Municipality The first topic
Online: 28 April 2021 (10:45:13 CEST)
This research aims to identify the role of the Dyson model for strategic development in achieving strategic success, and the starting point of the research was the following main question: What is the role of the Dyson model in achieving success?The research was applied in the field in the departments of the Baghdad Municipality, where the examination list was relied upon, which included a set of questions that the senior and middle leaders in the Baghdad Municipality answered, and it was the main means by which the information related to the field of research was collected, and the checklist included two variables and three dimensions From each variable, as each dimension included four questions that express indicators that revolve around one of the research hypotheses, and the case study methodology was used, which defined its path and steps, collected and analyzed field data, and linked it to its theoretical framework, in order to reach To achieve the goal of completing this research, and through analyzing, interpreting and discussing the results, the most important results were drawn up: It was found that the principle of motivation within the departments of Baghdad Municipality does not exist and this affects the employees who do not receive it from the higher leaders in their departments, and this shows that the leaderships in The Municipality of Baghdad do not have the skills and experience. Baghdad Municipality seeks to work alone and not to involve employees who have experiences and skills and strive to achieve development in their departments, and this is what the community members expressed. Among them and poor business completion in their departments.
Mon, 12 April 2021
Subject: Social Sciences, Urban Studies And Planning Keywords: urban design or planning; structural beauty; space syntax; natural streets; life; wholeness
Online: 12 April 2021 (13:03:42 CEST)
Sustainable urban design or planning is not a LEGO-like assembly of prefabricated elements, but an embryo-like growth with persistent differentiation and adaptation towards a coherent whole. The coherent whole has a striking character – called living structure – that consists of far more small substructures than large ones. To detect the living structure, natural streets or axial lines have been previously adopted to be topologically represent an urban environment as a coherent whole. This paper develops a new approach to detecting the underlying living structure of urban environments. The approach takes an urban environment as a whole and recursively decomposes it into meaningful subwholes at different levels of hierarchy or scale ranging from the largest to the smallest. We compared the new approach to natural street and axial line approaches and demonstrated, through four case studies, that the new approach is better and more powerful. Based on the study, we further discuss how the new approach can be used not only for understanding, but also for effectively designing or planning the living structure of an urban environment to be more living or more livable.
Thu, 25 March 2021
Subject: Social Sciences, Urban Studies And Planning Keywords: New Jack City; textual analysis; neoliberalism; polity
Online: 25 March 2021 (15:09:38 CET)
Cinematic texts provide narrative insights into lived experiences. This paper uses a qualitative, content analysis of New Jack City to explore how conservative partisanship affected the African American diaspora during the Reagan Era. I explore how the characterizations and contexts of marginalized personae reflect social scripts and invoke judicial tropes to convey hegemonic institutions. Given the prevalent conditions respective to sociology and psyche, policy is embodied through micro- and macro-phenomena. While the former relates to individual narratives of personal capacity and agency, the latter concerns historical events and precedents.
Thu, 21 January 2021
Subject: Social Sciences, Urban Studies And Planning Keywords: greenhouse gas; optimization; IPCC; constraint method
Online: 21 January 2021 (13:20:57 CET)
60\% of the global population is expected to be in cities by 2050. At the same time the climate is changing at an accelerated rate. In this short paper we discuss the conflation of these two phenomena and how it may change the cities of the future. We formulate this as an optimization problem that could help answer important questions such as where are they likely to be located? How are they to be powered? What would be their demand for mobility and how might this be met? How over or under ground might these cities be? This paper first looks at a historical paradigm of cities in the absence of the climate crisis and then proposes the new paradigm to look at cities of the future faced by the challenge of the climate change crisis.
Mon, 11 January 2021
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0201.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Urban Studies And Planning Keywords: Public Housing; Housing Affordability; Global Cities; Subsidized Ownership; Demand-Side Policies; Social-Welfare
Online: 11 January 2021 (14:35:49 CET)
Affordable Housing, the basic human necessity has now become a critical problem in global cities with direct impacts on people's well-being. While a well-functioning housing market may augment the economic efficiency and productivity of a city, it may trigger housing affordability issues leading crucial economic and political crises side by side if not handled properly. In global cities e.g. Singapore and Hong Kong where affordable housing for all has become one of the greatest concerns of the Government, this issue can be tackled capably by the provision of public housing. In Singapore, nearly 90% of the total population lives in public housing including public rental and subsidized ownership, whereas the figure tally only about 45% in Hong Kong. Hence this study is an effort to scrutinizing the key drivers of success in affordable public housing through following a qualitative case study based research methodological approach to present successful experience and insight from different socio-economic and geo-political context. As a major intervention, this research has clinched that, housing affordability should be backed up by demand-side policies aiming to help occupants and proprietors to grow financial capacity e.g. subsidized rental and subsidized ownership can be an integral part of the public housing system to improve housing affordability.
Thu, 3 December 2020
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0088.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Urban Studies And Planning Keywords: graduate programs; higher education; interdisciplinary research; STEM; transdisciplinary research; urban sustainability
Online: 3 December 2020 (14:30:23 CET)
Urban settings are increasingly faced with challenges across natural and engineered environmental systems, threatening the sustainability of urban centers where >50% of the world's population resides. The pressures of aging infrastructure, water and air pollution, and environmental justice exemplify the growing need for urban professionals to employ complex scientific reasoning across disciplines where they can effectively address the multi-faceted issues of urban sustainability. Here we present an innovative model for preparing the next generation of public, private, and academic leaders to address complex problems in urban sustainability. Specifically, we outline the design and implementation of an integrated, adaptable graduate training program, with the goals of science leadership, curriculum relevancy, community impact, broader applicability, recruitment into science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) programs and careers, and program sustainability. This program addresses human-ecosystem challenges using a transdisciplinary approach to produce scientific products in partnership with local communities, businesses, industries, scientists, and policy makers, while providing a mechanism to understand and overcome contemporary societal challenges. Students receive rigorous training in their home disciplines, coupled with training across disciplinary lines and developmental experiences, to prepare them to communicate, collaborate, and innovate in a variety of contexts. Training success is evaluated across measurable competency domains including problem definition, research methods, communication, collaboration, and problem-solving. After three years the program expanded relationships across fields and professions, successfully established 18 internship opportunities with community partners, created a new dual-title PhD program open to students in 5 academic departments, and facilitated the co-production of knowledge with external partners. This model bridges the gaps between research, education, and application, providing an integrated, rigorous graduate training program that fosters collaborative problem-solving between STEM graduate students and the broader community of professionals conducting sustainability work in a post-industrial urban setting.
Wed, 4 November 2020
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0035.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Urban Studies And Planning Keywords: GIS; urban design; Dubai; public health; sport management
Online: 4 November 2020 (10:01:36 CET)
The aim of this paper is to analyze the five grand parks in Dubai, United Arab Emirates (UAE) and provide a geoprocessing approach to different aspects such as sport, health, leisure, recreation, and public wellbeing. The study uses a hybrid of qualitative and quantitative approach as methodology. Sustainability offerings, accessibility for people of determination and special needs, typology and the geolocations of the grand parks plays crucial role in residents’ wellbeing. The paper concludes with recommendations for Dubai government to design new and innovative approaches to manage wellbeing of urban public places into the leisure environment for residents.
Thu, 29 October 2020
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0615.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Urban Studies And Planning Keywords: Spatial Analyses; Epidemiology; Power laws; Tropical cities
Online: 29 October 2020 (14:03:44 CET)
Colombia has one of the largest numbers of internally displaced populations in the world and recently entered a period of post-conflict. These socio-political processes and trends have increased the migration of people towards cities and accordingly are affecting the distribution and occurrence of tropical diseases in its urban and peri-urban areas. Studies have suggested that many human phenomena such as urbanization scale according to the size of human populations regardless of cultural context. But other studies show that health epidemics such as malarial and human immunodeficiency virus infections, follow a scale-free distribution in terms of population size and density. We explore these relationships and dynamics in a tropical context using statistical analyses and available geospatial data to identify the scale dynamics between urbanization processes and disease transmission in Colombia. We found that rural populations and certain disease dynamics were described by power-laws that are frequently mentioned in urbanization studies. However, we found that malaria presented higher intensity of infection in human settlements of less than 50,000 individuals, particularly for ethnic indigenous populations. Results indicate that epidemics and urbanization dynamics do indeed follow scales in Colombia; findings that differ from previous epidemiological studies such as those for malarial infection. Additionally, we identified trends showing that malarial infections become endemic in peri-urban areas. Targeting such peri-urban locations and certain demographic groups are key for managing public health issues in the urbanizing tropics.
Thu, 22 October 2020
ARTICLE | doi:10.3390/sci2040080
Subject: Social Sciences, Urban Studies And Planning Keywords: urban sprawl; GlobeLand30; LULC change; remote sensing; cellular automata; Markov chain; growth prediction; Lagos
Online: 22 October 2020 (00:00:00 CEST)
Urban growth in various cities across the world, especially in developing countries, leads to land use change. Thus, predicting future urban growth in the most rapidly growing region of Nigeria becomes a significant endeavor. This study analyzes land use and land cover (LULC) change and predicts the future urban growth of the Lagos metropolitan region, using Cellular Automata (CA) model. To achieve this, the GlobeLand30 datasets from years 2000 and 2010 were used to obtain LULC maps, which were utilized for modeling and prediction. Change analysis and prediction for LULC scenario for 2030 were performed using LCM and CA_Markov chain modeling. The results show a substantial growth of artificial surfaces, which will cause further reductions in cultivated land, grassland, shrubland, wetland, and waterbodies. There was no appreciable impact of change for bare land, as its initial extent of cover later disappeared completely. Additionally, artificial surfaces/urban growth in Lagos expanded to the neighboring towns and localities in Ogun State during the study period, and it is expected that such growth will be higher in 2030. Lastly, the study findings will be beneficial to urban planners and land use managers in making key decisions regarding urban growth and improved land use management in Nigeria.
Sat, 12 September 2020
Subject: Social Sciences, Urban Studies And Planning Keywords: island-type city; city park; waterfront area; space syntax
Online: 12 September 2020 (11:45:01 CEST)
The bay is a space barrier for the development of island-type cities and a high-quality waterfront landscape resource. This study takes Xiamen a typical island city in China as an example. First, It use the method of satellite telemetry technology combined with GIS software and spatial syntax, respectively, from the material space level and social space level, to summarize the rapid urbanization process of this city since 1990-2018, focusing on the construction process of three large-scale waterfront park systems in the transition period of inter-island development in it, and comparing the similarities and differences of their spatial forms. Further, from the choice of the axis model and the integrated analysis results, we discuss the spatial efficiency changes. The construction of the three major bay waterfront park systems in this city reflects a huge change in development pattern from lagging construction, synchronous planning, to advanced layout, providing a continuous and variable spatial form for the development of the bay region and improving space efficiency, which one of the important ways to develop and transform island-type cities. We hope to provide the reference for the development including sustainable development of other island cities around the world
Tue, 28 July 2020
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0675.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Urban Studies And Planning Keywords: MaaS; Urban mobility; Digitalisation
Online: 28 July 2020 (10:20:32 CEST)
Urban mobility is experiencing a profound change. On the one hand, mobility patterns are becoming more complex, and typical home-work-home travel is no longer the rule, as journeys now tend to connect multiple points in a rather inconstant pattern. This has changed the approach to transport planning, in that the existing transportation planning and operation approaches have been focussed on the ability to identify typical home-work/school-home travel and subsequently plan the transport system accordingly. The traditional approach has been: forecast -> plan -> deliver, as new mobility solutions are emerging. These are characterised by greater flexibility, in that they take advantage of the “sharing concept” and simultaneously provide solutions that have lower GHG emissions. Urban mobility follows a fuzzier pattern, with even the urban transportation system behaving like an active organism, where solutions are often quickly replaced. This dynamic and evolving environment raises several new challenges at different levels. The best digital solution system is the Mobility-as-a-Service (MaaS) one. This system transforms the physical transportation system into a commodity and takes advantage of the internet of things (IoT). However, the onset of MaaS solutions is anything but linear. Several business models have emerged, with different partners originating from different industries (e.g., technological, transport operators, infrastructure managers, etc.) developing their own solutions, often in competition with others. It is not unusual to find different MaaS solutions in the same city, which integrate different solutions.
Mon, 6 January 2020
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0052.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Urban Studies And Planning Keywords: urban planning; economic development; immigration reform; Socially Responsible Corporations
Online: 6 January 2020 (09:05:13 CET)
Recent developments in US immigration policies have brought tired attention to the problems of immigration in the United States. Although there has been growing awareness of the need to manage immigration that address the economic causal factors underlying the motivation to cross borders, the recent changes in immigration policies fail to do so. This paper brings attention to the futility of border control laws and calls on urban planners to address immigration through strategic planning for a socially-responsible, sustainable economic development in sending countries. This paper concludes with recommendations for how to do this.
Mon, 16 December 2019
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0208.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Urban Studies And Planning Keywords: urban planning; bibliometrics; citation analysis
Online: 16 December 2019 (06:33:20 CET)
Analyses of faculty citation activity usually focus on counts as a function of author characteristics such as rank, gender, previous citation levels, and other factors influencing productivity and career path. Citation analyses of publications consider aspects such as number of authors, author reputation, author order, length of the title, methodology, and impact factors of the publication. While publication topics or discipline are considered to be important factors, they are more difficult to analyze, and therefore performed less frequently. This paper attempts to do that for the field of urban planning. Urban planning is multi-disciplinary and includes consideration of social, economic, technological, environmental, and political systems that shape human settlement patterns. It has been suspected that some topics are more “popular” and have larger audiences, therefore are cited more often. Using nearly 15,000 urban planning publications, this paper presents an analysis of topics to assess which are cited most frequently. The classification of publications was performed using a Support Vector Machine (SVM), a machine learning (ML) approach to text classification, using citation data from Google Scholar. The citation levels for the resulting categories are analyzed and discussed.
Fri, 8 November 2019
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0091.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Urban Studies And Planning Keywords: 2030 Agenda; strategic planning; quality criteria
Online: 8 November 2019 (08:11:50 CET)
The UN’s 2030 Agenda brings new governance challenges to municipal environmental planning, both in large urban centres and in metropolitan peripheries. The opportunities of the new framework of action proposed by the United Nations (UN) and its integrative, global and transversal nature constitute advances from the previous models of municipal management based on the Local Agenda 21. This text provides evidence to apply quality criteria and validated instruments of participatory evaluation. These instruments have been built on the foundation of Evaluative Research, a scientific discipline that provides rigour and validity to those decisions adopted at a municipal level. A case study focused on a metropolitan area serves as a field of experimentation for this model of the modernization of environmental management structures at a local level. Details of the instruments, agents, priority decision areas, methodologies, participation processes and quality criteria are provided, as well as an empirically validated model for participatory municipal management based on action research processes and strategic planning that favours a shared responsibility across all social groups in the decision-making process and in the development of continuous improvement activities that are committed to sustainability. Finally, a critical comparison of weaknesses and strengths is included in light of the evidence collected.
Thu, 25 April 2019
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0283.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Urban Studies And Planning Keywords: Head/tail breaks, natural cities, Zipf’s law, geospatial big data
Online: 25 April 2019 (12:06:45 CEST)
Authorities define cities – or human settlements in general – through imposing top-down rules in terms of whether buildings belong to cities. Emerging geospatial big data makes it possible to define cities from the bottom up, i.e., buildings determine themselves whether they belong to a city based on the notion of natural cities that is defined based on head/tail breaks, a classification and visualization tool for data with a heavy-tailed distribution. In this paper, we used 125 million building locations – all building footprints of America (mainland) or their centroids more precisely – to derive 2.1 million natural cities in the country (http://lifegis.hig.se/uscities/). These natural cities – in contrast to government defined city boundaries – constitute a valuable data source for city-related research.
Fri, 19 April 2019
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0223.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Urban Studies And Planning Keywords: 3D data model; underground utility networks; underground space planning; underground mapping; utility cadastre; land administration
Online: 19 April 2019 (11:50:52 CEST)
Cities around the world face an increasing need for land as density in urban areas increases rapidly. The pressure to expand a city's space is especially acute for a city-state like Singapore. In the big data era, a data-driven approach of underground spaces is necessary for the sustainable development of a city along with rapid urbanization. A reliable three dimensional (3D) digital map of utility networks is crucial for urban planners to understand one of the most impactful aspects of underground space planning. How to map reliable 3D underground utility networks and use it in the land administration? This is a challenging issue, especially for cities with limited land resources, congested underground spaces, and a lack of uniform existing practices. First, this paper proposes a framework for utility data governance from the underground utility data survey to data usage. This is the backbone to support coordination of different roles in the utility data management and usage. Then, an initial design of the 3D utility cadastral data model is introduced, which aims to support the 3D modelling of utility networks and connect it to the cadastral parcel. It is expected that reliable and accurate information on underground utility networks can lead to a better understanding and management of underground space, which eventually contributes to better city planning, making the unseen structures visible.
Tue, 9 April 2019
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0114.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Urban Studies And Planning Keywords: International development, urban planning culture, social maladies, local authority, Chipata District, Zambia
Online: 9 April 2019 (12:53:50 CEST)
Since the public inauguration of the URP (Urban and Regional Planning) Bill in 2009, which is now law (The Urban and Regional Planning Act No. 3 of 2015), urban planning in Zambia has undergone changes. In partnership with the Volunteer Service Overseas (VSO) Federation, the Zambian parliament put into effect pilot urban planning assistance programs to assist districts around the country, including Chipata District in 2011, transition to a more decentralized, integrated and locally-defined approach to urban planning. However, the presence of discrimination, corruption, and negative attitudes towards urban planning engagement, social maladies prominently displayed in Zambian society, pose challenges to implementing the ideal goals of the 2009 URP Bill. The extreme, widespread poverty in Zambia merely exacerbates the propensity towards corrupt and discriminatory behavior, and influences poor attitudes toward urban planning engagement. This paper describes the projects undertaken by the VSO volunteer from the USA between 2011 and 2012 in the light of the specific urban problems facing Chipata District, and discusses the ways the social maladies play out in Zambian society to pose challenges to implementing the recommended changes to the planning system scribed in the 2009 URP Bill.
Thu, 14 March 2019
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201903.0150.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Urban Studies And Planning Keywords: bus rapid transit; employment; accessibility; equity
Online: 14 March 2019 (07:12:12 CET)
Investments in public transit infrastructure in Latin America and the Caribbean often aim to reduce spatial and social inequalities by improving accessibility to jobs and other opportunities for vulnerable populations. The Metropolitano, Lima’s Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) project had as one of its central goals to connect low-income populations living in the peripheries to jobs in the city center. We examine the contribution of Lima’s BRT system to accessibility to employment in the city, particularly for low-income public transit users. Building on secondary datasets of employment, household socio-demographics and Origin-Destination surveys before and after the BRT began operations, we assess its effects on potential accessibility to employment, comparing impacts amongst lower versus higher income populations. Findings suggest that the BRT line reduced travel times to reach jobs, in comparison with traditional public transport in the city, amongst populations living within walking distance of the system. However, we also find that the coverage of the BRT declines in areas with high concentrations of poor and extreme poor populations, limiting the equitability of the accessibility improvements. We analyze the distributional effects of BRT infrastructure and services, discussing policy avenues that can improve the prospects for BRT system investments to include the poor in their mobility benefits.
Fri, 1 March 2019
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201903.0014.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Urban Studies And Planning Keywords: Rural Development, Federalism, Developing Countries, Least Developed countries
Online: 1 March 2019 (13:14:54 CET)
The paper attempts to explore the relationship between federalism and rural development. Federalism is a division of power, responsibility and accountability to bring the administrative and political power closer to the ground and essentially to increase the good governance. On the other hand, rural development is a complex and multidimensional issue- especially much demanding for least developed and developing countries. A descriptive and qualitative approach was carried out to study the complex relationship between rural development and federalism. Similarly, a SWOT analysis was carried out to have a better understanding of the relationship. The study found that there is significant potentiality for accelerated development of rural landscape in federalism if carefully executed. However, on the other hand, federalism may pose several risks on rural development and may restrict the development pace if not executed with appropriate care and understanding. Therefore, the study concludes that cooperation and coordination among the federal structures are crucial for better development of the rural economy.
Fri, 11 January 2019
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0102.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Urban Studies And Planning Keywords: renewable energy; economic growth; public health expenditure; carbon emissions; FDI inflows; green logistics
Online: 11 January 2019 (04:39:42 CET)
We do this research to investigate the relationship between renewable energy, public health expenditure, logistics performance indices, and economic and environmental sustainability in the ASEAN member states, through the analysis of a panel data from 2007 to 2017. The study used secondary data, which is downloaded from the World Bank Website and employs SEM (Structural Equation Modelling) model for testing hypothesis. The results show that the usage of renewable energy in logistical operations would enhance the environmental and economic performance in terms of mitigating carbon emissions and greenhouse gas emissions. While, public health expenditure and environmental performance is negatively correlated, which confirms that greater environmental sustainability with lower carbon emissions and greenhouse gases will improve human health and economic growth. Moreover, greater public health expenditure and poor environmental performance has negative effect on economic growth, inefficiency and low productivity of labor slowdown to the economic activities. For another side, the usage of renewable energy and the adoption of green practices in international logistics will develop the environmental sustainability, establish better image of a country and attract foreign direct investment inflows, and also minimize carbon emissions and public health expenditure, spurring sustainable economic growth with better export opportunities in pro-environmental countries.
Mon, 5 November 2018
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0099.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Urban Studies And Planning Keywords: smart city; smart citizen; participation; smartmentality; open data; metaphor
Online: 5 November 2018 (10:19:03 CET)
The goal of the paper is to investigate the expected participation and mentality of smart citizens in smart cities. The key question is the role of the human factor in smart environments globally studied through a research corpus of the mainstream summaries, trend reports, white papers and visions of business – governmental – university research co- operations. Foremost, a short review of the changing scholarly trends is presented as a theoretical framework. Concerning its key ideas, the corpus based findings are recapped and analysed by content networks and the most referred city strategies. Besides, a critical approach reveal further required factors and risks to investigate. The ultimate goal is to understand how the smart city landscape is shaped by citizen-based strategies, open data, empowerment and responsibility. Accordingly, the paper closes with theoretical, practical and metaphor-based recommendations to support the business and political decision making, and also, the emerging scholarly trends in the context of upcoming technological-structural changes.
Tue, 23 October 2018
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0536.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Urban Studies And Planning Keywords: playable city; age-friendly environments; games; mobility; active ageing
Online: 23 October 2018 (10:11:15 CEST)
A key concern in an ageing society is citizens’ mobility. As populations age, disability impairments can affect active ageing, health-related wellbeing and quality of life. In this paper, we present the on-going research project SeriousGiggle—Game-based learning for triggering active ageing. Its goal is to assess the potential of game-based learning for active ageing and contribute to a sense of wellbeing and quality of life. It also seeks to improve the mobility of older adults by creating a set of journey plans with route guidance that are rated in terms of safety, community support, environment and age-friendliness. Drawn on our field work with 33 co-designers, 40 end users and 10 semi-structured interviews with Subject Matter Experts, we identify a set of necessary design requirements to an Age-friendly Playable City. This study recommends the use of gamification and playful techniques to engage the end-users to provide information about local traffic signs, pavement conditions, wayfinding and, therefore, help to create route guidance and walking assistance that are personalized to older adults’ context in terms of location, travel fitness, mobility impairments and motivations.
Wed, 10 October 2018
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0426.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Urban Studies And Planning Keywords: information; cities; interaction; environmental information; entropy; scale; enaction
Online: 10 October 2018 (05:32:09 CEST)
From physics to the social sciences, information is now seen as a fundamental component of reality. However, a form of information seems still underestimated, perhaps precisely because it is so pervasive that we take it for granted: the information encoded in the very environment we live in. We still do not fully understand how information takes the form of cities, and how our minds deal with it in order to learn about the world, make daily decisions, and take part in the complex system of interactions we create as we live together. This paper addresses three related problems that need to be solved if we are to understand the role of environmental information: (1) the physical problem: how can we preserve information in the built environment? (2) The semantic problem: how do we make environmental information meaningful? And (3) the pragmatic problem: how do we enact environmental information in our daily lives? Attempting to devise a solution to these problems, we introduce a three-layered model of information in cities, namely environmental information in physical space, environmental information in semantic space, and the information enacted by interacting agents. We propose forms of calculating entropy in these different layers, and apply these measures to archetypal urban cases and simulated scenarios. Our results suggest that ordered spatial structures and diverse land use patterns encode information, and that aspects of physical and semantic information affect coordination in interaction systems.
Fri, 24 August 2018
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0426.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Urban Studies And Planning Keywords: information; cities; interaction; environmental information; entropy; scale; enaction
Online: 24 August 2018 (06:20:43 CEST)
From physics to the social sciences, information is now seen as a fundamental component of reality. However, a form of information seems still underestimated, perhaps precisely because it is so pervasive that we take it for granted: the information encoded in the very environment we live in. We still do not fully understand how information takes the form of cities, and how our minds deal with it in order to learn about the world, make daily decisions, and take part in the complex system of interactions we create as we live together. This paper addresses three related problems that need to be solved if we are to understand the role of environmental information: (1) the physical problem: how can we create and preserve information in the built environment? (2) The semantic problem: how do we make environmental information meaningful? And (3) the pragmatic problem: how do we enact environmental information in our lives? Attempting to devise a solution to these problems, it proposes a framework to approach how information bridges minds, environment and society, and helps us create large-scale systems of interaction.
Wed, 8 August 2018
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0162.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Urban Studies And Planning Keywords: Population Distribution; Optimization; Hu Huanyong Line; Land Use Efficiency; China
Online: 8 August 2018 (08:46:57 CEST)
With the accelerating urbanization process, the population increasingly concentrates in urban areas. In view of the special situation in China and a series of problems in the process of rapid urbanization, there were no reasonable measures for optimizing the population pattern. This study explored the distribution pattern of the Chinese population and proposed an optimization plan for the population distribution using GIS analysis. The main findings were as follows. (1) From 2010 to 2015, the distribution of population density in China presented a pattern of high in the southeast and low in the northwest based on the county-level administrative regions. The population still showed a tendency to migrate to the southeast of the country based on the “Hu Huanyong Line”. (2) There was a great difference in the land use efficiency in terms of population and economic production in China. The economic concentration in China was higher than the population concentration. In the areas where population and economic production were aggregated, GDP per capita and land use efficiency were higher. (3) Based on the land use efficiency in terms of population and economic production, the optimized urbanization plan of “1+4+11” for China’s urbanization was put forward, namely, one national-level aggregated area of population and economic production, 4 regional-level aggregated areas of population and economic production, and 11 local regionally aggregated areas of population and economic production. This optimization plan for urbanization represents an attempt to explore the direction of China’s urbanization, and it can be used to optimize the spatial development pattern and provide scientific guidance for the new urbanization plan.
Wed, 25 July 2018
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0466.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Urban Studies And Planning Keywords: entrepreneur rail model; value capture; city deals; private railways; transit-oriented development; western Australia; tramways; land grants; future cities; urban planning
Online: 25 July 2018 (05:54:23 CEST)
Urban transit planning is going through a transition to greater private investment in many parts of the world and is now on the agenda in Australia. After showing examples of private investment in transit globally the paper focuses on historical case studies of private rail investment in Western Australia. These case studies mirror the historical experience in rapidly growing railway cities in Europe, North America and Asia (particularly Japan), and also the land grant railways that facilitated settlement in North America. The Western Australian experience is noteworthy for the small but rapidly growing populations of the settlements involved, suggesting that growth, rather than size, is the key to successfully raising funding for railways through land development. The paper shows through the history of transport, with particular reference to Perth, that the practice of private infrastructure provision can provide lessons for how to enable this again. It suggests that new partnerships with private transport investment as set out in the Federal Government City Deal process, should create many more opportunities to improve the future of cities through once again integrating transit, land development and private finance.
Thu, 28 June 2018
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0475.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Urban Studies And Planning Keywords: sustainable development goals, urban sustainable development, indicators, evolution of sustainability assessment
Online: 28 June 2018 (15:20:59 CEST)
With growing urbanisation the sustainability of cities has become increasingly important. Although cities have been using indicators for a long time it is only in the last decades that attempts have been made to collate indicators into indicator sets with the aim of reflecting the many different aspects that need to be covered to assess the sustainability of a city. The aim of this paper is to review how indicators for monitoring sustainable urban development have evolved over time and compare them to the indicators suggested by the UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). The review reveals that previous indicator sets emphasised environmental sustainability, health and economic growth. It is also shown that indicator sets that pre-date the SDGs lacked dimensions such as gender equality and reduced inequalities. In all, the SDG indicators provide the possibility of a more balanced and integrated approach to urban sustainability monitoring. At the same time, a methodology is needed to facilitate the adaptation process of localising the SDGS, targets and indicators. Challenges of local application include their large number, their generic characteristics and the need to complement them with specific indicators that are more relevant at the city level.
Fri, 12 January 2018
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0117.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Urban Studies And Planning Keywords: development process, high-rise, condominium, development control, city sustainability, Planning Authority, planner
Online: 12 January 2018 (15:57:05 CET)
This paper presents an experimental scenario aimed at bridging the gap between the cities we have and the cities we need, not only in the 21st century but also beyond, using the integrated tools of development control and holistic land development model to achieve a planner-led vision of city sustainability. Due to scathing criticisms against the development control system, the paper contends that planners as development approving officers and public interest specialists are better positioned than allied professionals to increase city sustainability through a holistic development process that benefits from the concept of strong sustainability posited by ecological economists. The paper adopts a seven-stage, 56-cell land development matrix (model) to simulate the development of the typical high-rise residential condominium in Ontario, supported with secondary data and the author’s ground experience as a planner and realtor with condominium customer service experience across Toronto and Mississauga cities between 2008 and 2017. Findings reveal that planners can seize the opportunity of being leaders of the development team to synergize the risks and value creation in land development that are key drivers of strong sustainability. The paper suggests some policy implications for averting disasters like fire hazards and terror attacks in high-rise residential buildings.
Mon, 31 July 2017
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201707.0097.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Urban Studies And Planning Keywords: urban sustainability; California; landscape decision-making; urban environment; water use behaviors; social-ecological systems
Online: 31 July 2017 (16:45:57 CEST)
Urban development and planning are increasingly centered on matters of sustainability, balancing economic development with ecosystem services and biotic structures within urban environments. In addition to these institutional and structural factors, the decision-making process within individual households must be understood to address rising concerns about water use. Therefore, individual characteristics and preferences that influence the use of water also warrant examination. In response to a survey of occupants of single-family residences in the Fresno Clovis Metropolitan Area of California, contextual interviews and focus group interviews with a homeowner sub-sample, we find evidence of an interplay of social-structural, institutional, and cultural factors involved in influencing individual water use behaviors and landscape decision making. The complexity of residential behaviors and decision-making poses some potential issues with regards to the interactions between individual households and institutional actors in matters of water usage and landscaping, as survey respondents indicate relatively little confidence in institutions and groups to make wise water policy decisions. We conclude that the promotion and implementation of sustainable water use practices will require not only environmental education for the citizenry, but also a tailoring of information for environmental educational initiatives that address the particularities of individual neighborhoods and communities.
Tue, 16 May 2017
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0124.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Urban Studies And Planning Keywords: rural-urban fringe; walkability; road intersections; decision support methods; Electre Tri
Online: 16 May 2017 (13:50:46 CEST)
The study investigates the influence of road intersections on pedestrian accessibility in urban-rural fringe areas. An evaluation method to support planners and decision makers in the classification of crossing areas according to their effect on walking and in the prioritization of improvement interventions is proposed. In these peripheral parts of towns, pedestrians are almost ignored and people depend on car use for any necessity. Initiatives to improve livability can include the design of walkable friendly environments aiming at offering potential users good levels of security, comfort and convenience when walking to destinations. These spatial requirements have to be provided along road segments and even more on crossing areas which represent sensitive points of the entire connection system with a hindering influence on people’s propensity to walk. Starting with spatial basic interventions aiming at enhancing the continuity, safety and quality of pedestrian paths it is possible to reduce the physical and perceptual distance which separates fringe contexts from the rest of the city leading to a progressive integration of urban functions.
Mon, 24 April 2017
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201704.0149.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Urban Studies And Planning Keywords: SBM model; industrial specialization; industrial clustering; urban land utilization efficiency
Online: 24 April 2017 (11:14:45 CEST)
In this paper, a land utilization efficiency evaluation model, which takes environmental loss into consideration, has been structured via taking advantage of the slack-based measure (SBM) model. Meanwhile, based on the panel data from 280 prefecture-level cities in China from 2003 to 2013, the paper thoroughly probed into, and discussed, the effect imposed by industry clustering and specialization on the utilization efficiency of urban land. Research results indicate several conclusions, as follows: (1) Taking environmental loss into account, the land utilization efficiency of prefecture-level cities in China is generally low. During the research period, the average value of the land utilization efficiency of prefecture-level cities in China is only 0.349, with, first, a declining trend, and then a rise. Geographically speaking, the land utilization efficiency presents a “depression in the center” phenomenon which means the land utilization efficiency of prefecture-level cities in the central China are relatively lower than in the east and west. Now, the difference among the urban land utilization efficiency in China significantly reflects the distinctions among Eastern, Western, and Central China. Moreover, the contribution degree of the difference of the land utilization efficiency among cities of central China to the aggregation difference shows an ascending momentum. Additionally, the relation between the population scale and land utilization efficiency in cities manifests as a U shape; (2) theoretically speaking, the relation between industry clustering and urban land utilization efficiency presents an inverted-U shape. However, this kind of relation is not significant in Western and Central China and medium-sized cities. Moreover, most of cities are still relatively far away from the inflection point or the critical value; and (3) the industry professional level has imposed a positive influence on urban land utilization efficiency. However, that influence is not significant in Eastern China and large cities. Consequently, strengthening the industry professional development of Western and Central China and small and medium-sized cities, facilitating diversified development of industries in Eastern China and large cities, and accelerating industrial clustering, all of these measures above will be conducive to improving urban land utilization efficiency in China.
Wed, 11 January 2017
Subject: Social Sciences, Urban Studies And Planning Keywords: green infrastructure; sustainable urban development; urban planning; landscape representations
Online: 11 January 2017 (07:44:52 CET)
In the quest for more sustainable urban landscape development, the concept of ‘green infrastructure’ (GI) has become central in policy documents and as a multifunctional general planning tool. GI is not however a simple and unambiguous solution. While there in policy documents are claims for more and connected GI, actual urban development takes another direction. The densifying imperative is hard to combine with an increased and more connected GI. This paper argues for a critical and diversified approach to the concept of GI, to facilitate its implementation in urban planning and management. While GI most often is seen as a common asset and a public good, the actual land use negotiations and management responsibilities cannot be limited to a public service discourse, but should address more clearly a variety of actors. Linguistic as well as spatial definitions of the two relevant dichotomies of ‘green-grey’ and ‘public-private’ are crucial in GI location, design, construction and management, it is argued. Overarching representations of GI will be needed, but also – and linked to it – a spatial storm water plan and an overall plan for public space. The development over time will need an intersectorial implementation and management program. Thus some of the GI intentions may be implemented in planning processes, some through reorganisation and redesign of public space, and some by agreements with landowners.
Mon, 26 December 2016
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201612.0127.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Urban Studies And Planning Keywords: Granger-causality; carbon dioxide emissions; ARDL; Kenya; variance decomposition; climate change
Online: 26 December 2016 (10:02:23 CET)
In this study, an attempt was made to investigate the Kenya case of multivariate causality of carbon dioxide emissions by employing a time series data spanning from 1961-2011 using the ARDL method of cointegration analysis. The long-run elasticities show that, a 1% increase in financial development increases carbon dioxide emissions by 0.28%, a 1% increase in GDP per capita increases carbon dioxide emissions by 1.32% and a 1% increase in urbanization decreases carbon dioxide emissions by 1.14%. There was a unidirectional causality running from financial development, food production index, GDP per capita, industrialization and urbanization to carbon dioxide emissions. The innovation accounting shows that 20% of future shocks in carbon dioxide emissions are due to fluctuations in financial development, 9% of future shocks in financial development are due to fluctuations urbanization and 22% of future shocks in food production index are due to fluctuations in carbon dioxide emissions.