ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0067.v1
Online: 5 October 2020 (10:56:02 CEST)
Introduction: Decreasing overweight and obesity prevalence requires precise data at sub-national levels to monitor progress and initiate interventions. This study aimed to estimate baseline age-standardized overweight prevalence at the lowest administrative units among women, 18 years and older, in seven African countries. The study aims are synonymous with indicator 14 of the global non-communicable disease monitoring framework. Methods: We used the most recent Demographic and Health Survey and administrative boundaries data from the GADM. Three Bayesian hierarchical models were fitted and model selection tests implemented. The age-standardized prevalence of overweight among adult women at national, first and second administrative levels were individually reported in each country in the form of maps and tables. Results: Substantial variation in the age-standardized prevalence of adult female overweight was noted across several second-level administrative units. In numerous locations in Tanzania, Nigeria and Zimbabwe, more than half of the adult female population were overweight and in one location in Tanzania, over 72% of the adult female population were overweight. These estimates were roughly twice the national level overweight prevalence and, in some cases, roughly 10 – 20% greater than the overweight prevalence in first-level administrative units. Conclusion: The observed overweight burden in subnational administrative units suggests the presence of an epidemic tantamount to the situation in more affluent economies. African countries lack the resources to effectively handle the fallout from such epidemic, therefore motivating the need for increased urgency in adopting WHO obesity-related intervention guidelines and implementing more rigorous studies to validate the study findings.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0056.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: syphilis; Treponema pallidum; congenital infection
Online: 5 October 2020 (08:28:04 CEST)
Congenital syphilis still represents a worldwide public health problem. If left untreated, can lead to fetal demise and high neonatal morbidity and mortality. Unfortunately, in the last decade there has been a resurgence of cases in the US. This review discusses the ongoing problem of this preventable congenital infection, vertical transmission and clinical manifestations while providing a guidance for the evaluation and management of infants born to mothers with reactive serologic tests for syphilis
Fri, 2 October 2020
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0047.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: children; adolescents; burns; dressing changes; virtual reality; pain.
Online: 2 October 2020 (15:29:05 CEST)
Children and adolescents with severe burns require dressing changes, associated with pain. As immersive virtual reality (VR) gained prominence as non-pharmacological adjuvant analgesia, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis on the efficacy of full immersive VR on pain experienced during dressing changes in hospitalized children and adolescents with severe burns. This exercise included quality and risk of bias assessment. The systematic reviewsearch resulted in eight studies and 142 patients. This exercise included quality and risk of bias assessment. Due to missing data, four studies were excluded from the meta-analysis. Fixed effects meta-analysis of the four included studies (n = 104) revealed a large effect size (ES) (SMD=0.94; 95% CI=0.62, 1.27; Z=5.70; p<0.00001) for adjuvant full immersive VR compared to standard care. In conclusion, adjuvant full immersive VR significantly reduces pain experienced during dressing changes in children and adolescents with burns. We therefore recommend implementing full immersive VR as an adjuvant in this specific setting and population. However, this requires further research into the hygienic use of VR appliances in health institutions. Furthermore, due to the high cost of the hardware, a cost-benefit analysis is required. Finally, research should also verify the long term physical and psychological benefits of VR.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0040.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: food choice; elderly people; healthy diet; caregiver; Thailand
Online: 2 October 2020 (12:23:26 CEST)
Over the past decade, Thailand has experienced a rapid increase in its elderly population. Many unfavorable health outcomes among elderly people are associated with nutrition. Nutrition in elderly people is affected by physical, mental, and social factors. This study explored the food choices and dietary practices among community-dwelling elderly people in Thailand from the perspective of both caregivers and the elderly people themselves. Six focus group discussions and six semi-structured interviews were conducted in the Samut Sakhon Province of Thailand. A combination of deductive and inductive thematic analyses was adopted, and the results show that physical and mental factors and societal factors are important determinants of food choices. Moreover, a changing food environment and economic factors were found to affect food choices. Issues of trust in food safety and food markets were highlighted as growing issues. Therefore, fostering healthy food choice interventions that consider both environmental and societal aspects is necessary.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0039.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: peritoneal catheter; PleurX, liver cirrhosis, refractory ascites, spontaneous bacterial peritonitis,
Online: 2 October 2020 (10:39:07 CEST)
Background and objectives: Refractory ascites markedly worsens prognosis in cirrhosis. Large volume paracentesis (LVP) is standard treatment, but complications are common. In a randomized controlled case-series, we assessed a permanent tunneled peritoneal catheter versus LVP in patients with cirrhosis and ascites. Materials and Methods: Random allocation was computer-generated, and concealment used opaque envelopes. Patients were included from 01-2017 to 12-2018. Inclusion criteria were cirrhosis and recurrent ascites and expected survival of more than 3 months. Results: Thirteen patients were enrolled (PleurX =6 versus LVP =7). Seven were female, age range 51 to 80 years. No procedure-related complications occurred. Two patients died due to variceal bleeding (PleurX-group) and sepsis (LVP-group). One patient was withdrawn due to hyponatremia (PleurX-group). Two patients were withdrawn due to bacterial peritonitis and infection of unknown origin (Control-group). In the PleurX-group, all patients colonized the catheter, two developed bacterial peritonitis. The most common bacterial colonization was Staph. Epidermidis (n=4). Conclusions: In selected patients, the PleurX catheter mobilizes ascites and may be an alternative to LVP. The risk of infection should be considered in each case. The impact of colonization and risk of infections needs further investigation. Trial Registration: EudraCT: CIV-16-10-017324; clinicaltrials.gov: NCT 03027635; Scientific Ethics Committee journal no: H-1604179
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0030.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Amazonian region; ZIKV in pregnancy; Exanthematic disease in pregnancy; Torch syndrome; Abortion; Stillbirth; Mycrocephaly; Preterm delivery; Low birth weight
Online: 2 October 2020 (08:47:53 CEST)
The epidemic transmission of Zika virus (ZIKV) in Brazil has been identified as a cause of microcephaly and other neurological malformations in babies of ZIKV-infected women. This study provides a descriptive analysis, since the onset of symptoms to the delivery, of a cohort who were registered as having ZIKV infection in pregnancy, from November 2015 to December 2016. Suspected cases were registered at a referral center for infectious and tropical diseases in Manaus, in the Brazilian Amazonian region. A total of 834 women with suspected ZIKV in pregnancy were included, of whom 91.4% had confirmed pregnancy. Reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) confirmed ZIKV infection in 42.2% of the cohort. In 35.2% of the cohort, ZIKV was the sole infection identified. Severe adverse pregnancy outcomes (abortion, stillbirth, or microcephaly) were observed in both RT-PCR ZIKV-positive (4.96%) and ZIKV-negative (2.15%) cases. Women with suspected ZIKV infection were much more likely to have adverse pregnancy outcomes if they were symptomatic during the first trimester of pregnancy (odds ratio 10.5; 95% confidence interval 4.0–27.0; p<0.001). Among pregnant women with suspected ZIKV infection, the occurrence of symptoms in the first trimester is associated with an especially high risk of severe adverse pregnancy outcomes.
Thu, 1 October 2020
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0021.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Pioglitazone; DPP4-inhibitor; ESRD; Cardiovascular outcome; Mortality
Online: 1 October 2020 (15:41:50 CEST)
While pioglitazone reduces insulin resistance and hepatic gluconeogenesis effectively in patients with T2DM, these benefits remained controversial in patients with ESRD. We compared MACCEs and mortality (overall, infection-related, and MACCE-related) of pioglitazone to that of DPP4-inhibitors in patients with T2DM and ESRD. From Taiwan’s national health insurance database, 647 pioglitazone users and 6080 DPP4-inhibitors users between April 1st, 2006 and December 31th, 2016 were followed from the 91th date after the ESRD certification till study outcomes, independently; withdraw from the NHI program, death, or Dec. 31th, 2017. After weighting, risks of MACCEs (10.48% vs 12.62% per person-years, [HR]: 0.85, 95% [CI]: 0.729–0.985) and all-cause mortality (12.86% vs 13.22% per person-years, [HR]: 0.88, 95% [CI]: 0.771–0.995) are significantly lower in pioglitazone group. Subgroup analysis found lower MACCEs risk in the pioglitazone users without insulin therapy (6.44% vs 10.04% [HR]: 0.59, 95% [CI]: 0.42–0.82) and lower MACCEs related death (2.76% vs 3.84% [HR]: 0.61, 95% [CI]: 0.40–0.95) in the pioglitazone group with dyslipidemia, when comparing with DPP4-inhibitors users. Pioglitazone is associated with lower all-cause mortality and MACCEs in diabetic patients with ESRD, compared to DPP4-inhibitors. These benefits were further significant in the non-insulin users and patients with dyslipidemia.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0015.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: personalized medicine; "cyberphysical system; biocybernetic complexes; electro-biopotentials; ECG measurement; the quality of registration of an integral ECG
Online: 1 October 2020 (13:23:17 CEST)
One of the rapidly developing research areas is the creation of systems. which are commonly referred to as cyberphysical complexes. In such systems, devices and complexes interact with a completely different physical nature. The role of a person in such systems usually consists in the formation of final tasks for “artificial intelligence” and executive mechanisms. The functioning of actuators is controlled by accurate information systems.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0007.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: debonding; Er,Cr:YSGG laser; primary teeth; RRIDs; zirconia crown
Online: 1 October 2020 (09:05:59 CEST)
(1) Background: Prefabricated zirconia crowns are used to restore teeth in children. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the removal of these crowns with the erbium, chromium: yttrium-scandium-gallium-garnet (Er,Cr:YSGG) laser; (2) Methods: Twelve primary and 13 permanent teeth were prepared and prefabricated zirconia crowns were passively fitted and cemented with two resin modified glass-ionomer cements. Surface areas of prepared teeth and crowns were calculated. Crowns were removed using two laser settings: 4.5 Watts, 15 Hertz, 20 water/ 20 air, and 5 Watts, 15 Hertz, 50 water/50 air. The retrieval time and temperature changes were tested recorded. Data were analyzed using ANOVA with Tuckey’s adjusted post hoc pairwise comparison t-test; (3) Results: The average time for crown removal was: 3 minutes, 47.7 seconds for permanent; and 2 minutes 5 seconds for primary teeth. The mean temperature changes were 2.48℃ (SD=1.43) for permanent; and 3.14℃ (SD=1.88) for primary teeth. The time to debond was significantly positively correlated with tooth inner surface area and volume, outer crown volume, and the cement volume; (4) Conclusions: Use of the Er,Cr:YSGG laser is an effective, safe and non-invasive method to remove prefabricated zirconia crowns cemented with RMGI cements from permanent and primary teeth.
Wed, 30 September 2020
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0756.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: 3D in vitro models; eye research; in silico analysis; eye anatomy
Online: 30 September 2020 (15:04:49 CEST)
Human eye is a specialized organ with complex anatomy and physiology, because it is characterized by different cell types with specific physiological functions. Given the complexity of the eye, ocular tissues are finely organized and orchestrated. In the last few years many in vitro models have been developed, in order to meet the 3Rs principle (Replacement, Reduction and Refinement) for eye toxicity testing which is necessary to ensure that the risks associated with ophthalmic products meet appropriate safety criteria and are clearly labelled. In vitro preclinical testing is now a well-established practice of significant importance for evaluating the efficacy and safety of cosmetic, pharmaceutical, and nutraceutical products. Along with in vitro testing, also computational procedures, herein described, for evaluating the pharmacological profile of potential ocular drug candidates including their toxicity, are in rapid expansion. In this review the ocular cell types and functionality are described providing an overview about the scientific challenge for the development of three-dimensional in vitro models.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0736.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: optical coherence tomography (CP OCT); cross-scattering; probes; brain tumors; stereotactic biopsy; neurosurgical guidance
Online: 30 September 2020 (10:23:55 CEST)
Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is one of the most promising, innovative and rapidly emerging intraoperative imaging modalities for neurosurgical guidance in brain tissue imaging, "optical biopsy", brain cerebral vascular detection, nerve fibers and white matter tracts detection. In this article, we provide a short survey of cross-polarization OCT and different types of OCT probes that can be used in routine neurosurgical practice. Through different types of probes there are multiple applications where OCT can play a highly complementary role in offering the real-time microscopic assessment and imaging of normal and pathological brain tissues. The biopsy-needle based probe for CP OCT was shown to be an effective instrument for brain tissue mapping and express estimation of tissue status as well as for detecting large blood vessels to prevent causing bleeding during biopsy sampling. The folded CP OCT probe for intraoperative use for brain tissue examination was shown as a potentially efficient sensor head for CP OCT. The probe demonstrated high lateral resolution in diffractive limited probing beam quality. The length of dismountable probe tip allows using the probe under operating microscope. Due to the designed family of specialized probes CP OCT fills in the niche of devices for express brain tissue examination in situ.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0732.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Rosemary; Alzheimer’s disease; cognition; meta-analysis; preclinical study; mild cognitive dysfunction; herbal drugs; rosmarinic acid
Online: 30 September 2020 (10:04:01 CEST)
Background: Patients with mild cognitive impairment end up progressing to Alzheimer’s disease (AD) leading to straining burden on public health. R. officinalis long been known as the herb of remembrance and can be a potential cognition enhancer for AD. The aims of the review were to summarize the qualitative and quantitative aspects of R.O and its active constituents in enhancing the cognition. MATERIALS AND METHOD Google scholar and PubMed structured search to find relevant studies that assessed the effect of R.O extract or any of its active constituents on cognitive performance in animals. Data extraction: Following information from each included study was extracted: (1) article information (2) characteristics of study animals (3) type of intervention; type, dose, duration, and frequency of administration of R.O (4) type of outcome measure. Data synthesis: Data were analyzed using Review Manager (RevMan 5.3, 2014] and meta-analysis was performed for the outcome measures on all relevant tasks within the included papers by computing the standardized mean difference ps. RESULTS. 23 studies for qualitative and fifteen for meta-analysis were selected. From fifteen included papers, 22 studies with 35 comparisons were meta-analyzed. Effect sizes for intact animals and impaired animals respectively was (mean g and 95% CI 1.19 [0.74, 1.64; 0.57 [0.19,0.96]. The R. officinalis had positive effect on both groups of animals. The subgroup analyses exhibited substantial unexplained heterogeneity between studies. Mechanisms of R.O was anticholinesterase, procholinergic, antioxidant, anti-amyloid, neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory agent CONCLUSIONS: R.O improves cognitive function. Limitations: Considerable heterogeneity between studies.
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: clozapine; schizophrenia; early-onset; pregnancy; bipolar affective disorder; agranulocytosis; COVID-19; pharmacogenetic
Online: 30 September 2020 (08:06:26 CEST)
Background: Clozapine use is precarious due to its side effects - neurological, cardiovascular, and hematological; however, it is the gold standard in the therapy of resistant schizophrenia (TRS) in adults and harshly underused. Objective: Our purpose is to systematically examine the most recent data regarding clozapine in order to update the knowledge in pharmacological mechanisms, therapy benefits versus side effects to optimize its use in the context of a narrow and scarce of resources pathology, with particularities in the COVID-19 pandemic. (2) Data sources: We performed an accurate search in the primary sources of Databases (PubMed, BMC Public Health, Global Health, Cross Ref, Scopus, Web of Science, and Google Scholar) with specific keywords: “clozapine” and “schizophrenia,” “risks” agranulocytosis” “TRS” “bipolar affective disorder” “pregnancy” “early-onset schizophrenia” “resistance”. Study eligibility criteria: we extracted information regarding drug treatment, side effects profile, and efficacy for each trial; (3) Results: Of all the searched data we selected RCT’s, C.T.’s, reviews, systematic reviews, and meta-analyses; Data were converted and analyzed in a random-effects model. We included 45 studies, centered on six main topics in the search area: (a) treatment-resistant schizophrenia, (b) use in bipolar disorder, (c) side effects during the clozapine therapy - agranulocytosis, metabolic side effects, pharmacogenetic severity markers, dysmetabolic side effects, pulmonary embolism, seizure risk – (d) safety of clozapine in pregnancy, (e) clozapine resistance and ECT augmentation, (f) clozapine therapy and COVID-19 infection. Limitations: _______(4) Conclusions and implications of key findings: (a) The genetic vulnerability postulates predictors of severity so clozapine doses should be personalises for each patient based on pharmacogenetic testing; patients with a lower genetic risk may benefit from a more relaxed hematological monitoring schedule; (b) Pulmonary embolism associated with clozapine has a mortality rate of 36.36%, prophylactic measures for venous thromboembolism for six months after initiating therapy is mandatory; (c) Convulsive episodes are not an indication for stopping the treatment, side effect (s.e.) incidence increases with the dose, the plasma concentration of clozapine (1300 ng/ml) it is a better s. e. predictor than the dosage; (d) clozapine refractory improves up to 69% early-onset schizophrenia, assesed by the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) (e) more pharmacogenetic studies of the Romanian schizophrenic patients are needed in relation with the clozapine therapy in order to define more precise safety margins; (f) COVID-19 infection may enhance clozapine toxicity generating an increased risk of pneumonia therapy must be continued with proper monitoring of the white blood count and with the decrease of the clozapine dose by half until three days after the subside of the fever; psychiatrists and healthcare providers must act togheder. As in the past four decades, research has failed to generate effective novel psycho-pharmaceuticals, there is an urgent need to enhance the access to clozapine for people with TRS at the worldwide level. The progress of pharmacogenetic researches, endocrinology, genetic testing - offer the psychiatrists nowadays the chance to use this drug at its highest potential in a personalized manner for every patient - minimizing the adverse side-effects.
Tue, 29 September 2020
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0719.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Diabetes mellitus, screening, HbA1c, fasting plasma glucose
Online: 29 September 2020 (15:12:26 CEST)
Background: Diabetes is a common non-communicable disease that is responsible for about 9% of all deaths and 25% reduction in life expectancy and nearly half of the diabetic patients are not aware of their disease. In this regard, diabetes screening to identify un-known diabetic patients is of great importance. Aims: The aims of this study were first to evaluate the performance of two commonly used diabetes screening tests that are currently recommended by the Iranian national screening program for diabetes (NSPD). Methods: The validities of the two diabetes screening tests were measured among 1057 participants older than 30 years. The studied screening tests included Capillary fasting blood glucose (CBG) and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c). The golden standard for measuring the validity of the tests was venous fasting plasma glucose (VPG). Results: According to the results, the sensitivity of CBG and HbA1c tests were 69.01% and 84.5% and the specificity of the tests were 95.7% and 79.3% respectively. Positive and negative predictive values were 53.84% and 97.72% for CBG and 22.72% and 98.61% for HbA1c respectively. The recommended cut-points for CBG and HbA1c were 116.5 mg/dl and 7.15% respectively. Using these values as the new cut-points, sensitivity and specificity of CBG and HbA1c changed to 80.30% and 89.10%, and 77.50% and 94.20% respectively. Conclusions: Compared to several other countries, the performance of NSPD is relatively higher in Iran. ROC analysis suggested new cut-points for significantly better performance of NSPD.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0718.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: Relapsed or Refractory Diffuse Large B Cell Lymphoma, DLBLC, immunotherapy, chemotherapy-free regimen
Online: 29 September 2020 (15:09:47 CEST)
The most common type of non-Hodgkin lymphoma in adults is diffuse large B-cell (DLBCL). There is a historical unmet need for more effective therapies in the 2nd and 3rd line setting. Emerging immunochemotherapies have shown activity in small studies of heavily pre-treated patients with prolonged remissions achieved in some patients. Anti-CD19 CAR (chimeric antigen receptor) T cells are potentially curative in the 3rd line and beyond setting and are under investigation in earlier lines of therapy.1 Antibody-drug conjugates (ADC’s) such as polatuzumab vedotin targeting the pan-B-cell marker CD79b has proven effectiveness in multiply-relapsed DLBCL patients. Tafasitamab (MOR208) is an anti-CD19 monoclonal antibody producing prolonged remissions when combined with Lenalidomide in patients who were not candidates for salvage chemotherapy or autologous stem cell transplant. Selinexor, an oral, small-molecule selective inhibitor of XPO1-mediated nuclear export (SINE), demonstrated prolonged activity against heavily-pretreated DLBCL without cumulative toxicity and is being investigated as part of an oral, chemotherapy-free regimen for relapsed aggressive lymphoma. This article reviews current strategies and novel therapies for relapsed/refractory DLBCL.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0716.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Malaria elimination; Mathematical model; Human mobility; Intervention chemotherapy
Online: 29 September 2020 (14:42:16 CEST)
In central Senegal malaria incidences have declined from 2000 to 2010 in response to scaling-up of control measures and then remained stable, making elimination improbable. Additional control measures are needed to reduce transmission. We simulated chemoprophylaxis interventions targeting malaria hotspots, using a meta-population mathematical model based on differential equation framework and incorporating human mobility. The model was fitted to weekly malaria incidences from 45 villages. Three approaches for selecting intervention targets were compared: a) villages with malaria cases during the low transmission season of the previous year; b) villages with highest incidences during the high transmission season of the previous year; c) villages with highest connectivity with adjacent populations. Our modeling, considering human mobility, showed that the intervention strategies targeting hotspots would be effective in reducing malaria incidence in both targeted and untargeted areas. But whatever the intervention, pre-elimination stage (1-5 cases per 1,000 per year) would not be reached without simultaneously increasing vector control by more than 10%. Targeted interventions allow increasing overall malaria control and elimination potential.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0715.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: dog; ehrlichiosis; ELISA; Tick-borne; TRP19; TRP36
Online: 29 September 2020 (14:38:27 CEST)
Tandem repeat proteins of 36 kDa (TRP36) are major immunoreactive proteins of Ehrlichia canis, which have been used in the serological diagnosis of different genotypes of the microorganism. The aim of this study was to evaluate the distribution of the American (USTRP36), Brazilian (BrTRP36) and Costa Rican (CRTRP36) genotypes of E. canis in Brazil, using ELISA assays. Serum samples of 815 dogs from 49 cities from all over Brazil were analyzed. Our results showed that 33.9% of the samples were reactive to the USTRP36 genotype and 32.6% to the BrTRP36 genotype. The two genotypes appeared to occur equally throughout Brazil, although the frequency of seropositivity was lower in the south than in the country’s other regions. Co-positivity for the American and Brazilian genotypes was also observed in 16% of samples. A few dogs (n=5; 0.6%) reactive to E. canis-TRP36 genotype (CRTRP36) were also detected in the northeast and southern regions. We conclude that the American and Brazilian genotypes of E. canis are distributed evenly in Brazil, especially in the tropical region, while the temperate region in the south presented the lowest prevalence values. This study offers the first report of dogs seropositive for the Costa Rican genotype in Brazil.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0706.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Chronic hepatitis B; NAFLD; NASH; biomarkers; magnetic resonance technology; NAFLD therapy
Online: 29 September 2020 (10:40:21 CEST)
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection remains a global public problem despite the availability of effective vaccine. In the past decades, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has surpassed HBV as the most common cause of chronic liver disease worldwide. The prevalence of concomitant chronic hepatitis B (CHB) and NAFLD, thus, reaches endemic in geographic regions where both conditions are common. Patients with CHB and NAFLD are at increased risk of liver disease progression to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Due to complexity of the pathogenesis, accurate diagnosis of NAFLD in CHB patients can be challenging. Liver biopsy is considered the gold standard for diagnosing and determining the disease severity, but it is an invasive procedure with potential complications. There is a growing body of literatures on the application of novel noninvasive serum biomarkers and advanced radiological modalities to diagnose and evaluate NAFLD, but most have not been adequately validated especially for patients with CHB. Currently, there is no approved therapy for NAFLD though many new agents are in different phases of development. This review provides a summary of the epidemiology, clinical features, diagnosis and management of the NAFLD and highlights the unmet needs in the areas of CHB and NAFLD coexistence.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0701.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Challenges; coinfection; COVID-19; dengue fever; co-epidemic; health care facility
Online: 29 September 2020 (09:12:06 CEST)
The current global COVID-19 pandemic is compounding on populations susceptible to tropical illnesses like dengue in different developing countries like Bangladesh. The growing concern is that Bangladesh is a dengue-endemic zone and the peak transmission occurs in the monsoon season (June to October). In the most recent monsoon, a total of 354 dengue cases have been confirmed until 27th July 2020, data-driven from only 41 hospitals alone. A fifty-three-year-old male patient was found to be co-infected with COVID-19 and dengue fever. Concerns arise as hospitals are increasingly denying to admit the patients. Moreover, reports of the false-positive results in dengue screening tests recorded in different countries further exacerbate the issue. These conditions could postpone the early diagnosis of COVID-19 cases and aggravate the situation. In addition, the overwhelming wave of the dengue cases would be a challenge for the vulnerable health care system of the country which is already under strain due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Failure to establish and implement proper policies might lead to the dengue outbreak with the burdens of the concurrent COVID pandemic, resulting in the collapse of the health and social system, as well as the economic growth of the country.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0698.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: sugar; ultraprocessed food; addiction; toxicity; public health; non-communicable disease
Online: 29 September 2020 (09:08:24 CEST)
Past public health crises (e.g. tobacco, alcohol, opioids, cholera, HIV, lead, pollution, venereal disease, even COVID-19) have been met with interventions targeted both at the individual and all of society. While the healthcare community is very aware that the global pandemic of non-communicable diseases (NCD’s) has its origins in our Western ultraprocessed food diet, society has been slow to initiate any interventions other than public education, which has been ineffective, in part due to food industry interference. This article provides the rationale for such public health interventions, by compiling the evidence that added sugar, and by proxy the ultraprocessed food category, meets the four criteria set by the public health community as necessary and sufficient for regulation — addiction, toxicity, ubiquity, and externalities (how does your consumption affect me?). To its credit, some countries have recently heeded this science and have instituted sugar taxation policies to help ameliorate NCD’s within their borders. This article also supplies scientific counters to food industry talking points, in order to guide both scientists and policy makers in instituting further appropriate public health measures to quell this pandemic.
Mon, 28 September 2020
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0693.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: chromatin; DNA methylation; epigenetics; histone modifications; metaboloepigenetics; miRNA; therapy; type 1 diabetes
Online: 28 September 2020 (17:48:05 CEST)
Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is an autoimmune condition where the body’s immune cells destroy their insulin-producing pancreatic beta-cells leading to dysregulated glycaemia. Individuals with T1D control their blood glucose through exogenous insulin replacement therapy, often using multiple daily injections or pumps. However, failure to accurately mimic intrinsic glucose regulation results in glucose fluctuations and long-term complications impacting key organs such as the heart, kidneys, and/or the eyes. It is well-established that genetic and environmental factors contribute to the initiation and progression of type 1 diabetes, but recent studies show that epigenetic modifications are also important. Here, we discuss key epigenetic modifications associated with type 1 diabetes pathogenesis and discuss how recent research is finding ways to harness epigenetic mechanisms to prevent, reverse, or manage type 1 diabetes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0690.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: COVID-19 Pandemic; Finland; health care personnel; psychological distress; post-traumatic stress disorder
Online: 28 September 2020 (15:37:39 CEST)
On March 2020 strict measures took place in Finland to limit the COVID -19 pandemic. A majority of the Finnish COVID -19 –patients have been located in the southern Finland and consequently cared for in the HUS Helsinki University Hospital. During the ongoing pandemic, HUS personnel’s psychological symptoms are followed via an electronic survey, which also delivers information on psychosocial support services. The baseline survey in June 2020 was sent to 25494 HUS employees out of whom 4804 (19%) answered; altogether 62.4% of the respondents were nursing staff and 8.9% medical doctors. While the follow-up continues for a year and a half, this report shares the sociodemographic characteristics of the respondents and the first results of psychological symptoms from the baseline survey. Out of those who were directly involved in pandemic patients` care, 43.4% reported potentially traumatic COVID-19 pandemic-related experiences vs. 21.8% among the other (p < 0.001). While over a half of the personnel was symptomless, a group of respondents reported pandemic work –related traumatic events and concurrent depressive, insomnia and anxiety symptoms. This highlights the need to ensure appropriate psychosocial support services to all traumatized personnel and PTEs were present especially among nursing staff.
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome; diagnosis; Health services; clinical care
Online: 28 September 2020 (14:14:02 CEST)
Designed by a group of ME/CFS researchers and health professionals, the European Network on Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (EUROMENE) has received funding from the European Cooperation is Science and Technology (COST) (https://www.cost.eu/cost-actions/what-are-cost-actions/ ) - COST action 15111 - from 2016 to 2020. The main goal of the Cost Action was to assess the existing fragmented knowledge and experience on health care delivery for people with Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (ME/CFS) in European countries, and to enhance coordinated research and health care provision in this field. We report on the recommendations for clinical diagnosis, heath services and care for people with ME/CFS in Europe, as prepared by the group of clinicians and researchers from 22 countries and 55 European health professionals and researchers, who have been informed by people with ME/CFS (https://www.cost.eu/actions/CA15111/#tabs|Name:overview).
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0684.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Clinical application; dimethyl fumarate; disease; fumaric acid esters; oxidative stress; inflammation; Nrf2; disease
Online: 28 September 2020 (11:03:25 CEST)
Fumaric acid esters (FAEs) are small molecules with anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory and immune-modulating effects. Dimethyl fumarate (DMF) is the best characterised FAE and is approved and registered for the treatment of psoriasis and Relapsing-Remitting Multiple Sclerosis (RRMS). Psoriasis and RRMS share an immune-mediated aetiology, driven by severe inflammation and oxidative stress. DMF, as well as monomethyl fumarate and diroximel fumarate, are commonly prescribed first-line agents with favourable safety and efficacy profiles. The potential benefits of FAEs against other diseases that appear pathogenically different but share the pathologies of oxidative stress and inflammation are currently investigated.
Sun, 27 September 2020
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0675.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Fenugreek; Alzheimer’s disease; nootropic; cognitive disorders; herbs; memory
Online: 27 September 2020 (10:45:51 CEST)
Background: Alzheimer’s disease affecting about 24 million people world-wide. The socio-economic burden on world-economies costing more than 172 billion US $ annually for the US alone. Objectives: To prepare aqueous extract of T. foenum graecum seeds (FSE) to explore the possible treatment for cognitive deficit in experimental animals. Materials and methods: FSE was subjected to preliminary phytochemical evaluation and antioxidant effect using free radical scavenging method (DPPH). All the animal behavior was video recorded with no human intervention during observation and animal groupings were blinded to avoid investigator bias. Different doses of FSE (5%, 10% and 20%), control, standard (Piracetam, 200 mg/kg, IP.) were given for male albino mice a period of 15 days followed by cognitive assessment in elevated plus maze and novel objection recognition tests. Ttransfer latencies and time exploring novel and familiar objects were recorded in respective tests. Retention of this learned-task was examined again 24 h later and inflexion ratio (IR) and discriminative index (DI) were calculated respectively. Next in the second set of experiment same groups and treatments were continued but scopolamine was administered to all the groups except normal control one hour after the last dose and examined similarly. Results: FSE showed potential antioxidant effect and a dose dependent increase in transfer latency and improved DI indicating a nootropic effect. FSE at 20% showed significant reversal of scopolamine induced dementia in the second set of experiment. Conclusion: FSE improved memory as well as reversed the chemically induced memory deficits in experimental mice.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0659.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia; arvd; arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy; ARVC; VT storm; revised task force criteria 2010; ICD
Online: 27 September 2020 (03:13:29 CEST)
Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC) is a rare inherited disorder which is characterized by fibrofatty degeneration of cardiac muscles mainly in the right ventricular myocardium. It may cause tachyarrhythmias or right-heart failure or may cause sudden death, especially in young athletes. In our case report, we present a case of young age male patient who presented at a local community hospital with the complaint of atypical chest pain, palpitations, and vomiting and sustained ventricular tachycardia (VT) on electrocardiograph (ECG) showing sustained ventricular tachycardia, left bundle branch morphology with the superior axis. The normal sinus rhythm was achieved after multiple DC cardioversion attempts and he was referred to our tertiary care hospital. Later ECG demonstrated epsilon waves and T wave inversion in v1 to v4 and RBBB morphology. The echocardiography showed a severely dilated right ventricle with dysfunction and right ventricle ventricular apical aneurysm. The definitive diagnosis of ARVC was made as per Revised Task Force Criteria 2010 and the electrophysiology review suggested implantable cardiac defibrillator (ICD) device placement. The patient successfully received a dual-chamber ICD device and he remained asymptomatic.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0658.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: COVID-19; health literacy; information sharing; family well-being; preventive measures
Online: 27 September 2020 (03:05:51 CEST)
Objective: We tested a model of individual health literacy, information sharing with family members, personal preventive behaviours and family well-being during COVID-19 pandemic in Hong Kong. Methods: We analysed data of 1501 randomly selected Chinese adults from a cross-sectional survey in Hong Kong from 9 to 23 April 2020. Individual health literacy, COVID-19 information sharing with family members, preventive behaviours against COVID-19 and family well-being were measured. Structural equation modelling analysis tested the proposed model. Findings: COVID-19 information sharing with family members partially mediated the association between individual health literacy and personal preventive behaviours. The direct effect of .24 was shown and indirect effect through COVID-19 information sharing with family members was small with .03 (Z = 3.66, p < .001). Family well-being was associated with personal preventive behaviours against COVID-19. The model was adjusted for sex, age, and socioeconomic status factors and had good ﬁt with RMSEA = .04, CFI = .98, TLI = .96, and SRMR = .02. Conclusion: COVID-19 information sharing with family members was a partial mediator between individual health literacy and personal preventive behaviours against COVID-19. Strategies for enhancing health literacy and preventive measures against COVID-19 are needed to promote family well-being in the pandemic.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0657.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: HIV; workplace intervention; SMS; HIV testing; construction; mobile phone; Covid-19; health promotion; text messaging
Online: 27 September 2020 (03:02:41 CEST)
Background: HIV poses a threat to global health. With effective treatment options available, education and testing strategies are essential in preventing transmission. Text messaging is an effective tool for health promotion and can be used to target higher risk populations. This study reports on the design, delivery and testing of a mobile text messaging SMS intervention for HIV prevention and awareness, aimed at adults in the construction industry and delivered during the COVID-19 pandemic. Method: Participants were recruited at [email protected] workplace health promotion events (21 sites, n=464 employees), including health checks with HIV testing. Message development was based on a participatory design and included a focus group (n=9) and message fidelity testing (n=291) with assessment of intervention uptake, reach, acceptability, and engagement. Barriers to HIV testing were identified and mapped to the COM-B behavioural model. 23 one-way push SMS messages (19 included short web links) were generated and fidelity tested, then sent via automated SMS to two employee cohorts over a 10-week period during the COVID-19 pandemic. Engagement metrics measured were; opt-outs, SMS delivered/read, number of clicks per web link, and four two-way pull messages exploring repeat HIV testing, learning new information, perceived usefulness and behaviour change. Results: 291 people participated (68.3% of eligible attendees). A total of 7,726 messages were sent between March and June 2020, with 91.6% successfully delivered (100% read). 12.4% of participants opted out over 10 weeks. Of delivered messages, links were clicked an average of 14.4%, max 24.1% for HIV related links. The number of clicks on web links declined over time (r= -6.24, p=0.01). Response rate for two-way pull messages was 13.7% of participants. Since the workplace HIV test offer at recruitment, 21.6% reported having taken a further HIV test. Qualitative replies indicated behavioural influence of messaging on exercise, lifestyle behaviours and intention to HIV test. Conclusion: SMS messaging for HIV prevention and awareness is acceptable to adults in the construction industry, has high uptake, low attrition and good engagement with message content, when delivered during a global pandemic. Data collection methods may need refinement for audience and effect of COVID-19 on results is yet to be understood.
Sat, 26 September 2020
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0654.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: breast cancer; BARD1; surveillance; management; genetic testing; predisposition; susceptibility; neoadjuvant; chemotherapy
Online: 26 September 2020 (17:32:52 CEST)
Current oncological developments are based on improved understanding of genetics, and especially the discovery of genes whose alterations affect cell functions with consequences for the whole body. Our work is focused on the one of these genes, the BARD1 and its oncogenic role in breast cancer. Most importantly, the study points to new avenues in the treatment and prevention of the most frequent female cancer based on BARD1 research. The BARD1 and BRCA1 proteins have similar structures and functions, and they combine to form the new molecule BARD1-BRCA1 heterodimer. The BARD1-BRCA1 complex is involved in genetic stabilization at the cellular level. It allows to mark abnormal DNA fragments by attaching ubiquitin to them. In addition, it blocks (by ubiquitination of RNA polymerase II) the transcription of damaged DNA. Ubiquitination, as well as stabilizing chromatin, or regulating the number of centrosomes, confirms the protective cooperation of BARD1 and BRCA1 in the stabilization of the genome. The overexpression of the oncogenic isoforms BARD1β and BARD1δ permit cancer development. The introduction of routine tests, for instance, to identify the presence of the BARD1β isoform, would make it possible to detect patients at high risk of developing cancer. On the other hand, introducing BARD1δ isoform blocking therapy, which would reduce estrogen sensitivity, may be a new line of cancer therapy with potential to modulate responses to existing treatments. It is possible that the BARD 1 gene offers new hope for improving breast cancer therapy.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0649.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Infertile women; Hysteroscopy; Clinical pregnancy rate; Live birth rate; No Intrauterine pathology; endometrial stimulation; Systematic review
Online: 26 September 2020 (16:39:39 CEST)
(1) Background: The aim of this work was to systematically review existing studies on whether hysteroscopy improves the reproductive outcomes of women with infertility even in the absence of intrauterine pathologies when compared to women who did not receive a hysteroscopy. (2) Methods: We established the Participant-Intervention-Comparison-Outcome strategy and used the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses statement to conduct a systematic review of 11 studies which were retrieved from 3 electronic databases: Ovid-Medline, Ovid-Embase, and the Cochrane Library. Two independent investigators extracted the data from the included studies and used the Cochrane risk-of-bias tool to assess their quality. (3) Results: The primary outcome measures were the clinical pregnancy rates (CPRs) and live birth rates (LBRs) in the in vitro fertilization (IVF)/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) cycles. Hysteroscopy in infertile women without intrauterine pathologies showed higher CPRs and LBRs than those in the same population who did not receive hysteroscopy in cases of recurrent implantation failure and IVF (odds ratio: 1.79 and 1.46, 95% confidence interval: 1.46-2.30 and 1.08-1.97 for CPR and LBR, respectively); however, the degree of significance was not as high for LBR. (4) Conclusions: Hysteroscopy before IVF/ICSI in infertile women without intrauterine pathologies may potentially be effective in improving the CPRs and LBRs in patients with RIF. Robust and high-quality randomized trials are warranted to confirm this finding.
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Psoriasis; cutaneous psoriasis; systemic psoriasis; classification criteria; therapy
Online: 26 September 2020 (15:03:59 CEST)
Psoriasis is a chronic, multisystem, inflammatory disease. The typical clinical cutaneous manifestation of psoriasis is scaly erythema or plaque, limited or widely distributed. However, psoriasis is far beyond the skin involvement and provides many challenges, including associated comorbidities. In this review, we classify psoriasis as cutaneous and systemic psoriasis, according to the clinical diversity and associated comorbid diseases, and recommend classification criteria for psoriasis. The key objective of this novel classification is to raise awareness of the complexity of this multifaceted disease and help to better understand and manage this complex disease comprehensively.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0628.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; corona virus; COVID-19; non-parametric model
Online: 26 September 2020 (12:31:57 CEST)
Based on comprehensible non-parametric methods, estimates of crucial parameters that characterise the COVID-19 pandemic with a focus on the German epidemic are presented. Where appropriate, the estimates for Germany are compared with the results for six other countries (FR, IT, US, UK, ES, CH) to get an idea of the breadth of applicability and a relational understanding. Thereby, only prevalence data of daily reported new counts of diagnosed cases and fatalities provided by the ECDC are used. Where appropriate, the results are compared with conclusions drawn from using the dataset provided by the RKI. Drawing on uncertain a priori knowledge is avoided. Specifically, we present estimates for the duration from diagnosis to death being 13 days for Germany and about 2 days for Italy as the extremes. Furthermore, based on the knowledge of this time lag between diagnoses and deaths, properly delayed asymptotic as well as instantaneous fatality-case ratios are calculated having superiority compared to the commonly published case-fatality rate. The median of the time series of the instantaneous fatality-case ratio with proper delay of 13-days between cases and deaths for Germany turns out to be 0.024. Asymptotic values are presented for other countries with France ranking highest with a fatality-case ratio of almost 0.2 at its peak. The basic reproduction number, R_0, for Germany is estimated to be between 2.4 and 3.4. The uncertainty stems from uncertain knowledge of the generation time. A delay autocorrelation shows resonances at about 4 days and 7 days, where the latter resonance is at least partially attributable to the sampling process with weekly periodicity. The calculation of the basic reproduction number is based on an evaluation of cumulative numbers of cases yielding time-dependent doubling times as an intermediate step. This allows to infer to the reproduction number during the early phase of onset of the epidemic. In a second approach, the instantaneous basic reproduction number is derived from the incident (counts of new) cases and allows, in contrast to the first version, to infer to the temporal behaviour of the reproduction number during the later epidemic course. To conclude, by avoiding complicated parametric models we provide insights into basic features of the COVID-19 epidemic in an utmost transparent and comprehensible way.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0623.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: cross-polarization optical coherence tomography (CP OCT); ultrasound; urethral pain syndrome; epithelial atrophy; epithelial hyperplasia; inflammation; fibrosis; image evaluation
Online: 26 September 2020 (11:23:45 CEST)
Urethral pain syndrome (UPS) is still a pathology in which the diagnosis is formulated as a "diagnosis of exclusion". The exact pathogenetic mechanisms are not yet fully understood and clear recommendations for the prevention and treatment of UPS are absent. The goal of the study was to assess the condition of the tissues in the female urethra in UPS, by using transvaginal ultrasound (TVUS) and cross-polarization optical tomography (CP OCT). TVUS showed an expansion in the diameter of the internal lumen of the urethra, especially in the proximal region compared with the norm. Compression elastography revealed areas with increased stiffness (presence of fibrosis) in urethral and surrounding tissues. When studied with CP OCT it was shown that with UPS, the structure of the tissues in most cases was changed: trophic alterations in the epithelium (hypertrophy or atrophy) and fibrosis of underlying connective tissue were observed. The proximal fragment of the urethra with UPS underwent changes identical to those of the bladder neck. This paper showed that the introduction of new technology — CP OCT — in conjunction with TVUS will allow verification of structural changes in tissues of the lower urinary tract at the level of their architectonics and will help doctors understand better the basics of the UPS pathogenesis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0619.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Psychiatry & Mental Health Studies Keywords: COVID-19 Mexico; stress in healthcare professionals; COVID-19 stress scale
Online: 26 September 2020 (08:07:00 CEST)
The world is currently, subjected to the worst health crisis documented in modern history; an epidemic led by the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). At the epicenter of this crisis, healthcare professionals continue working to safeguard our well-being. To the regular high levels of stress, COVID new heights even more to healthcare professionals so depending on the area, specialty, and type of work. Here we investigated what are the tendencies, or areas most affected. Through an adaptation of the original COVID-stress scale, we developed a remote, fast test designed for healthcare professionals of the Northeastern part of Mexico, an important part of the country with economic and cultural ties to the US. Our results showed 4 key correlations as highly dependent: Work area – Xenophobia (p < 0.045), Work with COVID patients - Traumatic stress (p < 0.001) and Total number of COVID patients per day – Traumatic stress (p < 0.027), and Total number of COVID patients - Compulsive checking and reassurance. Overall concluding that normal levels of stress have increased (mild – moderate). Additionally, we further determine that the fear of being an asymptomatic patient (potential to spread without knowing) continues being a concern.
Fri, 25 September 2020
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0610.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: mood disorders; major depression; inflammation; neuro-immune; oxidative stress; nitrosative stress; biomarkers
Online: 25 September 2020 (11:48:43 CEST)
Current diagnoses of mood disorders are not cross validated. The aim of the current paper is to explain how machine learning techniques can be used to a) construct a model which ensembles risk/resilience (R/R), adverse outcome pathways (AOPs), staging, and the phenome of mood disorders, and b) disclose new classes based on these feature sets. This study was conducted using data of 67 healthy controls and 105 mood disordered patients. The R/R ratio, assessed as a combination of the paraoxonase 1 (PON1) gene, PON1 enzymatic activity, and early life time trauma (ELT), predicted the high-density lipoprotein cholesterol – paraoxonase 1 complex (HDL-PON1), reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS), nitro-oxidative stress toxicity (NOSTOX), staging (number of depression and hypomanic episodes and suicidal attempts), and phenome (the Hamilton Depression and Anxiety scores and the Clinical Global Impression; current suicidal ideation; quality of life and disability measurements) scores. Partial Least Squares pathway analysis showed that 44.2% of the variance in the phenome was explained by ELT, RONS/NOSTOX, and staging scores. Cluster analysis conducted on all those feature sets discovered two distinct patient clusters, namely 69.5% of the patients were allocated to a class with high R/R, RONS/NOSTOX, staging, and phenome scores, and 30.5% to a class with increased staging and phenome scores. This classification cut across the bipolar (BP1/BP2) and major depression disorder classification and was more distinctive than the latter classifications. We constructed a nomothetic network model which reunited all features of mood disorders into a mechanistically transdiagnostic model.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0602.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: COVID-19; Genomes; microRNA; SARS-CoV-2; Variant discovery
Online: 25 September 2020 (10:14:46 CEST)
Background SARS-CoV-2 has generated a life-treating pandemic and is the main challenge of this century. Some untranslated regions (UTRs) in SARS-CoV-2 genome, specifically leader sequence and transcription regulatory sequence (TRS) in 5’UTR, can be considered as Achilles' heel of virus. Leader sequence are found at the 5' ends of all encoded transcripts that highlights its importance. TRS can explain the host range and pathogenicity of coronavirus. However, our knowledge on the evolution and the role of UTRs in SARS-CoV-2 pathogenicity is very limited. This study is a pioneering attempt to unravel the evolution of key regions in 5' UTR of SARS-CoV-2 and discover the inhibitory microRNAs against 5' UTR of virus. Methods Evolution of TRS and leader sequence was compared between human pathogenic (SARS-CoV-2, SARS, and MERS) and non-pathogenic (bovine) coronaviruses. Profiling of microRNAs that can inactive the key UTR regions of coronaviruses, UTR-inhibitory microRNAs, was carried out. Findings We found a distinguished pattern of evolution in leader sequence and TRS of SARS-CoV-2, compared to the other coronaviruses. Mining all available microRNA families against leader sequences of coronaviruses resulted in discovery of 39 microRNAs with an acceptable thermodynamic binding energy against SARS-COV-2, SARS, MERS, Bat Coronavirus, or Bovine Coronavirus. Multivariate analysis demonstrated a distinguished pattern of binding of leader sequence of SARS-CoV-2 against microRNAs, with a lower binding stability. hsa-MIR-5004-3p was the only human microRNA that can target leader sequence of SARS and SARS-CoV-2. However, its binding stability remarkably decreased in SARS-COV-2 (-19.4 kcal/mol), compared to SARS-COV-2 (-25.9 kcal/mol). We found an insertion-type mutation in leader sequence of SARS-COV-2 that results in lower binding stability and escaping of viral leader sequence from hsa-MIR-5004-3p. Altogether, we suggest lack of innate human inhibitory microRNAs to bind to leader sequence and TRS of SARS-CoV-2 contributes to its high replication in infected human cells. On the other hand, mining of two hundred million deposited human genomic variants led us to discovery of 49 missense and splice-disrupt mutations in genomic structure of hsa-MIR-5004-3p. These mutations can negatively affect hsa-MIR-5004-3p function in preventing SARS-CoV-2 replication. Interpretation This study unravels the evolution of key regions in 5’UTR of SARS-CoV-2. Inducing microRNAs to bind to the leader sequence and TRS regions by drugs or food supplements can reduce virus replication. Enhancing the microRNA defence machinery against TRS and leader of virus has a potential to prevent SARS-CoV-2 infection at the first place. The mentioned strategy is rapidly achievable against COVID-19. Missense variation in genomic sequence of 5’UTR inhibitory microRNAs, such as hsa-MIR-5004-3p, can be considered as risk factor of COVID-19.
Thu, 24 September 2020
HYPOTHESIS | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0588.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Clinical Neurology Keywords: electromagnetic hypersensitivity; multiple chemical sensitivity; migraine; TRPA1
Online: 24 September 2020 (18:22:45 CEST)
According to the French Agency for Food, Environmental and Occupational Health & Safety, electromagnetic hypersensitivity affects more than 3 million people in France, and headaches are a very frequent cause of complaint in electrohypersensitive patients, to the point of dominating the clinical picture. These headaches share characteristics with migraine pathology, and clinical improvement with anti-migraine therapy has led us to consider that the headache in the electrohypersensitive patient may be a variant of the migraine disease mediated by the TRPA1 receptor, which if confirmed, would offer effective therapeutic possibilities to relieve the electrohypersensitive patient.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0579.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: stray dogs; Pasteur Institute; vaccination; colonial; British India; Civil Veterinary Department
Online: 24 September 2020 (11:13:30 CEST)
India bears the highest burden of global dog-mediated human rabies deaths. Despite this, rabies is not notifiable in India, and continues to be underprioritized in public health discussions. This review examines the historical treatment of rabies in British India, a disease which has received relatively less attention in the literature on Indian medical history. Human and animal rabies was widespread in British India and treatment of bite victims imposed a major financial burden on the colonial Government of India. It subsequently became a driver of Pasteurism in India and globally and a key component of British colonial scientific enterprise. Efforts to combat rabies led to the establishment of a wide network of research institutes in India and important breakthroughs in development of rabies vaccines. As a result of these efforts, rabies no longer posed a significant threat to the British and it declined in administrative and public health priorities in India towards the end of colonial rule; a decline that has yet to be reversed in modern-day India. The review also highlights features of the administrative, scientific and societal approaches to dealing with this disease in British India which persist to this day.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0575.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Cardiology Keywords: Amyloidosis; Right Heart; Cardiac involvement; heart ultrasound
Online: 24 September 2020 (08:26:32 CEST)
Amyloidosis is due to deposition of an excessive amount of protein in many parenchymal tissues, including myocardium. The onset of cardiac Amyloidosis (CA) is an inauspicious prognostic factor, that can lead to sudden death. We retrospectively analyzed 135 patients with systemic amyloidosis, admitted to our ward between 1981 and 2019. Among them, 54 patients (46.30% F / 53.70% M, age 63.95±12.82 years) presented CA at baseline. In 53 patients, there was associated with multiorgan involvement, while in one there was primary myocardial deposition. As control group, we enrolled 81 patients (49.30% F / 50.70% M, aged 58.33±15.65) who did not meet the criteria for CA. In 44/54 of patients CA was associated with AL, 5/54 with AA, 3/54 of patients with ATTR, in 1/54 AL was related to hemodialysis and 1/54 to Gel-Amyloidosis. The most common AL type was IgG (28/44); less frequent forms were either IgA (7/40) or IgD (2/40), while seven patients had a λ free light chain form. The 32 AL with complete Ig were 31 λ-chain and just one k-chain. CA patients presented normal BP (SBP 118.0±8.4 mmHg; DBP 73.8±4.9 mmHg), while those with nCA had increased proteinuria (p=0.02). TnI and NT-proBNP were significantly increased compared to nCA (p= 0.031 and p=0.047, respectively). In CA patients we found an increased LDH compared to nCA (p=0.0011). CA patients were also found to have an increased interventricular septum thickness compared to nCA (p=0.002), a decreased Ejection Fraction % (p=0.0018) and Doppler velocity E/e’ ratio (p=0.0095). Moreover, CA patients were seen to have an enhanced right atrium area (p=0.0179), right ventricle basal diameter (p= 0.0112) and wall thickness (p=0.0471) as compared to nCA, as well as an increased inferior cava vein diameter (p=0.0495). TAPSE was the method chosen to evaluate systolic function of the right heart. In CA subjects very poor TAPSE levels were found compared to nCA patients (p=0.0495). Additionally, we found a significant positive correlation between TAPSE and lymphocyte count (r=0.47; p=0.031) as well as Gamma globulins (r=0.43, p=0.033), Monoclonal component (r=0.72; p=0.047) and IgG values (r=0.62, p=0.018). On the contrary, a significant negative correlation with LDH (r=-0.57, p=0.005), IVS (r=-0.51, p=0.008) and diastolic function evaluated as E/e’ (r=-0.60, p=0.003) were verified. CA patients had very poor survival compared to controls (30 vs. 66 months in CA vs nCA, respectively, P=0.15). Mean survival of CA individuals was worse also when stratified according to NT-proBNP levels, using 2500 pg/mL as class boundary (174 vs. 5.5 months, for patients with lower vs higher values than the median, respectively p=0.013). In much the same way, decreased right heart systolic function was correlated with a worse prognosis (18.0 months median survival, not reached in subjects with lower values than 18mm, p=0.0186). Finally, our data highlight the potential prognostic and predictive value of right heart alterations characterizing amyloidosis, as a novel clinical parameter correlated to increased LDH and immunoglobulins levels. Overall, we confirm the clinical relevance of cardiac involvement and propose that right heart evaluation may be considered as a new marker for clinical risk stratification in patients with amyloidosis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0573.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: healthcare-associated infections; HCAIs; hospital acquired infections; nosocomial infections; statistical analysis
Online: 24 September 2020 (08:19:38 CEST)
Statistical data on officially registered cases of health care-associated infections (HCAIs) in Ukraine in the period 2009-2019 have been analysed. On average, 5089±756 cases of HCAIs were registered annually. Odessa region of Ukraine is the leading country in the number of reported cases. The majority of HCAIs cases involve surgical and therapeutic invasive interventions and perinatal HCAIs. On average, 78.0±5.8 % of HCAIs cases involved adults. The estimated minimum number of HCAIs in Ukraine was expected to be about 1 million per year. Official statistics on registered cases of HCAIs in Ukraine do not reflect reality, so the system of registration and investigation of HCAIs in Ukraine needs to be reformed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0572.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: randomized controlled clinical trials; mathematical model; binary system; statistical analysis; epidemiological model; junk science; reductionist treatments; failure of medicine
Online: 24 September 2020 (08:13:15 CEST)
Modern medicine adopted four presumptions when it evolved from ancient experienced-based mind-body medicine. To understand its failure in finding cures for chronic diseases, we examined four presumptions, and found that statistical population of health properties does not exist for most research purposes, mathematical models are misused to model intensive properties, synthetic drugs are inherently more dangerous than nature-made medicines under their respective application conditions, and reductionist treatments are inferior and inherently dangerous. We found that clinical trials are valid only for research where treatment effect is much stronger than the total effects of all interfering or co-causal factors or errors introduced by misused mathematical models can be tolerated. In all other situations, clinical trials introduce excessive errors and fail to detect treatment effects, or produce biased, incorrect or wrong results. We further found that chronic diseases are manifestation of small departures in multiple process attributes in distinctive personal biological pathways networks, that modern medicine lacks required accuracy for accurately characterizing chronic diseases, and that reductionist treatments are good at controlling symptoms and safe for short term uses. For all stated reasons, as long as modern medicine continues relying on the flawed presumptions, it can never find predictable cures for chronic diseases. By implication, predictable cures to chronic diseases are adjustments to lifestyle, dietary, emotional, and environmental factors to slowly correct departures in process attributes responsible for chronic diseases.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0571.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: medical students; travellers; MDR bacteria; CPE; mcr-1; mcr-8
Online: 24 September 2020 (08:05:32 CEST)
Background: In France, no previous studies had addressed the acquisition of multidrug resistant (MDR) bacteria and colistin resistance genes by medical students when undertaking internships abroad. Methods: Nasopharyngeal, rectal, and vaginal swabs samples were collected from 382 French medical students before and after travel to investigate the acquisition of MDR bacteria. The bacterial diversity in the samples was assessed by culture on selective media. We also genetically characterised the isolates of MDR bacteria including Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-E), methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), and Carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriacae (CPE) using the real-time polymerase chain reaction method. The samples were collected from 293 students and were investigated for mcr colistin-resistance genes using RT-PCR directly on the samples, followed by conventional PCR and sequencing. Results: A proportion of 29.3% of the participants had acquired ESBL-E and 2.6% had acquired CPE. The most common species and ESBL-E encoding gene were Escherichia coli (98.4%) and blaCTX-M-A (95.3%), respectively. A proportion of 6.8% of the participants had acquired mcr-1 genes, followed by mcr-3 (0.3%) and mcr-8 (0.3%). We found that taking part in humanitarian missions to orphanages, being in contact with children during travel, the primary destination of travel being Vietnam and north India, using antibiotics during travel, and studying in 2017 were associated with the acquisition of ESBL-E. When the primary destination of travel was Vietnam and the year of study was 2018, this was associated with acquisition of colistin resistance genes. Conclusion: Medical students are at a potential risk of acquiring ESBL-E, CPE and colistin resistance genes. A number of risk factors have been identified, which may be used to develop targeted preventive measures.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0567.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Veterinary Medicine Keywords: antimicrobial resistance; antimicrobial stewardship; barriers; perception; survey; veterinary practitioners
Online: 24 September 2020 (04:41:43 CEST)
Usage of antimicrobials in veterinary practices has always been under scrutiny due to the perceived risk of resulting in antimicrobial-resistant pathogens. This creates the necessity for understanding the role of the prescriber group. Hence, we conducted a cross-sectional survey among veterinary practitioners from August to November 2019 in the Chattogram district of Bangladesh, aiming to assess the practitioner’s perceptions regarding antimicrobial prescribing and antimicrobial resistance (AMR) issue. We collected responses from 100 veterinarians engaged in the treatment of the large animal, poultry, and pet animal through a self-administrated questionnaire. Proportions were calculated for categorical variables and the results are presented using visual aids. Our study revealed two key barriers - scarcity of enough information on antimicrobial used, and the lack of training in the proper prescription of antimicrobials. Participants recognized that prescribing too many varieties of antimicrobials and the use of an incomplete course of drugs as two very important causes for the development of antimicrobial resistance. In addition, prescription of inappropriate doses and incentives from pharmaceutical companies were dubbed as important causes. We also found that along with clinical features and types of organisms, the availability of drugs in the local market and the economic conditions of farmers have potential impacts on the antimicrobials prescribing decision of the veterinarians. However, all participants recognized the emerging threats of AMR. Results suggested that capacity building of veterinarians and the maintenance of strong coordination are crucial in ensuring the proper engagement of veterinarians as the front-line fighters for tackling the AMR issue.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0561.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: covid19; immunostimulant; immunomodulator; vitamin D; vitamin C; zinc
Online: 24 September 2020 (03:40:34 CEST)
Background & Aims: The covid19 is a world changing challenge. Furthermore, this disease challenges our capacities to change our point of view in the domain of infectiology, immunology and global public health. Many trials try some drug such as antiviral (lopinavir, remdesivir) interferon, and the chloroquine. Unfortunately, all approach is not really convincing at this time. We are proposing another approach on this issue. In infectiology there are two protagonists : the host and its immune system versus pathogens and its virulence. Our approach focuses on an intervention on the host’s immune system and how stimulate and modulate its reactions. Methods: We searched on PubMed and Google Scholar databases for French and English-language studies, without a limit of date of publications, for randomized clinical trials, meta-analyses, reviews, systematic reviews, observational studies, case report. We performed a review on the field of immunology enhancements by nutrients use. Results: We identified groups of vitamins (D and C), oligo-elements (magnesium, zinc, selenium) and nutrition advice which enhance immune system response. Indeed, these supplements have some proved properties in modulating and stimulating the immune system. For example, a recent study demonstrates that vitamin D deficiency is linked with the severity of covid19. Majority of the population has a deficiency in these elements. According to this, we propose a therapeutic protocol using these elements to reach an efficient therapy against covid19 by enhancing host’s immune system. Conclusion: Due to this serious pandemic, any solutions must not be disregarded. The nutrition way is an entire part of the solution.
Wed, 23 September 2020
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0555.v1
Online: 23 September 2020 (17:44:21 CEST)
Background: Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has caused more than 745,000 deaths worldwide. Vitamin D has been identified as a potential strategy to prevent or treat this disease. The purpose of the study was to measure vitamin D at hospital admission of COVID-19; Methods: We included critically ill patients with the polymerase chain reaction positive test for COVID-19, from March to April, 2020. Statistical significance was defined as P < .05. All tests were 2-tailed; Results: A total of 35 patients (median age, 60 years; 26 [74.3%] male) were included. Vitamin D levels were categorized as deficient for 14 participants (40%). Vitamin D deficiency was associated with vitamin A (P= 0.003) and Zinc (P= 0.019) deficiency and lower levels of albumin (P= 0.026) and prealbumin (P= 0.009). Overall, none of the studied variables were associated with vitamin D status: mortality, intensive care unit (ICU) or hospital stay, necessity of vasoactive agents, intubation, prone position, C reactive protein (CRP), Dimer-D, Interleukin 6 levels (IL-6), ferritin levels, or bacterial superinfection; Conclusions: In this single-center, retrospective cohort study, deficient vitamin D status was found in 40% in COVID-19 critically ill patients. However, deficient vitamin D status was not associated with inflammation or outcome.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0204.v2
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: COVID-19; SARS-Cov-2; epidemic surveillance; emerging infectious disease; epidemic threshold
Online: 23 September 2020 (11:10:15 CEST)
Background: Understanding SARS-CoV-2 dynamics and transmission is a serious issue. Its propagation needs to be modeled and controlled. The Alsace region in the East of France has been among the first French COVID-19 clusters in 2020. Methods: We confront evidence from three independent and retrospective sources: a population-based survey through internet, an analysis of the medical records from hospital emergency care services, and a review of medical biology laboratory data. We also check the role played in virus propagation by a large religious meeting that gathered over 2,000 participants from all over France mid-February in Mulhouse. Results: Our results suggest that SARS-CoV-2 was circulating several weeks before the first officially recognized case in Alsace on February 26th 2020 and the sanitary alert on March 3rd. The religious gathering seems to have played a role for secondary dissemination of the epidemic in France, but not in creating the local outbreak. Conclusions: Our results illustrate how the integration of data coming from multiple sources could help trigger an early alarm in the context of an emerging disease. Good information data systems, able to produce earlier alerts, could have avoided a general lockdown in France.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0543.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: genetics； comparative genomics； phylogenetic analysis； osteopetrosis； CLCN7 gene
Online: 23 September 2020 (07:56:30 CEST)
Osteopetrosis is a group of rare inheritable disorders of the skeleton characterized by increased bone density. The disease is remarkably heterogeneous in clinical presentation and often misdiagnosed. Therefore, genetic testing and molecular pathogenicity analysis are essential for precise diagnosis and new targets for preventive pharmacotherapy. Mutations in the CLCN7 gene give rise to the complete spectrum of osteopetrosis phenotypes and are responsible for about 75% of cases of autosomal dominant osteopetrosis. In this study, we report the identification of a novel variant in the CLCN7 gene in a patient diagnosed with osteopetrosis and provide evidence for its significance (likely deleterious) based on extensive comparative genomics, protein sequence and structure analysis. A set of automated bioinformatics tools used to predict consequences of this variant identified it as deleterious or pathogenic. Structure analysis revealed that the variant is located at the same “hot spot” as the most common CLCN7 mutations causing osteopetrosis. Deep phylogenetic reconstruction showed that not only Leu614Arg, but any non-aliphatic substitutions in this position are evolutionarily intolerant, further supporting the deleterious nature of the variant. The present study provides further evidence that reconstructing a precise evolutionary history of a gene helps predicting phenotypical consequences of variants of uncertain significance.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0541.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Obstetrics & Gynaecology Keywords: Endometriosis; ureter; bladder; ultrasound; magnetic resonance imaging; hydroureter.
Online: 23 September 2020 (07:44:27 CEST)
Abstract We aim to describe the diagnosis and surgical management of urinary tract endometriosis (UTE). We detail current diagnostic tools including advanced transvaginal ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging, and surgical diagnostic tools such as cystourethroscopy. While discussing surgical treatment options, we emphasize the importance of an interdisciplinary team, for complex cases that involve the urinary tract. While bladder DE is more straightforward in its surgical treatment, ureteral DE requires a high level of surgical skill. Specialists should be aware of the important entity of UTE due to the serious health implications for women. When UTE exists, it is important to work within a interdisciplinary radiological and surgical team.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0539.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Clinical Neurology Keywords: brain aging; energy metabolism; neurodegeneration; neurodegenerative disorders
Online: 23 September 2020 (04:55:21 CEST)
A growing body of evidence indicates that aging of the brain is strictly related to the decline of energy metabolism. In particular, in older adults, the neuronal metabolism of glucose declines steadily resulting in a growing deficit of ATP production. The decline is evoked by deficient NAD recovery in the salvage pathway and subsequent impairment of the Krebs cycle. NAD deficit impairs also the activity of NAD-dependent enzymes. All these open vicious circles of neurodegeneration and neuronal death. Some brain structures are particularly prone to aging and neurodegeneration. These are pathological foci of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s disease. This review article summarizes the impacts and mutual relationships between metabolic processes both on neuronal and brain levels. It also provides directions on how to reduce the risk of neurodegeneration and protect the elderly against neurodegenerative diseases.
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: Hyperthyroid; Hypothyroid; Euthyroid; Vitamin D; Bone Turn Over Markers; Bone Mineral Density
Online: 23 September 2020 (04:52:34 CEST)
Thyroid hormones have a catabolic effect on bone homeostasis. Hence, this study aimed to evaluate serum vitamin D, calcium, and phosphate and bone marker levels and bone mineral density (BMD) among patients with different thyroid diseases. This cross-sectional study included patients with underlying thyroid diseases (n=64, hyperthyroid; n=53 euthyroid; and n=18, hypothyroid) and healthy controls (n=64). BMD was assessed using z-score and left hip and lumbar bone density (g/cm2). Results showed that the mean serum vitamin D Levels of all groups was low (<50 nmol/L). Thyroid patients had higher serum vitamin D levels than healthy controls. All groups had normal serum calcium and phosphate levels. The bone marker levels were significantly high in the hyperthyroid group and low in the hypothyroid group. The z-score for hip and spine did not significantly differ between thyroid patients and control groups. The hip bone density was remarkably low in the hyperthyroid group. In all groups, the serum vitamin D levels were below the cutoff value. However, thyroid patients had a higher serum vitamin D level than healthy controls. The carboxy terminal collagen crosslink and procollagen type I N-terminal propeptide levels were high in hyperthyroid patients and low in hypothyroid patients. Further, hyperthyroid patients had a low hip BMD.
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: articles; bibliometric; causes; death; diseases; journals; Russia
Online: 23 September 2020 (04:48:32 CEST)
Societal changes have had effects on deaths from all causes in Russia. Up until now, deaths from all causes have been well researched, although several inconsistencies persist on the contributions of researchers. This study assessed research output, trends and topics that shaped deaths from all causes studies in Russia. Using bibliometric and topic modelling approaches, deaths from all causes in Russia published from 1914 to date was analysed using data on publications, citations, journals, keywords co-occurrence, year of publication, institutional affiliations, and country of origin from Scopus. Overall results indicate a steady growth of publications in Russia was documented after 1985. The h-index of some top 10 authors did not surpass single digits. A network visualisation map showed that ‘Russia’, ‘male’, ‘mortality’ and ‘human’ were the most commonly encountered vital terms. Of the ten most prolific authors, McKee M, Shkolnikov VM, Bobak M, Samorodskaya IV and Andreev E were the first five. Although the top 10 journals researching on death causes in Russia were Russian, these journals were not included in the most cited journals. The most prolific institutions studying deaths in Russia included; Tehran University of Medical Sciences, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, University College London, Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research and National Research University-Higher School of Economics. Findings suggest that deaths from all causes research attention in Russia increased in recent years, but the number of publications and research related engagements (e.g., networking and/ collaboration) does not match-up to other countries (e.g., UK, US, Germany). This research lag calls for more collaborative research between public health disciplines and networking among researchers (i.e., both national and international).
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0535.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: COVID-19; Pandemic; Global health; Health inequalities
Online: 23 September 2020 (04:13:51 CEST)
The COVID-19 crisis has brought unprecedented strain on healthcare systems around the world. It has perhaps taught us some key lessons that are worth considering and addressing to help build more sustainable health systems as well as improve our ability to combat future epidemics.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0534.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: breast cancer etiopathogenesis; breast cancer treatment; hydrogen ion dynamics of cancer; pH-related paradigm; H+-related therapeutics of breast cancer
Online: 23 September 2020 (04:04:24 CEST)
A brand-new approach to the understanding of breast cancer (BC) is urgently needed. In this contribution, the etiology, pathogenesis, and treatment of this disease is approached from the new pH-centric anticancer paradigm. Only this Unitarian perspective based upon that the hydrogen ion (H+) dynamics of cancer, allows understanding and integrating the many dualisms, confusions, and paradoxes of the disease. The new H+-related wide range model can embrace under a unique frame of mind the many aspects of the disease and at the same time therapeutically interfere with most, if not with all, the hallmarks of cancer known to date. The pH-related armamentarium available for the treatment of BC here reviewed may be beneficial for all types and stages of the disease. In this vein, we have attempted a mega synthesis of traditional and new knowledge in the different areas of breast cancer research and treatment based upon the wide range approach afforded by the hydrogen ion dynamics of cancer. The concerted utilization of a pH-related drugs nowadays available for the treatment of breast cancer is advanced.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0532.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: adipose derived regenerative cells; ADRCs; efficacy; point of care treatment; stem cells; stromal vascular fraction; tendon healing without scar formation; tendon regeneration
Online: 23 September 2020 (03:49:36 CEST)
Current clinical treatment options for symptomatic rotator cuff tear offer only limited potential for true tissue healing and improvement of clinical results. In animal models, injections of adult stem cells isolated from adipose tissue into tendon injuries evidenced histological regeneration of tendon tissue. However, it is unclear whether such beneficial effects could also be observed in a human tendon treated with autologous, adipose derived regenerative cells. Here we demonstrate, for the first time, a comprehensive histological and immunohistochemical analysis of the biopsy of a supraspinatus tendon of a 66-year-old subject with traumatic rotator cuff injury, taken ten weeks after local injection of fresh, uncultured, autologous, adipose derived regenerative cells (UA-ADRCs), prepared at the point of care. Our analysis demonstrated clear evidence towards regenerative healing of the injured supraspinatus tendon. Of note, no formation of adipocytes was observed. These findings indicate that injected autologous, unmodified stem cells can indeed form new tendon tissue and regenerate an injured human tendon.
Tue, 22 September 2020
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0517.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: chemonucleolysis; condoliase; chondroitin sulfate ABC endolyase; lumber disc herniation
Online: 22 September 2020 (10:02:01 CEST)
Background and Objectives: Chondroitin sulfate ABC endolyase (condoliase) was launched as a new drug for chemonucleolysis in 2018. There are few Few studies assessed regarding its clinical outcomes, and many important factors matters still remain unclear. The purpose of this This study aimed is to clarify clarify the preoperative conditionsfactors for in which condoliase could beis highly effective. Materials and Methods: Of the 47 patients who received condoliase, 34 patients were enrolled in this study. The mean age of the patients was 33 years. The average disease duration since the onset of the disease was 8.6 months. We evaluated the patients’patient’s low back and leg painpains using a numericalNumerical rating scale (NRS) score at two time points (before therapy and 3 months after therapyadministration). We divided the patients into two groups ([good group [(G]:): NRS score improvement ≥ 50%, poor group (P): NRS score improvement < 50%]. The parameters evaluatedSurvey items were age, disease disease duration, body mass index (BMI), and the presence or absence of positive or negative straight leg raising (SLR) test results. In additionMoreover, the loss of disc height loss and participation of preoperative radiological findings were also evaluated. Results: In terms of low back and leg pain, the G group were in 9/34 (26.5%) and 21/34 (61.8%) patients, respectively. Patients’. Patient’s age (low back pain G/P, 21.0/36.5 years)), was significantly loweryounger in the G group of low back pain (p = 0.001). High intensity change inof the protruded nucleus pulposus (NP) and the spinal canal occupancy by theof NP ≥ 40% were significantly highhighly observed in those withthe leg pain in the G groups (14/21,: p = 0.04; and 13/21,: p = 0.03, respectively). Conclusions: The efficacy of improvement inof leg pain was significantlyhighly correlated with high intensity change and size of the protruded NP. Condoliase was not significantly effective forto low back pain, but could might be expected have anthe effect onto younger patients.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0737.v3
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Clinical Neurology Keywords: oxidative stress; redox; antioxidant; multiple sclerosis; biomarker; neurodegenerative disease; personalized medicine
Online: 22 September 2020 (08:42:20 CEST)
Worldwide, over 2.2 million people are suffered from multiple sclerosis (MS), a multifactorial demyelinating disease of the central nervous system. MS is characterized by a wide range of motor, autonomic, and psychobehavioral symptoms including depression, anxiety, and dementia. The blood, cerebrospinal fluid, and postmortem brain samples of MS patients evidenced the disturbance of reduction-oxidation (redox) homeostasis such as the alterations of oxidative and antioxidative enzyme activities and the presence of degradation products. This review article discussed the components of redox homeostasis including reactive chemical species, oxidative enzymes, antioxidative enzymes, and degradation products. The reactive chemical species covered frequently discussed reactive oxygen/nitrogen species, infrequently featured reactive chemicals such as sulfur, carbonyl, halogen, selenium, and nucleophilic species that potentially act as reductive as well as pro-oxidative stressors. The antioxidative enzyme systems covered the nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor 2 (NRF2)-Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (KEAP1) signaling pathway. The NRF2 and other transcriptional factors potentially become a biomarker sensitive to the initial phase of oxidative stress. Altered components of the redox homeostasis in MS were discussed in search of a diagnostic, prognostic, predictive, and/or therapeutic biomarker. Finally, monitoring a battery of reactive chemical species, oxidative enzymes, antioxidative enzymes and degradation products helps evaluate the redox status of MS patients to expedite building personalized treatment plans for the sake of better quality of life.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0510.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: Hydrogel; pH-responsive; colon; targeted delivery; methotrexate
Online: 22 September 2020 (08:17:48 CEST)
The purpose of current research work was to formulate and typify gelatin and poly(vinyl) alcohol (Gel/PVA) hydrogel which would be highly pH-responsive and can able to accomplish targeted delivery of methotrexate in order to treat the colo-rectal pathologies. The primed gel/pva hydrogel discs were subjected to various physicochemical techniques i.e. swelling, diffusion co-efficient, sol-gel analysis and porosity using three altered sorts of pH (1.2, 6.8 & 7.4) phosphate buffer solutions for assessment/evaluation, and their characterization was done through Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA). Shape alteration and controlled methotrexate of release of Gel/PVA hydrogel have been done using three type of pH (1.2, 6.8 & 7.4) phosphate buffer mediums. Methotrexate was loaded through in-situ drug loading method due to hydrophobicity. Different kinetic models (first order & zero order kinetic), Higuchi model and Krosmere peppas model/Power law were applied to manipulate the drug release data. Physicochemical evaluation tests and drug release profile results were found insignificant (p< 0.05) in various pH mediums and dependent upon polymers concentration pH of medium and cross-linker amount. Kinetic model disclosed that release of methotrexate from Gel/PVA hydrogel follow non-Fickian diffusion method. It became concluded from this research work that release of methotrexate Gel/PVA hydrogel in targeted colon area can be achieved for treating colo-rectal disorders.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0305.v2
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pediatrics Keywords: sickle cell disease; feasibility; regular follow-up; remote area; Democratic Republic of Congo
Online: 22 September 2020 (08:12:05 CEST)
Background: Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a public health problem in the Democratic Republic of Congo. If reference sickle cell centers have been implemented in capital-cities of African countries and have proven to be beneficial for SCD patients, it has never been set up ina rural area for families with very low sources of income. Method: A cohort of 143 children with SCD aged 10 years old (IQR [inter quartile range]: 6–15 years) (sex ratio male: female = 1.3) were clinically followed for 12 months without any specific intervention, outside management of acute events ,and then 12 months with a monthly medical visit , a biological follow-up and regular prophylaxis. Results: The median age of patients at the diagnosis of SCD was 2 years (IQR: 1–5). The implementation of standardized and regular follow-up in a new sickle cell referral center in a remote city showed an increase in the annual mean hemoglobin level from 50 to 70 g/L (p = 0.001), and a decrease of the lymphocytes count and spleen size (p < 0.001). A significant decrease (p < 0.001) in the average annual number of hospitalizations and episodes of vaso-occlusive crises, blood transfusions, infections, and acute chest syndromes were also observed. Conclusions: Creation of a sickle cell referral center and a regular follow-up of children with SCD are possible and applicable in the context of a remote city of an African country. Those simple and accessible measures can reduce the morbimortality of the sickle cell children.
Mon, 21 September 2020
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0502.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Sport Sciences & Therapy Keywords: Anterior cruciate ligament, Electromyography, Isokinetic, Gastrocnemius, Hamstring
Online: 21 September 2020 (11:37:57 CEST)
Background: The optimisation of this return to athletic activity pass by a better understanding of the behaviour of the muscle involved in knee function.In this study, we focused on the muscular activity of the muscle involved in the flexion of the knee. Preciseley on the relation between the muscular activity of the gastrocnemius and the hamstring among the patient that underwent an anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction with hamstring graft.Objective : The objective of the study is to compare, the muscular activity of the flexor knee muscle in patient that underwent an anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction with hamstring autograft and the individuals that have not undergone surgery.Methods : The participants have been divided into two groups : an healthy group and an experimental group that underwent an anterior cruciate ligament recontruction with hamstring graft. The participants had to performe a strenght test on a isocinetik dynamometer. The activity of the medial gastrocnemius, lateral gastrocnemius, femoral biceps and the semitendinosus were mesured during this test.The muscular activity of the muscle mentioned of the individuals in the first group were compared to the ones in the second group via a statistical analysis. Then, a ratio of the activity of the gastrocnemius muscle on the activity of the hamstring was calculated The results of the experimental group were then compared to the results of the control groupResults : The results showed a significative difference activity of the medial gastrocnemius, the femoral biceps and the semitendinosus muscles : the experimental group results were superior to the control group results However the evaluation of the activity reporting has shown significant differences in the two groupsConclusion : This study has allowed us to show a difference in muscular activity of the gastrocnemius and hamstring muscle between patient that underwent an anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction surgery and the heathy participants. However our approch has not allowed us to identify the relation between a heihtened gastrocnemius activity and a diminished hamstring activity following an anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction with hamstring graft. Quite on the contrary, we observed a higher activity of the two muscle groups. Nevertheless, it seem to be necessary to have a variation in situations during the analysis of the gastrocnemius muscle to fully understans its purpose in the functional activity of the knee of patient that have undergone an anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0501.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pharmacology & Toxicology Keywords: human arsenic exposure; water source; risk factors; Thailand
Online: 21 September 2020 (11:32:03 CEST)
Three decades ago, human arsenic (As) contamination has been recognized in Ron Phibun, a sub-district with tin mining activity in southern Thailand. Since then different government bodies have attempted to mitigate the As-contamination problem by providing safe water in households. The most recent study conducted during 2000-2002 reported only a small fraction of population still had high urinary As level. Less attention has been paid to this issue afterwards. The present study aimed to re-assess the current situation, including human As contamination, water use behavior as well as identify risk factors of elevated As concentration among residents of Ron Phibun. The survey of 560 participants living in Ron Phibun with urinary As assessment was conducted. The median urinary As concentration of study participants was higher than normal. Consumption of shallow well water, a source generally considered as As-contaminated, was higher than a previous survey. A significant association was observed between urinary As concentrations and water sources for drinking and cooking. Gender and educational level were found to be associated with urinary As concentration. Significant associations between urinary As concentration and certain diseases (respiratory diseases, dermatitis, and dyslipidemia) were observed. The findings suggested further investigation of all water sources in the area for As contamination.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0500.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: COVID-19; impact on society during COVID-19; behavioral impact of COVID-19; government policies against COVID-19; measures adopted by the government; COVID-19 Statistics; Infection rate and Data analysis
Online: 21 September 2020 (11:09:11 CEST)
Background: COVID-19 pandemic has pulled us all a few steps back, were we never shake hands or hug each other when we meet our friends and family after a gap, but instead we greet them by saying Namaste and joining our hands together. As we all know, COVID-19 spreads through air and the only way to shield ourselves is by maintaining a safe distance from one another. Methodology: In order to conduct a meta-analysis on the number of COVID-19 cases in Kerala and India, the data was retrieved from various sites hosted by the government bodies. The data for analysis was collected from May 2020 to July 2020. The average number of days required to reach every 5000 fresh cases were also calculated using this data. COVID-19 has affected all the economy holistically regardless of financial, behavioral, or societal aspects. Conclusion: Lifting of the lockdown in a step by step process keeping in mind the necessities for the nation was a thoughtful act, but the people who mistook this opportunity and did not remain in quarantine after coming from abroad was recognized as the reasons behind the sudden and uncontrolled rise in the number of COVID-19 cases in Kerala, India. The government authorities had no other option but to lift the restrictions to reduce the economic burdens that had already affected the daily wage worker and farmers prompting them to give up their lives.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0497.v1
Online: 21 September 2020 (07:20:59 CEST)
To evaluate the efficacy of fish oil for protection against coronary heart disease (CHD), we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating the use of fish oil for protection against CHD. We retrieved relevant articles published from January 1966 to January 2020 by searching the PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane CENTRAL, and Web of Science databases. RCTs of fish oil in preventing CHD were selected. The study quality was evaluated using the Cochrane Risk of Bias tool with RevMan 5.3 software. The first selection involved 350 citations. After screening and evaluation of suitability, 19 RCTs adjusted for clustering were included in the meta-analysis. All selected manuscripts considered that fish oil was effective in preventing CHD, secondary outcome measures included angina, sepsis and death. Compared with the control group, fish oil may confer significant protection against CHD (odds ratio = 0.84; 95% confidence interval: 0.72–0.98). There was no significant difference in the incidence of secondary outcomes between the observation group and the control group (P > 0.05). The above results show that fish oil plays an important role in reducing CHD and cardiovascular events. However, because of the suboptimal quality of the studies included into the meta-analysis, these results do not justify adding fish oils systematically to the heavy pharmaceutical assortment already recommended in CHD patients.
Sun, 20 September 2020
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0483.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: next-generation sequencing; colorectal cancer; ATM mutation; FBXW7 mutation
Online: 20 September 2020 (15:20:52 CEST)
Targeted next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology detects specific mutations that can provide treatment opportunities for colorectal cancer (CRC) patients. We included 145 CRC patients who underwent surgery. We analyzed the mutation frequencies of common actionable genes and their association with clinicopathological characteristics and oncologic outcomes using targeted NGS. Approximately 97.9% (142) of patients showed somatic mutations. Frequent mutations were observed in TP53 (70%), KRAS (49%), and APC (47%). TP53 mutations were significantly linked to higher overall stage (p=0.038) and lower disease-free survival (DFS) (p=0.039). ATM mutation was significantly associated with higher tumor stage (p=0.012) and shorter overall survival (OS) (p=0.041). Stage 3 and 4 patients with ATM mutations (p=0.023) had shorter OS, and FBXW7 mutation was significantly associated with shorter DFS (p=0.002). In multivariate Cox regression analysis, ATM mutation was an independent biomarker for poor prognosis of OS (p=0.022). TP53 and FBXW7 mutations are independent biomarkers for poor prognosis of DFS (p=0.042 and 0.030, respectively). A comprehensive analysis of the molecular markers for CRC can provide insights into the mechanisms underlying disease progression and help optimize a personalized therapy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0479.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: suboptimal health status; associated factors; high school students; Shanxi; Guangzhou; Tibet; China
Online: 20 September 2020 (14:50:30 CEST)
Suboptimal health status (SHS) is a state between health and disease, has several associated factors, although, its underlying mechanism is still unclear. This study aimed to investigate the status of SHS and its associated factors of high school students in three areas of China (Shanxi, Guangzhou, and Tibet). A multidimensional sub-health questionnaire of adolescent (MSQA) is used to evaluate SHS. Among 1461 respondents, females proportion 56.47% was higher than males 43.53% where SHS was higher in Shanxi followed by Tibet and then Guangzhou. The rural area, grade, lack of sleep, home visit in a week, lack of exercise, a heavy burden of study, smoking, drinking, and fewer friends were the risk factors of SHS, while, families living status, seeking help and extroversion were the protective factors. SHS is significantly associated with different influencing factors. For comprehensive prevention and control measures, reduce the risk factors and enhance the protective factors.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0470.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Clinical Neurology Keywords: kynurenines; tryptophan; indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase; single nucleotide polymorphisms; Parkinson’s diseases; neurodegenerative diseases
Online: 20 September 2020 (14:27:12 CEST)
Earlier studies reported alterations of the kynurenine (KYN) pathway of tryptophan (TRP) metabolism in Parkinson’s disease (PD). The first rate-limiting enzymes indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) and tryptophan dioxygenase were observed upregulated, resulting elevated KYN/TRP ratios in the serum and cerebrospinal fluid samples of patients with PD. An increasing number of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been identified in a population of PD. However, little is known if genetic variations of the IDO contribute to disturbance of the KYN metabolism in and the pathogenesis of PD. SNP analysis of IDO1 was performed by allelic discrimination assay with fluorescently labelled TaqMan probes and a subgroup analysis was conducted according to the age of PD onset. The frame shifts variant rs34155785, intronic variant rs7820268, and promotor region variant rs9657182 SNPs of 105 PD patients without comorbidity were analyzed and compared to 129 healthy controls. No significant correlation was found in three SNPs between PD patients and healthy controls. However, the subgroup analysis revealed that A alleles of rs7820268 SNP or rs9657182 SNP carriers contribute to later onset of PD than non-carriers. The study suggested that SNPs of IDO1 influenced the age onset of PD and genotyping of SNPs in certain alleles potentially serves as a risk biomarker of PD.
Sat, 19 September 2020
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0446.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: Novel coronavirus diseases 2019; vaccination; target population; China
Online: 19 September 2020 (05:02:54 CEST)
All countries are facing decisions about which groups to prioritise for COVID-19 vaccination after the first vaccine product has been licensed, at which time supply shortages are inevitable. Here we define the key target populations and their size in China for a phased introduction of COVID-19 vaccination with evolving goals, accounting for the risk of illness and transmission. Essential workers (47.2 million) like healthcare workers could be prioritized for vaccination to maintain essential services. Subsequently, older adults, individuals with underlying health conditions and pregnant women (616.0 million) could be targeted to reduce severe COVID-19 outcomes. Then it could be further extended to target adults without underlying health conditions and children (738.7 million) to reduce symptomatic infections and/or to stop virus transmission. The proposed framework could assist Chinese policy-makers in the design of a vaccination program, and could be generalized to inform other national and regional COVID-19 vaccination strategies.
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Clinical Neurology Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; CNS; infant; Choroid plexus
Online: 19 September 2020 (04:49:18 CEST)
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was initially characterized as a respiratory illness. Neurological manifestations were reported mostly in severely affected patients. Routes for brain infection and the presence of virus particles in situ have not been well described, raising controversy about how the virus causes neurological symptoms. Here, we report the autopsy findings of a 1-year old infant with COVID-19. In addition to pneumonitis, meningitis and multiple organ damage related to thrombosis, a previous encephalopathy may have contributed to additional cerebral damage. SARS-CoV-2 infected the choroid plexus, ventricles, and cerebral cortex. This is the first evidence of SARS-CoV-2 detection in an infant post-mortem brain.
Fri, 18 September 2020
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0439.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Dentistry Keywords: KAP; Dental professionals; COVID-19; Pandemic; risk of infection, SARS-CoV-2
Online: 18 September 2020 (12:15:24 CEST)
Background: Dental professions are at high risk of contracting novel corona virus (COVID-19) infections during the dental procedure due to the droplets and aerosols generated during various dental procedures on infected patients. To prevent and avoid the cross-infection of the infection to dental professionals or the patients attending the dental clinic, good knowledge of the infection and its prevention mechanisms is mandatory among the professionals. Until to date, there is no pooled estimate on the knowledge,attitude and practice (KAP) of dental professionals to COVID-19 in the globe. Hence, this study aimed to determine the pooled estimate of KAP of dental professionals in this pandemic disease. Methods: Article search was done electronically using Medline, Scopus, Web of Science, EMBASE, SciELO and Google Scholar from June 1, 2020 to August 20, 2020. All studies that assessed the KAP of dental professionals to COVID-19 were searched and included in this review after passing the inclusion criteria. The pooled analysis of their knowledge (sign and symptom, mode of transmission and prevention mechanisms), attitude (their concern, intention to treat suspected patients) and practice (face mask usage, hand washing and alcohol based hand rub usage, handshaking practice, deferred procedures and checkup of patients temperature) was computed using RevMan 5.3 and random effect model was used. The presence of publication bias was assessed using the funnel plot. Results: Twelve articles with a total of 5,362 study participants were included in this study. The pooled estimate revealed that 59.91% of the dental professionals had good knowledge of the signs and symptoms of COVID-19. Two-third of dental professionals know the prevention mechanisms of the infection, and 70.13% had enough knowledge of the transmission modalities of the infection. The professional attitude revealed that only 36.43% of the participants had intention to treat a patient with cough or suspected COVID-19 (36.43%, 95%CI: 8.57, 64.29). Moreover, 47.85% of the dentists were concerned about their life, and the fate of their profession due to this pandemic disease (47.85%, 95%CI: 26.74, 68.97). The pooled analysis showed only 50.86% (95%CI: 18.64, 83.09) of the study participants worn face mask and 52.63% (95%CI: 10.54, 94.71) had avoided handshaking practice during this pandemic period. Non-emergency dental procedures were canceled by 83.98%. Conclusion: The dental professional KAP is not optimal. Thus, dental professionals should be aware of the recently updated knowledge about COVID-19 and practice according to the standards of treatment guidelines, and the recommended infection control measures in dental settings. Moreover, as saliva and droplets are the major sources of infection, dentists should follow essential protocols to regulate droplet and aerosol contamination in the dental practice
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0435.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pediatrics Keywords: PIMS; MIS-C; SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; Kawasaki disease; survey
Online: 18 September 2020 (11:29:49 CEST)
Pediatric inflammatory multisystem syndrome (PIMS) is a new entity in children, likely associated with previous coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19). Most of reports about PIMS come from countries particularly hit by the COVID-19 pandemic. Our aim was to investigate the nature of inflammatory syndromes in Poland (a country with low COVID-19 prevalence) and to perceive the emergence of PIMS in our country. On May 25th, we have launched a nationwide survey of inflammatory syndromes in children for retrospective (since 4th March 2020) and prospective data collection. Up to 28th July, 39 reported children met inclusion criteria. We stratified them according to age (<5 and ≥ 5 years old) and COVID-19 status. The majority of children had clinical and laboratory features of Kawasaki disease, probably non-associated with COVID-19. However, children ≥5 years of age had PIMS characteristics, and 9 children had COVID-19 confirmation. This is the first to our knowledge report of PIMS register from the country with low COVID-19 prevalence, and it proves that PIMS may emerge in any area involved in the COVID-19 pandemic. In a context of limited COVID-19 testing availability, other risk factors of PIMS, e.g. older age should be considered in the differential diagnosis of inflammatory syndromes in children.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0430.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Sport Sciences & Therapy Keywords: anterior cruciate ligament; gait disorder; gait analysis; risk factors
Online: 18 September 2020 (11:17:01 CEST)
Today, rupture of the anterior cruciate ligament is the most common heavy injury in athletes, but it can also occur in sedentary subjects. Its treatment, always adapted to the lifestyle, age and will of the patient, often remains surgical. However, despite its frequency and universality, there are still walking disorders following the operation. These disorders sometimes persist for several months, or even several years after surgery. The present study is therefore interested in determining the risk factors linked to walking disorders following reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament. The objective of this study is to determine what risk factors associated with walking disorders are after reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament by hamstring graft. This study focused on factors that may exist at 3 and 6 months postoperatively. Two populations participated in this study, a healthy population and a population having benefited from reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament. The operated test group is divided into two subgroups, one with a postoperative period of 3 months and the second at 6 months. All subjects were subjected to the same protocol, their gait on the treadmill was analyzed and evaluated with an Optogait® analysis system. A univariate analysis was carried out first. Then, a multivariate analysis by adjustment method was carried out in order to eliminate the potential confounding factors. The comparison of the results between the populations in the univariate analysis shows an absence of significant results however there are trends. The statistical results of the multivariate analysis showed interactions in the two subgroups of the operated population.In fact, it turns out that at 3 months there is a tendency to worse gait disorders in subjects with a high BMI reflecting overweight, when an associated surgical procedure has taken place on the meniscus, in subjects over 35 years of age and males. On the other hand, at 6 months, the tendency to worsening is visible only in the strata represented by subjects with a BMI corresponding to overweight, as well as in subjects having benefited from a meniscal suture associated with ACL reconstruction. .The results of the present study show that there are certain factors which tend to increase the risk of these walking disorders after reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament by hamstring graft, these factors are different depending on the time postoperative.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0427.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Veterinary Medicine Keywords: brassica-associated liver disease; BALD; progoitrin; 1-cyano-2-hydroxy-3-butene; 1-cyano-2-hydroxy-3,4-epithiobutane; nitrile; toxicity; rabbits
Online: 18 September 2020 (10:07:03 CEST)
Cattle occasionally develop brassica-associated liver disease (BALD) and photosensitisation when grazing turnip or swede (Brassica spp.) forage crops. The liver toxin in these brassica varieties has yet to be discovered. Progoitrin is the dominant glucosinolate in incriminated crops. Apart from goitrin, progoitrin hydrolysis yields the nitrile, 1-cyano-2-hydroxy-3-butene (CHB), and the epithionitrile, 1-cyano-2-hydroxy-3,4-epithiobutane (CHEB). The two compounds were custom-synthesised. In a small pilot trial, New Zealand White rabbits were given either CHB or CHEB by gavage. Single doses of 0.75 mmol/kg of CHB or 0.25 mmol/kg of CHEB were subtoxic and elicited subclinical effects. Higher doses were severely hepatotoxic causing periportal to massive hepatic necrosis associated with markedly elevated serum liver biomarkers often resulting in severe illness or death within 24 h. The possibility that one or both of these hepatotoxic nitriles causes BALD in cattle requires further investigation.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0425.v1
Online: 18 September 2020 (09:58:49 CEST)
The Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is clearly taking a firmer grip on South Africa and more podiatrists will face the potential transmission of SARS-CoV-2. Government response was swift with the implementation of a travel ban, strict national lockdown as well as social distancing and hygiene protocols in line with international health regulations. Co-morbidities such as tuberculosis and HIV/AIDS, endemic to South Africa, are considered a dangerous combination with COVID-19, making many South Africans vulnerable to contracting the COVID-19. Patients with diabetes as well as the aged are vulnerable, both in terms of potential combined complications and challenges in continuity in foot care. The demands of the pandemic may outstrip the ability of the health systems to cope. Should this time arrive, all healthcare practitioners, including podiatrists, would have to step in and take on a role beyond their scope of practice in order to ensure that the healthcare system does not get overwhelmed. It is important for podiatrists to keep abreast with the developments around the COVID-19, in order that they may institute appropriate clinical practice which will ensure maximum protection for themselves, staff and patients as well as providing quality foot health care.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0423.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: community-dwelling older adults; physical frailty; prevalence; risk factors
Online: 18 September 2020 (08:57:56 CEST)
Frailty is defined as a state of increased vulnerability to stressors, and it predicts the disability and mortality in the older population. This study aimed to investigate standardized prevalence and multidimensional risk factors associated with frailty among the Korean community-dwelling older adults. We analyzed the baseline data of 2,907 adults aged 70–84 years (mean age 75.8±3.9 years, 57.8% women) in the Korean Frailty and Aging Cohort Study. The Fried frailty phenotype was used to define frailty. Analyzed data included sociodemographic, physical, physical function, biological, lifestyle, health condition, medical condition, psychological, and social domains. Data were standardized using the national standard population composition ratio based on the Korean Population and Housing Census. The standardized prevalence of frailty and pre-frailty was 7.9% (95% confidence interval [CI] 6.8–8.9%) and 57.2% (95% CI 45.1–48.8%), respectively. The following 14 risk factors had a significant association with frailty: at risk of malnutrition, sarcopenia, severe mobility limitation, poor social capital, rural dwellers, depressive, poor self-perceived health, polypharmacy, elevated high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, elevated glycosylated hemoglobin, low 25-hydroxy vitamin D level, longer timed up and go, and low short physical performance battery score (p<0.05). Physico-nutritional, psychological, sociodemographic, and medical factors are strongly associated with frailty.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0422.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Veterinary Medicine Keywords: dog; ST131; ESBL; fecal colonization; Escherichia coli
Online: 18 September 2020 (07:15:23 CEST)
Background: Most drug-resistant Escherichia coli isolates in dogs come from diseased dogs. Prior to this study, the prevalence and risk factors of fecal carriage drug-resistant E. coli and epidemic clone sequence type (ST) 131 (including subtypes) isolates in dogs were unknown. Methods: Rectal swabs were used for E. coli isolation from 299 dogs in a veterinary teaching hospital in Taiwan. Antibiotic resistance and multiplex PCR analyses of E. coli for major STs were performed. Result: There were 43.1% cefazolin-resistant, 22.1% fluoroquinolone-resistant, and 9.4% extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing E. coli in our cohort. In the phylogenetic study, B2 was the predominant group (30.1%). The cefazolin-resistant group and ciprofloxacin-resistant group had greater antibiotic exposure in the last 14 days (P < 0.05). The age, sex, and dietary habits of the antibiotic-resistant and -susceptible groups were similar. In the seven isolates of ST131 in fecal colonization, the most predominant subtypes were FimH41 and FimH22. Conclusion: Recent antibiotic exposure was related to the fecal carriage of antibiotic-resistant E. coli isolates. Three major subtypes (FimH41, H22, and H30) of ST131 can thus be found in fecal carriage in dogs in Taiwan.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0421.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Obstetrics & Gynaecology Keywords: Infertility; mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs); reproductive system; Stem-cell therapy
Online: 18 September 2020 (07:09:31 CEST)
Female infertility is a global medical condition that can be caused by various disorders of the reproductive system, including premature ovarian failure (POF), polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), endometriosis, Asherman syndrome, and preeclampsia. It affects the quality of life of both patients and couples. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have received increasing attention as a potential cell-based therapy with several advantages over other cell sources, including greater abundance, fewer ethical considerations, and high capacity for self-renewal and differentiation. Clinical researchers have examined the therapeutic use of MSCs in female infertility. In this review, we discuss recent studies on the use of MSCs in various reproductive disorders that lead to infertility. We also describe the role of microRNAs (miRNAs) and exosomal miRNAs in controlling MSC gene expression and driving MSC therapeutic outcomes. The clinical application of MSCs holds great promise for the treatment of infertility or ovarian insufficiency and to improve reproductive health for a significant number of women worldwide.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0420.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pathology & Pathobiology Keywords: COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2; ACE2 receptor; spike glycoprotein; S glycoprotein immunogenic sequences; ACE2 polymorphism
Online: 18 September 2020 (04:56:02 CEST)
Pneumonia cases of unknown etiology in Wuhan, China, were reported to the WHO on 31st of December 2019. Later the pathogen was reported to be a novel coronavirus designated Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) that causes Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). SARS-CoV-2 is a novel pathogenic beta coronavirus that infects humans causing severe respiratory illness. However, multifarious factors can contribute to the susceptibility to COVID-19 related morbidity and mortality such as age, gender and underlying comorbidities. Importantly, SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 entry into the host cells is mediated via ACE2 receptor. However, ACE2 receptor binding affinity to SARS-CoV-2 is 4 folds higher than that to SARS-CoV. Identification of different aspects such as binding affinity, differential antigenic profiles of spike glycoproteins, and ACE2 polymorphisms might influence the investigation of potential therapeutic strategies targeting SARS-CoV-2/ACE2 binding interface. Here we aim to elaborate on SARS-CoV-2 S1/ACE2 ligand that facilitates viral internalization as well as to highlight the differences between SARS-CoVs binding affinity to ACE2. We also discuss the possible immunogenic sequences of spike glycoprotein and the effect of ACE2 polymorphism on viral binding/infectivity and host susceptibility to disease. Furthermore, targeting of ACE2 will be discussed to understand its role in therapeutics.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0417.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Psychiatry & Mental Health Studies Keywords: schizophrenia; stress; drug policy; environment; contaminants; pesticides; fungi; prohibition
Online: 18 September 2020 (04:21:43 CEST)
Background: Most modern studies about human marijuana use have been made under a set of arbitrary cultural standards and policies not related to drug harm potential, loosely called Prohibition. Here we asked if potential health hazards generated by Prohibition are addressed in research design and analysis. Methods: For this, we have searched PubMed database (from inception to December 2017) for citations of prevalent contaminants of illegal street cannabis: fungi and pesticides. In addition, we performed full text evaluation of 23 studies selected from, and including, 2 meta-analysis reviews investigating potential health hazards from cannabis use. Results: Different combinations of the keywords cannabis, prohibition, pesticides, fungi, contaminants, cancer, schizophrenia, psychosis, show that these words coincide in less than 1% of the cannabis human studies within the database. In the scope of 141 abstracts in which the terms, cannabis and pesticides coincide, none is directed to distinguish cannabis and pesticide adverse effects on CNS. A similar picture emerges when fungi is the paired word. Full text evaluation shows that all but one of the studies analyzed, completely neglect or comment on the nature of cannabis source, legal status, or contamination as a confounding factor. Discussion: Our results show a potential bias on scientific investigation that may affect data reliability in informing about the health hazards of cannabis use. This finding suggests that other aspects of the Prohibition environment may also go unacknowledged. Conclusion: Prohibition related health risks usually go unacknowledged and unaccounted for in biomedical research on Cannabis.
Thu, 17 September 2020
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0390.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pathology & Pathobiology Keywords: Recombinant protein; Protease; DPP4; Covid-19
Online: 17 September 2020 (08:44:17 CEST)
Proteases catalyse irreversible posttranslational modifications that often alter a biological function of the substrate. The protease dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4) is a pharmacological target in type 2 diabetes therapy primarily because it inactivates glucagon-like protein-1. DPP4 also has roles in steatosis, insulin resistance, cancers and inflammatory and fibrotic diseases. In addition, DPP4 binds to the spike protein of MERS virus, causing it to be the human cell surface receptor for that virus. DPP4 has been identified as a potential binding target of SARS-CoV-2 spike protein, so this question requires experimental investigation. Understanding protein structure and function requires reliable protocols for production and purification. We developed such strategies for baculovirus generated soluble recombinant human DPP4 (residues 29-766) produced in insect cells. Purification used differential ammonium sulfate precipitation, hydrophobic interaction chromatography, dye affinity chromatography in series with immobilised metal affinity chromatography, and ion exchange chromatography. The binding affinities of DPP4 to the SARS-CoV-2 full-length spike protein and its receptor binding domain (RBD) were measured using surface plasmon resonance. This optimised DPP4 purification procedure yielded 1 to 1.8 mg of pure fully active soluble DPP4 protein per litre of insect cell culture with specific activity >30 U/mg, indicative of high purity. No specific binding between DPP4 and CoV-2 spike protein was detected. In summary, a procedure for high purity high yield soluble human DPP4 was achieved and used to show that, unlike MERS, SARS-CoV-2 does not bind human DPP4.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0389.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Ophthalmology Keywords: Graves’ ophthalmopathy; exophatlmos; intraocular pressure; topical medications
Online: 17 September 2020 (08:35:17 CEST)
Purpose: The evaluation of the efficacy of topical hypotensive treatment and/or systemic corticosteroids therapy in patients with elevated intraocular pressure and Graves’ orbitopathy (GO). Methods: 172 eyes in 86 individuals with duration of GO ≥ 3 months, intraocular pressure in either eye ≥ 25.0 mmHg and GO ranked ≥ 3 at least in one eye in modified CAS form, were included. The study subjects were divided into three treatment subgroups: subgroup I was administered latanoprost QD; subgroup II was administered a combined preparation of brimonidine and timolol BID; subgroup III was the control group, not receiving any topical hypotensive treatment. All the study participants received systemic treatment – intravenous corticosteroid therapy at the same dose, according to the EUGOGO guideline Results: On the final visit, the mean IOP value was significantly lower in all treatment subgroups comparing to the initial values. In both subgroups receiving topical treatment the IOP reduction was higher than in the control group receiving systemic corticosteroids only. However, the latanoprost eye drops decreased intraocular pressure more effectively than drops containing brimonidine and timolol. Conclusion: Topical ocular hypotensive treatment is effective in reducing intraocular pressure in GO and decreases intraocular pressure more effectively than systemic corticosteroid therapy alone.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0380.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: malignant pleural mesothelioma; CXCL12/CXCR4; EAAT1; glutamine synthetase; invasion; migraiton
Online: 17 September 2020 (07:29:16 CEST)
Purpose: To elucidate the mechanism of CXCR4/EAAT1/GS pathway in CXCL12 regulating invasion and migration in malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM). Methods: Immunohistochemistry for CXCL12, CXCR4, EAAT1 and GS stainings and correlation analysis between them were conducted in MPM and normal tissues. Western blot and real-time PCR were performed to examine the CXCR4, EAAT1 and GS expression in H2052 cells. Wound healing and transwell assay were applied to determine the cell migration and invasion. MTT was utilized to assess cell viability. Results: CXCL12, CXCR4, EAAT1 and GS were highly expressed in MPM tissues and correlated with each other. CXCL12 upregulated both in protein and mRNA levels of CXCR4, EAAT1 and GS in H2052 cells. The EAAT1 and GS expression upregulated or not by CXCL12 were decreased by CXCR4 and EAAT1 knockdown. CXCR4 antagonist AMD3100 and EAAT1 antagonist TFB-TBOA also resulted in the same effects as CXCR4 and EAAT1 knockdown, respectively. CXCL12 promoted cell invasion and migration and increased the Matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9) mRNA level. CXCR4 and EAAT1 knockdown suppressed all these functions. Furthermore, CXCL12 promoted H2052 cells growth in nude mice, both AMD3100 and TFB-TBOA inhibited this promotion. Conclusions: CXCL12 regulated the invasion and migration through CXCR4/EAAT1/GS pathway in H2052 cells.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0729.v2
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: p53; p73; MDM2; MDMX; tumor suppressor; drug repurposing; aspirin; protoporphyrin IX; verteporfin
Online: 17 September 2020 (07:23:37 CEST)
p53 and p73 are critical tumor suppressors often inactivated in human cancers through various mechanisms. Owing to high structural homology, the proteins have many common functions and recognize the same set of genes involved in apoptosis and cell cycle regulation. p53 is known as the ‘guardian of the genome’ and together with p73 form a barrier against cancer development and progression. The TP53 is mutated in more than 50% of all human cancers and the germline mutations in TP53 predispose to the early onset of multiple tumors in Li-Fraumeni Syndrome (LFS), the inherited cancer predisposition. In cancers where TP53 gene is intact, p53 is degraded. Despite the ongoing efforts, the treatment of cancers remains challenging. This is due to late diagnoses, the toxicity of current standard of care and marginal benefit of newly approved therapies. Presently, the endeavours focus on reactivating p53 exclusively, neglecting the potential of the restoration of p73 protein for cancer eradication. Taken that several small molecules reactivating p53 failed in clinical trials, there is a need to develop new treatments targeting p53 proteins in cancer. This review outlines the most advanced strategies to reactivate p53 and p73 and describes drug repurposing approaches for the efficient reinstatement of the p53 proteins for cancer therapy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0375.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: co-infection; SARS-CoV-2; pike glycoprotein; stop mutations
Online: 17 September 2020 (05:33:59 CEST)
There is a rising global concern for the ongoing outbreak of SARS-CoV-2 due to its high transmission rate and unavailability of treatment. Through the binding of its spike glycoprotein with angiotensin type 2 (ACE2), SARS-CoV-2 can efficiently get in the cells of patients and start its pandemic cycle. Herein, the biological diversity of SARS-CoV-2 infection was assessed in Babylon province of Iraq by investigating the possible genetic variations of the spike glycoprotein. A specific coding region of 795 bp within the viral spike (S) gene was amplified from 19 patients who suffered from obvious symptoms of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Sequencing results identified fifteen novel nucleic acid variations with a variety of distributions within the investigated samples. The electropherograms of all the identified variations showed obvious co-infections with at least two different viral strains per sample. Within these co-infections, the majority of samples exhibited three nonsense single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)s, p.301Cdel, p.380Ydel, and p.436del, which yielded three truncated SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoproteins of 301, 380, and 436 amino acids length, respectively. The network and phylogenetic analyses indicated that for all viral infections were derived from multi-ancestral origins. Results inferred from the specific clade-based tree entailed that some viral strains were derived from European G-clade sequences. In conclusion, our data demonstrated the absence of any single strain infection among all investigated viral samples in the studied area, which may entail a higher risk of SARS-CoV-2 in this country. Through the identified high frequency of truncated spike proteins, we suggest that defective SARS-CoV-2 may depend on helper strains having intact spikes in its infection. Alternatively, another putative ACE2-independent route of viral infection way also suggested. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report to describe the co-infection of multiple strains of SARS-CoV-2 in patients with COVID-19.
Wed, 16 September 2020
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0358.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Dentistry Keywords: Covid-19; HVE; Aerosol; Dentistry; Particle; Suction; External; PM1; PM2.5; PM10; Drilling
Online: 16 September 2020 (11:12:31 CEST)
(1) Introduction: External high volume extraction devices may offer a way to reduce any aerosol particulate generated. The aim of this study was to measure the particle count during dental aerosol procedures and compare the results to when a High Volume Extraction device is used; (2) Methods: A comparative clinical study measuring the amount of PM1, PM2.5 and PM10 aerosol particulate with and without the use of an external High Volume Extraction device was undertaken. In total, 10 restorative procedures were monitored with an an industrial Trotec PC220 particle counter. The air sampler was placed at the average working distance of the clinicians involved in the study - 420mm.; (3) Results: In the present study aerosol particulate was recorded at statistically significantly increased levels during dental procedures without an external high volume extraction device versus with the device. The null hypothesis was rejected, in that significant differences were found between the results of the amount of aerosol particle count with and without a High Volume Extraction device.; (4) Conclusion: If the results of the present study are repeated in an in vivo setting, an external high volume suction device may potentially lower the risk of transmission of viral particulate.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0356.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Gastroenterology Keywords: SSI; MORBIDITY; MORTALITY; GASTROINTESTINAL; HPB; HOSPITAL STAY
Online: 16 September 2020 (08:38:38 CEST)
Aims: Primary AIM of the study was to evaluate effect of prolonged hospital stay on Surgical site infections We also evaluated effect of prolonged hospital stay on overall morbidity in Gastrointestinal and Hepatobiliary Surgery as secondary outcome. Methods: We retrospectively analysed all the patients who underwent gastrointestinal and hepatobiliary surgery between April 2017 to March 2020. On our analysis we found mean hospital stay in patient who did not develop SSI and/or morbidity was 4 days (Total hospital stay) vs 6 days who developed morbidity (hospital stay before diagnosis of SSI or diagnosis or morbid event). Based on this to avoid selection bias, we did 1:1 propensity score analysis between patients who had 4 or less than hospital stay vs patients who had 5 or more hospital stay before diagnosis of surgical site infection and/or morbid event. We took all the preoperative and intraoperative factors like Age, sex, malignant disease, ASA score, CDC grade of surgery, open or laparoscopic surgery, HPB surgeries, colorectal surgeries, Upper Gastrointestinal surgeries and small intestinal surgeries as covariates. We used nearest neighbor matching protocol with a calipher of 0.2. Cases were not reusable after matching. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS version 23. Results: We included 348 patients operated between April 2017 and March 2020 in our analysis. After 1:1 propensity score matching 58 patients included in study arm (prevent hospital stay more than 4 days) and 56 patients in control arm. Both groups were comparable with regard to Age, Sex, Surgery for malignant disease, ASA score, CDC grade of surgery, HPB surgeries, Small intestinal surgeries, Colorectal surgeries, upper gastrointestinal surgeries, intraoperative blood product requirement, intraoperative hypotension or any other event, operative time. Prolonged hospital stay (> 4 days) was significantly associated with surgical site infections (p<0.0001), morbidity (p=0.001). Open surgeries were associated with prolonged hospital stay. (p=0.032). Conclusion: Prolonged Hospital stay is associated with increase surgical site infection and morbidity in Gastrointestinal and Hepatobiliary Surgery.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0354.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: sleep apnoea; obstructive sleep apnoea; polysomnography; excessive day time sleepiness; obesity
Online: 16 September 2020 (07:19:33 CEST)
Objective: Identify factors associated with excessive day time sleepiness (EDS) in individuals with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), and analyze the effects that obesity and gender have on excessive daytime sleepiness in such individuals. Methods: A total of 160 people were selected for this study. All the people have completed a clinical evaluation, and whose apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) > 10 events/hour of sleep on polysomnography were included in the study from the Department of otolaryngology. Results: The Mean age was 43.87±11.34 years, mean EDS score was 14.09± 4.91, and mean AHI was 43.88±20.66 events/hour of sleep. Male presented lower mean age, higher EDS scores, and more time in apnoea, whereas females presented with higher mean age, lower EDS scores, and less time in sleep apnea. The EDS score showed best correlation with duration of apnoea (r = 0.448; p < 0.01), peripheral oxygen saturation (SpO2; r = -0.458; p < 0.01) and AHI (r = 0.484; p < 0.01). The mean body mass index (BMI) was 27.41±3.86 kg/m2. Normal, Overweight, obese, and morbidly obese were observed in 20%, 61%, 18%, and 0.6% of cases, respectively. Severity of the disease best correlated with BMI (r = 0.421; p < 0.01). Conclusions: OSA is predominant in males (M/F 5:1), and obese population. Females diagnosed with OSA have higher mean age. However, EDS scores and time spent in sleep apnoea is lower in females. Higher BMI is associated with EDS, irrespective of gender.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0350.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Sport Sciences & Therapy Keywords: anterior cruciate ligament; open kinetic chain; laxity; isokinetic
Online: 16 September 2020 (05:55:45 CEST)
Rehabilitation following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction with hamstring graft allows the patient to regain his functional capacities and to support him in the resumption of sports activities. Rehabilitation also aims to minimize the risk of recurrence, which is why it ensures that the patient's muscular capacities develop properly until they return to sport. Isokinetics helps strengthen and assess the strength of muscle groups in the thigh, but controversy exists as to its use by resistance to the open kinetic chain knee extension that would cause the transplant to distend. The objective of this study is to determine the influence of isokinetic muscle strengthening on the possible laxity of the anterior cruciate ligament and to be able to determine risk factors. The study relates to a population having benefited from anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction with hamstring graft from 3 to 6 months after surgery. Two groups are differentiated, one group exposed to isokinetism during rehabilitation, the other group, named unexposed, undergoes rehabilitation without the use of isokinetism. An anterior knee laxity test is performed 6 months postoperatively using the GNRB® machine for all subjects according to the same protocol. The test results were statistically analyzed to determine a relative risk of transplant distension for each group in the study. Comparison of the results of each group by univariate analysis did not reveal any significant result. Multivariate analysis showed interactions in the two strata of the study. It was argued that the use of isokinetics seems to have no effect on the risk of developing distension for the majority of subjects in the exposed group. A tendency towards transplant protection was perceived for each variable except the age under 25 years (RRa = 1.07). The use of isokinetics does not appear to be a cause of transplant distension in patients undergoing an anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction when this method is introduced 3 months postoperatively.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0347.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Psychiatry & Mental Health Studies Keywords: mood disorders; depression; nitrosative and oxidative stress; IgM autoimmunity; neuro-immune; inflammation
Online: 16 September 2020 (04:17:25 CEST)
Major depression is accompanied by increased IgM-mediated autoimmune responses to oxidative specific epitopes (OSEs). Nevertheless, these responses have not been examined in bipolar disorder type 1 (BP1) and BP2. IgM responses to malondialdehyde (MDA), phosphatidinylinositol, oleic acid, and azelaic acid were determined in 35 healthy controls, and 101 mood disorder patients, namely 47 major depressed (MDD), 29 BP1, and 25 BP2 patients. We also measured serum total peroxides, IgG to oxidized LDL (oxLDL), IgM to nitroso-adducts, and IgM/IgA directed to lipopolysaccharides (LPS). IgM responses to OSEs were significantly higher in MDD and BP1 as compared with controls and higher in MDD than in BP2. Partial Least Squares (PLS) analysis showed that 57.7% of the variance in the clinical phenome of mood disorders was explained by number of episodes, IgM directed to OSEs and nitroso-adducts, IgG to oxLDL, and peroxides. There were significant specific indirect effects of IgA/IgM to LPS on the clinical phenome, which were mediated by peroxides, IgM OSEs, and IgG oxLDL. Using PLS we have constructed a data-driven nomothetic network which ensembled causome (increased plasma LPS load), adverse outcome pathways (namely neuro-affective toxicity), and clinical phenome features of mood disorders in a data-driven model. Based on those feature sets, cluster analysis discovered a new diagnostic class characterized by increased plasma LPS load, peroxides, autoimmune responses to OSEs and nitroso-adducts, and increased phenome scores. Using the new nomothetic network approach, we constructed a mechanistically transdiagnostic diagnostic class indicating neuro-affective toxicity in 74.3% of the mood disorder patients.
HYPOTHESIS | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0346.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: Sepsis; SIRS; oxic sulphidic oscillator; risk prediction; multiorgan failure; chemocline
Online: 16 September 2020 (04:07:17 CEST)
Life evolved in an euxinic world with subsequent oxic 'invasion' leading to two parallel but interconnected biospheres, hydrogen sulphide (H2S) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) exemplify these worlds respectively. Their concentration gradients have informational value in meromictic lakes. Similarly, it is posited, there exists a whole body chemocline in humans in which the two molecules form an inversely coupled oxic/sulphidic oscillator (OSO). The OSO is hormetic and characterised by a range of amplitudes and frequencies in health. Deviations from its baseline profile heralds the onset of SIRS before the appearance of clinical signs. Loss of oscillator status and transition to a steady state causes widespread intercellular and inter-organ communication failure presaging multi-organ dysfunction. The salient clinico-pathophysiological features of SIRS of any aetiology are emergent phenomena related to the OSO profile. Extent of recovery of organ function will mirror the recovery of the OSO profile thereby providing a tool to predict outcomes in SIRS.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0341.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: flavonoid; polyphenols; orange extract; performance; endurance; aerobic; anaerobic; nutrigenomic; sport nutrition
Online: 16 September 2020 (03:10:12 CEST)
2S-hesperidin is a flavanone (flavonoid) found in high concentrations in citrus fruits. It has an antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effect, improving performance in animals. This study investigated the effects of chronic intake of an orange extract (2S-hesperidin) or placebo on aerobic-anaerobic and metabolic performance markers in amateur cyclists. A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial was carried out between late September and December 2018. Forty amateur cyclists were randomized into two groups: one taking 500mg/day 2S-hesperidin and other taking 500 mg/day placebo (microcellulose) for 8 weeks. All participants completed the study. Performance and metabolic aerobic-anaerobic markers were measured using incremental and rectangular tests by indirect calorimetry. The anaerobic power was determined using Wingate tests. After 8 weeks supplementation, there was a significant increase in the incremental test in estimated functional threshold power (FTP) (3.23%; p≤0.05) and maximum power (2.68%; p≤0.05) with 2S-Hesperdin compared to placebo. In the rectangular test, there was a significant decrease in VO2 (-8.26%; p≤0.01) and VO2R (-8.88%; p≤0.01) at VT2 in placebo; however, there were no significant differences between groups. In the Wingate test, there was a significant increase (p≤0.05) in peak and relative power in both groups, but without significant differences between groups. Supplementation with an orange extract (2S-hesperdin) 500mg/day improves estimated FTP and maximum power performance in amateur cyclists.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0339.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Cardiology Keywords: Great East Japan Earthquake; disaster; cardiovascular disease; psychological factors; evacuation; prospective study
Online: 16 September 2020 (03:01:44 CEST)
Evidence regarding the effect of psychological factors and evacuation on cardiovascular disease occurrence after large-scale disasters is limited. This prospective study followed up a total of 37,810 Japanese men and women aged 30–89 years from the Fukushima Prefecture with no history of stroke or heart disease at baseline (2012), until 2017. This period included 3000 cardiovascular events recorded through questionnaires and death certificates. The participants’ psychological distress, trauma reaction, and evacuation status were defined, and divided into four groups based on combinations of psychological factors and evacuation status. We calculated the hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals for only psychological, only evacuation, or both of them compared with neither using Cox proportional hazard models. Psychological factors along with evacuation resulted in approximately 5% to 25% higher magnitude of stroke and heart disease risk than psychological factors only among men. Compared to neither, the multivariable hazard ratios of those with both psychological distress and evacuation were 1.75 for stroke and 1.49 for heart disease, and those of both trauma reaction and evacuation were 2.01 and 1.57, respectively, among men. Evacuation combined with psychological factors increased the risk of stroke and heart disease risks especially in men after the Great East Japan Earthquake.
Tue, 15 September 2020
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0337.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: hand sanitizers; hand rubs; alcohol based; disinfection; hand hygiene; coronavirus; COVID-19
Online: 15 September 2020 (09:07:09 CEST)
The global use of alcohol based hand sanitizers (ABHS) as a means of controlling the transmission of infectious disease increased dramatically in 2020 as governments and public health agencies across the world advocated hand hygiene as a preventative measure during the COVID-19 pandemic. Although the performance of these products is most commonly defined as a function of their alcohol concentration, they are multifaceted products in which an interplay of several factors is important in determining efficacy. The hand sanitizer tetrahedron, is a novel concept that considers both ABHS formulation factors and product performance factors from a multi-dimensional perspective. The four faces of the tetrahedron represent input/formulation factors: 1) the type and amount of alcohol, 2) inactive ingredients, 3) the type of formulation/delivery system and 4) manufacturing practices. The four corners of the tetrahedron represent output/product performance factors: 1) efficacy, 2) sensory characteristics, 3) usage, usability and compliance and 4) product safety/adverse effects. All factors are of importance to ensuring the effectiveness and utility of these products.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0335.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: active transportation; health impact assessment; physical activity; air pollution; traffic safety; carbon emissions; monetization; online tool
Online: 15 September 2020 (08:40:57 CEST)
The World Health Organization’s Health Economic Assessment Tool (HEAT) for walking and cycling is a user-friendly web-based tool to assess health impacts of active travel. HEAT, developed over 10 years ago, has been used by researchers, planners and policymakers alike in appraisals of walking and cycling policies of both national and more local scales. HEAT has undergone regular upgrades adopting the latest scientific evidence. This article presents the most recent upgrades of the tool. Health impacts of walking and/or cycling in a specified population are quantified in terms of premature deaths avoided (or caused). In addition to the calculation of benefits from physical activity, HEAT was recently expanded to include assessments of the burden associated with air pollution exposure and crash risks while walking or cycling. Further, impacts on carbon emissions from mode shift to active travel modes can now be assessed. Monetization of impacts using Value of Statistical Life and Social Costs of Carbon now uses country-specific values. As active travel inherently results in often substantial health benefits as well as not always negligible risks, assessments of active travel behaviour or policies are incomplete without considering health implications. The recent developments of HEAT make it easier than ever to obtain ballpark estimates of health impacts and carbon emissions related to walking and cycling.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0330.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pediatrics Keywords: bullying; dentofacial features; physical features; schoolchildren
Online: 15 September 2020 (04:48:47 CEST)
Context: bullying among schoolchildren is a serious phenomenon and a leading health concern. Aim: to determine the prevalence of bullying, its forms, and its effect on academic abilities and school attendance, as well as associated sociodemographic, physical, and dentofacial features among Saudi schoolchildren. Methods: this cross-sectional study recruited a sample of 1131 parents of schoolchildren 8-18 years old and requested them to complete internationally accepted questionnaires for their children. Chi-square test and logistic regression analysis were used to analyze the data (p<0.05). Results: a majority (89.2%) of schoolchildren were bully victims. Physical bullying (48.9%) was the most common form of bullying. The youngest schoolchildren (8-11 years), those who disliked school classes or neither liked nor hated them, as well as those who were truant from school were more likely to be victims. In addition, those who had worse grades because of bullying, and those who were very often bullied because of good grades or because they showed an interest in school were more likely to be victims. With regards to targeted physical features, teeth were the number one target, followed by the shape of the lips and strength, while teeth shape and color was the most common dentofacial target, followed by anterior open bite and protruded anterior teeth. Boys and the youngest schoolchildren were more often subjected to bullying because of these features (p<0.05). Conclusions: the prevalence of bullying, mainly in a physical form, was high among Saudi schoolchildren, with a negative influence on students’ academic abilities. Problems related to teeth, in particular, which can be treated, were targets, mainly for boys and the youngest schoolchildren. More studies are required in Saudi Arabia to explore the issue further among schoolchildren, themselves.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0326.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pharmacology & Toxicology Keywords: HepG2 cells; cytotoxicity; apoptosis; Hoechst staining; molecular dynamics
Online: 15 September 2020 (04:18:12 CEST)
The natural products and conventional chemotherapeutic drugs are believed to increase the cure rates of anti-cancer treatment while reducing their toxicity. The current study investigates the cytotoxic and apoptogenic effects of bioactive compounds from Monotheca buxifolia on Hep G2 cell lines. The effect on the viability of Hep G2 cells was evaluated by MTT assay; Morphological changes were studied, the apoptotic activity was demonstrated through Annexin-V-FITC/ PI, a molecular dynamics simulation study was conducted to explore the binding pattern of the compounds in the active site of the PPRAδ protein. The isolated compounds lauric acid, oleanolic acid, and bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate inhibited the growth of hepatocellular cancer cells, as determined by MTT assay and annexin V-FITC/PI. The IC50 value for lauric acid was 56.4584 ± 1.20 µg/ml, that for oleanolic acid was 31.9421 ± 1.03 µg/ml, and that for bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate was 83.8019 ± 2.18 µg/ml. After 24 h of treatment, 29.5% of Hep G2 cells treated with lauric acid, 52.1% of those treated with oleanolic acid, and 22.4% of those treated with bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate were apoptotic. Morphological assay and Hoechst staining microscopy revealed the morphological alterations of cell membrane accompanied by nuclear condensation after treatment. The high fluctuation indicates the high potency and adopting various interactions, and vice versa, the oleanolic acid showed highly residues fluctuation, which remains stable in the active site of PPARδ protein and involved in various interactions while remaining locally fluctuated in the binding site the ot