Life Sciences, Genetics; Anatolian Black; East Anatolian Red; South Anatolian Red; Turkish Grey; Holstein Friesian; Innate immunity; Next Generation Sequencing; TLR2; TLR4; TLR6
In recent years, the focus of disease resistance and susceptibility studies in cattle have been on determining patterns in the innate immune response of key proteins, such as Toll-like receptors (TLR). In the bovine genome, there are 10 TLR family members and, of these, TLR2, TLR4 and TLR6 are specialized in recognition of bacterial ligands. Indigenous cattle breeds of Anatolia have been reported to show fewer signs of clinical bacterial infections, such as bovine tuberculosis and mastitis, and it is hypothesized that this might be due to a less stringent genetic selection during breeding. In contrast, Holstein-Friesian cattle have been under strong selection for milk production, which may have resulted in greater susceptibility to diseases. To test this hypothesis, we have compared the TLR2, TLR4 and TLR6 genes of Anatolian Black (AB), East Anatolian Red (EAR), South Anatolian Red (SAR), Turkish Grey (TG), and Holstein (HOL) cattle using Next Generation Sequencing. The SAR breed had the most variations overall, followed by EAR, AB, TG and HOL. TG had the most variations for TLR2 whereas SAR had the most variations in TLR4 and TLR6. We compared these variants with those associated with disease and susceptibility traits. We used exon variants to construct haplotypes, investigated shared haplotypes within breeds and determined candidate haplotypes for disease resistance phenotype in Anatolian cattle breeds.