Chemistry, Physical Chemistry; Halogen bonding; supramolecular chemistry; NMR spectroscopy
In the last 20 years, a huge amount of experimental results about halogen bonding (XB) has been produced. Most of the systems have been characterized by solid state X-ray crystallography, whereas in solution the only routine technique is the titration (by using 1H and 19F NMR, IR, UV-Vis or Raman spectroscopies, depending on the nature of the system), with the aim of characterizing the strength of the XB interaction. Unfortunately, the titration techniques have many intrinsic limitations and they should be coupled with other, more sophisticated techniques to have an accurate and detailed description of the geometry and stoichiometry of the XB adduct in solution. In this review, it will be shown how crucial information about XB adducts can be obtained by advanced NMR techniques, as Nuclear Overhauser Effect-based Spectroscopies (NOESY, ROESY, HOESY…) and diffusion NMR techniques (PGSE or DOSY).