Chemistry, Chemical Engineering; hydrogen production; steam reforming; Ni/attapulgite; catalysts deactivation; agglomeration and sintering
In this research, catalytic steam reforming acetic acid derived from the aqueous portion of bio-oil for hydrogen production was investigated by using different Ni/ATC (Attapulgite Clay) catalysts prepared by precipitation, impregnation and mechanical blending methods. The fresh and reduced catalysts were characterized by XRD, N2 adsorption-desorption, TEM and H2-TPR. The comprehensive results demonstrated that the interaction between active metallic Ni and ATC carrier was significantly improved in Ni/ATC catalyst prepared by precipitation method, and in which the mean Ni particle size was the smallest (~13 nm) resulted in the highest metal dispersion (7.5%). The catalytic performance of the three catalysts was evaluated through the process of steam reforming of acetic acid in a fixed-bed reactor under atmospheric pressure at two different temperatures, such as 550 ℃ and 650 ℃. Results showed that the Ni/ATC (PM-N/ATC) prepared by precipitation method, achieved the highest H2 yield of ~82% and little lower acetic acid conversion efficiency of ~85% than that (~95%) of Ni/ATC (IM-NATC) prepared by impregnation method. In addition, the deactivation catalysts after reaction for 4 h were analyzed by XRD, TGA-DTG and TEM, which demonstrated that the catalyst deactivation was not caused by the amount of carbon deposition, but owed to the significant agglomeration and sintering of Ni particles in the carrier.