ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0540.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: organic fertilizer; livestock waste; compost; charcoal; agronomic effectiveness
Online: 29 November 2022 (07:12:54 CET)
Abundant animal manure in livestock areas has the potential to be used as organic fertilizer which can restore soil fertility by turning it into compost and biochar. The goal of this study was to as-sess how well soil fertility and red chili yield might be increased by using biochar and poschar made from various animal wastes. In this investigation, a factorial pattern and randomized block design were used. The first factor was the biochar treatment type, which included no biochar, biochar made from cow manure, biochar made from goat manure, and biochar made from chicken manure. The second factor was the type of poschar, which included no poschar, poschar made from cow manure, poschar made from goat manure, and poschar made from chicken manure. The findings of this study suggest that using biochar in conjunction with poschar can significantly improve soil parameters such as soil water content, pH, EC, humic acid, fulvic acid, C, N, P, K, and CEC. Red chilies grow and yield more per hectare when different types of biochar and poschar are used. The use of biochar from cow manure together with poschar from chicken manure shows the best agronomic effectiveness.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0523.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: Fertigation; infested soil; Olea europaea; Verticillium dahliae; watering
Online: 29 November 2022 (02:45:36 CET)
It is known that high N doses, N/K imbalances, and frequent irrigation favor verticillium wilt. The influence of fertilization and its interaction with the frequency of irrigation on the development of Verticillium wilt of olive (VWO) has been evaluated. A split-split-plot design in microplots with two naturally infested soils of different texture was established for studying three fertilization treatments (NO3Ca, N-P-K and without fertilization), plus two irrigation frequencies (daily and deficit). The treatments were applied by means of fertigation, evaluating the susceptible cultivar Picual. Final disease incidence in plants subjected to NO3Ca-daily treatment was 100% regardless soil texture. However, final mortality in these plants was 37% and 85.2% in clay and sandy loam soils, respectively. As well, the area under the disease progress curve values were significantly higher (49.1%) in plants subjected to NO3Ca fertilization compared to those not fertilized or fertilized with N-P-K when plants grown in clay soil. This value in the sandy loam soil was significantly higher in the NO3Ca-daily irrigation treatment (94.3%), followed by the N-P-K-daily treatment (61.1%) which also was significantly higher than the unfertilized-daily, N-deficit and NPK-deficit treatments (37.8, 42.6 and 44.9 %, respectively). The plants submitted to unfertilized-deficit treatment reached the lowest value 9.6%. In this work it can be concluded that the application of fertilizer or the application of fertilizer with daily frequency irrigations in naturally infested soils increases the development of VWO in 'Picual'.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0521.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: plant–microbe interactions; endophytes; comparative transcriptomics; velvet genes
Online: 29 November 2022 (02:06:31 CET)
Epichloë species form bioprotective endophytic symbioses with many cool-season grasses, including agriculturally important forage grasses. Despite its importance, relatively little is known about the molecular details of the interaction and the regulatory genes involved. VelA is a key global regulator in fungal secondary metabolism and development. In previous studies, we showed the requirement of velA for E. festucae to form a mutualistic interaction with Lolium perenne. We showed that VelA regulates the expression of genes encoding proteins involved in membrane transport, fungal cell wall biosynthesis, host cell wall degradation and secondary metabolism, along with several small-secreted proteins in Epichloë festucae. Here, by a comparative transcriptomics analysis on perennial ryegrass seedlings and mature plants, which are endophyte free or infected with wild type (mutualistic interaction) or mutant ∆velA E. festucae (antagonistic or incompatible interaction), regulatory effects of the endophytic interaction on perennial ryegrass development was studied. We show that ∆velA mutant associations influence the expression of genes involved in primary metabolism, secondary metabolism and response to biotic and abiotic stresses compared to wild type associations, providing an insight into processes defining mutualistic versus antagonistic interactions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0211.v2
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: Olea europaea L.; flowering data; partial least squares regression; Dynamic model; chill requirements; climate change; Mediterranean fruit tree; adapted cultivars.
Online: 29 November 2022 (01:05:59 CET)
Delineating chilling and forcing periods is one of the challenging topics in understanding how temperatures drive the timing of budburst and bloom in fruit tree species. Here, we investigated this question on olive trees, using flowering data collected over six years on 331 cultivars in the worldwide collection of Marrakech, Morocco. Using a Partial Least Squares approach on a long-term phenology (29 years) of ‘Picholine Marocaine’ cultivar, we showed that the relevance of delineating the chilling and forcing periods depends more on the variability of inter-annual temperatures than on the long-term datasets. In fact, chilling and forcing periods are similar between those delineated by using datasets of 29 years and those of only 6 years (2014–2019). We demonstrated that the variability of inter-annual temperatures is the main factor explaining this pattern. We then used the datasets of six years to assess the chill and heat requirements of 285 cultivars. We classified Mediterranean olive cultivars into four groups according to their chill requirements. Our results, using the Kriging interpolation method, indicated that flowering dates of most of these cultivars (92%) were governed by both chilling and forcing temperatures. Our investigations provided first insights to select adapted cultivars to global warming.
Mon, 28 November 2022
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0489.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: Ciherang; agronomics; genetics; breeding; intensive cultivation
Online: 28 November 2022 (03:13:26 CET)
Ciherang rice variety was released in year 2000 and become a superior variety in Indonesia. In a decade, due to the excellent agronomic characteristics and high productivity, Ciherang gradually replace the mega-variety IR-64 and widely cultivate in almost 40% rice production area in Indonesia. In addition to its high grain yield, short straw, early maturity, and high productive tiller number, it had superior grain quality, such as long and slender grain shape, clean yellow color, aromatic, and high milled rice percentage with excellent eating quality, matching with farmers and rice consumers demands. It has intermediate glycemic index and delicious taste. It is intolerance to flooding condition and susceptible to several diseases and pests, including rice blast, bacterial blight, brown planthopper, and yellow stem borer. Because of Ciherang has been well-characterized genetically, many quantitative trait loci (QTLs) and candidate genes which associated with certain traits have been identified. It has also been used as a parent in rice breeding program to develop mapping populations for genetic analysis. In order to increase the flooding tolerant and disease resistant in Ciherang, many valuable genes have been introduced into Ciherang through backcrossing breeding technique and transgenic approach. The optimal rice productivity in Ciherang also supported by the application of intensification system in Ciherang cultivation. Unravelling the complex genetic control of agronomic characteristics, grain yield traits, and other desirable traits which valuable for rice farmers and consumers are very important.