ARTICLE Download: 61| View: 298| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0110.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Social Psychology Keywords: positive-negative relationship quality; reliability; validity; confirmatory factor analysis (CFA); bifactor
Online: 9 April 2019 (12:44:27 CEST)
The present study investigates the reliability and validity of the Positive-Negative Relationship Quality (PN-RQ) scale in Turkey. In order to determine the validity and reliability of the scale, two studies were performed. The first was carried out with emerging adults (university students) who were in a romantic relationship (148 females, 43 males, and 2 unkown) and had the main purpose to examine the structure validity of the measurement tool in the Turkish sample with an exploratory analysis. Study 2 was performed online with 513 married adults (359 females, 149 males, and 5 unknown); confirmatory findings and criterion validity studies were added. Exploratory factor analyses revealed that relationship quality had a two-factor structure and that there was also a negative relationship between the factors. Confirmatory factor analyses on the married sample showed that the bi-factor model provided evidence for the multidimensional nature of the scale. Both studies demonstrated high internal consistency.
Mon, 8 April 2019
ARTICLE Download: 43| View: 123| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0099.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Social Psychology Keywords: organizational justice, interactional justice, distributive justice, procedural justice, work-family conflict, job stress
Online: 8 April 2019 (13:08:41 CEST)
Presence of justice in an organization plays a crucial role on employees' well-being and remarkable success of the organization itself. This fair environment may be an important factor in lower levels of stress, which is associated with balancing demands between work and family domains among employees at university. The main purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between distributive, procedural, and interactional dimensions of organizational justice and job stress, between work-family conflict and job stress, and whether the perception of organizational justice elements do influence work-family conflict. In sum, drawing upon 146 non-academic employees at 5 state universities in Iran, our result indicated that interactional justice had the strongest negative relationship with stress at work and work-family conflict. Moreover, the reciprocal correlation was found between job stress and work-family conflict. Hence, in order to decrease level of stress and to better manage the work and family lives, organizations need to promote justice in workplace.
ARTICLE Download: 41| View: 99| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0078.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Social Psychology Keywords: forest recreation; forest landscape; landscape image; landscape image sketching technique
Online: 8 April 2019 (09:08:30 CEST)
The landscape image is the bridge of communication between people and forests, and the cut point of the supply-side reform of forest tourism products. The research collected 140 copies in total of forest landscape image drawings from non-art-major graduate students by randomly sampling during April and May, 2018, and constructed the landscape image conceptual model of forest by utilizing the landscape image sketching technique. The results showed that (1) In regard to linguistic knowledge, the natural landscape elements for instance, herbaceous plants, terrains, creatures, water and sky, and the broad-leaf forest objectively reflected not only the real forest landscape and the local native vegetation, but the variation of forest species with little attention. (2) On the perspective of spatial view, the sideways view indicated that graduate students preferred to watch forests at a moderate distance externally and few looked at forests internally. (3) In the view of self-orientation, the objective landscape indicated that graduate students preferred to demonstrate forest landscapes, they did not realize to interact with the environment. (4) On the aspect of social meaning, the scenic view and forest structure stated that graduate students preferred rural forest landscapes, not significantly for other special interests for forest. In conclusions, (1) the forest is thought to be a feature of people's life world and of rural scenes around homes, not an objective perception of the forest. (2) The forest is regarded as an important habitat for animals and a limited resource for people's life, production and recreation needs, into which people will go only to meet such needs. (3) The natural values of forests, like the ecology and aesthetics, etc. get more attention, while the social values of forests, like the life, production and culture receives rather low attention.
Tue, 2 April 2019
ARTICLE Download: 24| View: 51| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0029.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Social Psychology Keywords: academic staffs’; gender; level of education; affective commitment; continuance commitment; normative commitment; overall commitment
Online: 2 April 2019 (11:52:33 CEST)
Employees’ organizational commitment is considered to be a critical issue in higher educational setting for the success its visions and goals, as well as to keep its employees motivation granted for achieving better work performance. This subject has therefore, been studied so as to draw attention to enhance effectiveness of higher educational institution in Ethiopia, particularly in reference to Haramaya University. The major objective of study was to find out the level of academic staffs’’ commitment. The study also assessed whether a significant difference exist in academic staffs’’ commitment level in terms of their gender and level of education. Researchers used a cross-sectional research design to study the problem. Primary and secondary data sources were used for the study; 242 participants were selected using stratified sampling technique. Questionnaire, focus group discussion and document review were used to collect data. The quantitative data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics; and the qualitative data were also analyzed using narration methods of analysis. Study result showed that there were moderate level of overall commitment and commitment dimensions among academic staffs’. The study further indicated that, there is no gender difference in level of both the overall commitment and its dimensions; however, significant differences were existed in reference to level of education. In conclusion of major recommendations, some of the university guiding principles and situational working environment should be reviewed so as to enhance commitment for achieving better university work performance.
Fri, 1 March 2019
ARTICLE Download: 53| View: 177| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201903.0013.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Social Psychology Keywords: attachment; parent-child relationship; contextual; context-specific; hierarchical model; psychological need satisfaction and frustration; well/ill-being
Online: 1 March 2019 (12:51:56 CET)
No research to date has explored the possibility of context-specific, within-relationship fluctuation in attachment security. In this present article, two cross-sectional studies were designed (1) to develop and validate context-specific attachment scales in Traditional-Chinese, and (2) to explore fluctuations in within-parent attachment security between the contexts of sport and academics, in relation to global attachment patterns and indicators of psychological wellbeing. Results indicated that youth can and do perceive within-parent attachment patterns differently depending upon context but that the relationship of such differences to context-specific outcomes is complex. Of particular interest was that the degree of within-parent attachment variability between contexts was clearly and negatively related to indices of psychological wellbeing. This suggests that contextual variation may be a meaningful and useful way to explore within-parent attachment fluctuation.
Fri, 4 January 2019
ARTICLE Download: 93| View: 242| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0034.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Social Psychology Keywords: Hikikomori; hidden youth; health; hypertension; obesity
Online: 4 January 2019 (08:46:13 CET)
Background: A prospective study was conducted to follow-up how the living lifestyle of hikikomori could change the social, mental and physical health profile. Methods: A cohort consisted of 104 young people living as Hikikomori were interviewed at baseline, 6 months and 12 months by using the same set of questionnaires and anthropometric measurements. Results: Besides the high attrition of 30% in wave 2 and 25% in wave 3, almost half of the participants have recovered from hikikomori by returning to the workforce in society. The three domains of health profile of hikikomori were significantly improved over the follow-up period by: 1) increasing the social network scores from 2.791.80 to 3.091.87, 2) decreasing the perceived stress scores from 21.185.87 to 20.115.79, and 3) reducing blood pressure levels from 118/75 to 115/71 and waist-to-hip ratios. Those variables were also predictable by lifestyle living with the hikikomori according to the Generalized Estimating Equation analysis, whereas the participants of current study had increased the practice of moderate-intensity exercises. Conclusion: Social work intervention was effective in helping the recovery of hikikomori while physical assessments followed by encouragement from social workers to do more exercises might enhance their awareness in health modification towards a better health.
Tue, 25 December 2018
CASE REPORT Download: 97| View: 145| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0297.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Social Psychology Keywords: Baidu index; media index; Hexun index; solar power industry; close price
Online: 25 December 2018 (08:39:05 CET)
Chinese investors are easily affected by hot topics on the media and Internet and likely take irrational behavior. They tend to consume rationally and invest emotionally. This research aims to analyze the Baidu index’s effect on share price of solar power industry in China. Three main models are established to identify the correlation between Baidu index and stock price of solar industry. The media index and searching index of Baidu are chosen as an independent variable to measure the influence from media and Internet, and stock price as the dependent variable. To improve and complete the analysis, Hexun index is taken into consideration as mediator variable. This study applied Multiple Linear Regression Model and VAR (Vector auto-regression) Model. The research mainly uses the tools of SPSS, Eviews and Excel to conduct data analysis. The test is based on the theories of Granger Causality, unit root test, F-test, and t-test. The research proves the relationship between the close price of stock and Baidu index, and it also created a model for further forecasting.
Wed, 21 November 2018
ARTICLE Download: 54| View: 128| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0519.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Social Psychology Keywords: personality; emotional aspects; communication; work activity
Online: 21 November 2018 (07:06:12 CET)
One of the trends in current research in psychology explores how personal variables can determine a person’s communication style. Our objective was to find out the moderating effect of Mood in the relationship between the five big personality traits and an aggressive verbal communication style risk factor from work activity in a sample of nursing professionals. This study is a quantitative descriptive design. The final sample was 596 nurses with a range of 22 to 56 years. An ad hoc questionnaire was used to collect sociodemographic data, the 10-item Big Five Inventory, the Communication Styles Inventory, and the Brief Emotional Intelligence Inventory for Senior Citizens. This study showed that for nursing professionals, the “Agreeableness”, “Conscientiousness” and “Neuroticism” traits have a close relationship with aggressive verbal communication. Even though Mood moderates this relationship, it is only significant for those individuals with high scores in “Neuroticism”. Because personality dimensions are considered relatively stable over time and consistent from one situation to another, organizations should hold workshops and other types of practical activities to train workers in communication skills and Emotional Intelligence in order to promote employee health and that of their patients and avoid risk factor from work activity in nursing.
Wed, 24 October 2018
ARTICLE Download: 46| View: 141| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0579.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Social Psychology Keywords: Problematic Internet use, sleep disturbance, sex difference, adolescents
Online: 24 October 2018 (14:15:09 CEST)
The Internet use has become an integral part of daily life, adolescents are especially at a higher risk to develop problematic Internet use (PIU). Although one of the most well-known comorbid conditions of PIU is sleep disturbance, little is known about the sex disparity in this association. This school-based survey in students of grades 7-9 was conducted to estimate the prevalence of PIU and sleep disturbance among Chinese adolescents, to test the association between PIU and sleep disturbance, and to investigate the role of the child’s sex in this association. A two-stage stratified cluster sampling method was used to recruit participants, and a two-level logistic regression models were fitted. The mean Internet addiction test scores was 37.2 (SD: 13.2), and 15.5% (736) met the criteria for PIU. After adjusting for control variables, problematic Internet users were at a higher risk of sleep disturbance (adjusted odds ratio=2.41, 95% CI=2.07-3.19). Sex-stratified analyses also demonstrated that association was greater in girls than boys. In this respect, paying more attention to the sleep patterns of adolescents who report excessive Internet use is recommended, and this early identification may be of practical importance for schools, parents, and adolescents themselves.
Mon, 24 September 2018
ARTICLE Download: 161| View: 127| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0461.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Social Psychology Keywords: EEG, Psychophysiological responses, Landscape Evaluation, Nightscapes, Sustainable Landscape Design, Fear, Night Pollution
Online: 24 September 2018 (14:39:10 CEST)
As the necessity for safety and aesthetic of nightscape have arisen, the importance of nightscapes (i.e., nighttime landscape) planning has garnered the attention of mainstream consciousness. Therefore, this study is to suggest the guideline for nightscape planning using electroencephalography (EEG) technology and survey for recognizing the characteristics of a nightscape. Furthermore, we verified the EEG method as a tool for landscape evaluation. This study analyzed the change of relative alpha power and relative beta power and self-reporting of participants in order to investigate the correlation between EEG and fear according to twelve nightscape settings. Our findings indicated the corresponding measures of fear vary accordance with whether there was people or not, and the environmental settings (Built Nightscape Images; BNI vs Natural Nightscape Images; NNI). Based on our physiological EEG experiment, we provided a new analytic view of the nightscape. The approach we utilized enables a deeper understanding of emotional perception and fear among human subjects by identifying the physical environment which impacts how they experience nightscapes.
Thu, 20 September 2018
CASE REPORT Download: 84| View: 111| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0410.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Social Psychology Keywords: long-term care, technology, therapy, virtual reality
Online: 20 September 2018 (13:34:02 CEST)
In this study, 6 residents of a long-term care facility were asked to try on Virtual Reality glasses and report their first experiences with Virtual Reality. The results show that Virtual Reality is of great interest to elderly residents of in-patient long-term care facilities. The wearing period was longer than expected and no symptoms of cyber sickness occurred. For the residents it was exciting to explore the virtual environments. Austrian destinations, nature scenes in the mountains and forests but also trips to the zoo, the museum, in churches or even densely populated areas like shopping streets or train stations would be places for the residents, they would like to explore virtually. Far-off destinations such as Rio de Janeiro or the Caribbean are more of an exception. Biographically relevant places such as the parental home or the location of their wedding were not named. Concerning the usability, an adjustment of the VR glasses is necessary for a longer-term use in any case.
Thu, 26 July 2018
ARTICLE Download: 250| View: 159| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0513.v1
Online: 26 July 2018 (13:15:59 CEST)
Team spirit is often considered a peculiar characteristic of sportspersons. While the importance of unity among athletes is evident in team games, its relevance in the training of sportspersons of individual sports, especially track and field athletics, is often not recognized. The purpose of this study is to review how team cohesion impacts athletes of various sports and understand how it could contribute to the overall performance of track and field athletes, who mainly compete individually.
Mon, 21 May 2018
ARTICLE Download: 264| View: 287| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0279.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Social Psychology Keywords: burnout; risks; protective factors; nursing
Online: 21 May 2018 (13:20:40 CEST)
1) Background: Studies have shown that there is a higher risk of burnout among employees in the healthcare sector. Therefore, this study focused on “Certified Nursing Aides” (CNAs) who have shown a high prevalence of burnout, and are therefore considered an especially vulnerable group. The objective of this study was to identify the relationships between some organizational, personal and sociodemographic factors and burnout; 2) Methods: The final study sample was made up of 278 working CNAs with a mean age of 40.88 (SD=9.41). To compile the data, an ad hoc questionnaire was used to collect sociodemographic information, and to collect professional and employment information, the Brief Emotional Intelligence Inventory for Adults, the Brief Questionnaire on Perceived Social Support, and The General Self-Efficacy Scale.; 3) Results: The results show that the Burnout Syndrome is significantly related negatively to all the emotional intelligence factors, self-efficacy and perceived social support. The risk of burnout is higher in younger persons and in permanently employed professionals. General self-efficacy and stress management act as protective factors against the likelihood of burnout.; and 4) Conclusions: This study suggests that organizations should urge coaching and transformational leadership training programs to promote the wellbeing and organizational commitment of workers.
Mon, 7 May 2018
ARTICLE Download: 566| View: 341| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0113.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Social Psychology Keywords: microaggressions; responses to microaggressions; role-playing; workshop
Online: 7 May 2018 (10:19:16 CEST)
Microaggressions are subtle verbal and non-verbal slights based on group membership, and they are ubiquitous in the lives of racial minorities, women, and LGBTQ individuals (Sue, 2010). The goal of the current paper is to introduce a role-playing based exercise on effective responses to microaggressions. The workshop draws on the prejudice responding workshops of Plous (2000) and Lawson, et al. (2010) but integrates research-based strategies. The activity was tested in two groups of undergraduate students, and the findings suggested that both groups felt more prepared to deal with microaggressions after participating.
Tue, 24 April 2018
ARTICLE Download: 339| View: 384| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0302.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Social Psychology Keywords: autism, cognition, components, psychiatric impairments, comorbidity
Online: 24 April 2018 (01:02:55 CEST)
We propose a theory of ASD as a condition of comorbid cognitive impairments that corrupt the learning, encoding, and manipulation of episodic and semantic memories. We consider (i) episodic and semantic memory functions of the entorhinal-hippocampal complex, (ii) constraints on the transfer and encoding of these memory components into neocortical areas, and (iii) the demands of cognitively manipulating memories in distributed computations being necessary for goal oriented interactions. In ASD, learning and cognitive challenges manifest in diverse ways but especially in high-complexity model predictive control tasks with latent variables. ASD impairments in social interactions represent a prototypical example. Social interactions are at the high end of complexity and require processes (i)–(iii) to work in a concerted fashion due to the need for the learning and estimation of many, sometimes latent, parameters, including emotions, intention, physical and mental capabilities as well as the predictive modeling of these parameters for decision making and timed-action series. We put forth the idea that autism is a result of an arbitrary combination of otherwise not prominent corruptions in processes (i)–(iii). Together, these corruptions may severely impair intelligence and slow down learning, especially in high complexity learning tasks. Over time, slow learning may spare the spontaneous learning-by-doing method - namely, repetitive behavioral patterns, whereas behavioral failures related to complex tasks can restrict interest in such task, thus inducing a fear of novelty; conversely, the fear of novelty restricts interest and can slow learning down. We embed our thoughts into a predictive autoencoding, goal-oriented model of a deterministic world. We compare this model to others, such as the noisy brain model, the Bayesian prior theory, the mirror neuron theory and the weak central coherence theory. We argue that the predictive autoencoder model of the deterministic world harmonizes with these other models and embraces them in a straightforward way.
Thu, 12 April 2018
ARTICLE Download: 228| View: 308| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0156.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Social Psychology Keywords: forest beauty; outdoor recreation; graphic elicitation technique; controlled burning; red-cockaded woodpecker, Ocala National Forest
Online: 12 April 2018 (04:46:34 CEST)
Prescribed burning and other active forest management treatments have been proven to be essential for maintaining suitable habitat conditions for many wildlife species, including the federally endangered red-cockaded woodpecker (RCW). This study examines the perception of forest management treatments of recreation users participating in various activities (hunting, hiking/backpacking, camping, off-highway vehicle riding, and canoeing/kayaking) in terms of scenic beauty and recreation satisfaction. We used photographic images to capture various forest management treatments of different intensity levels and times after treatments, and assessed users’ perception of scenic beauty and recreation satisfaction. Results indicated variation among users participating in different recreation activities, but that good quality RCW habitat offered both higher scenic beauty and higher recreation satisfaction than poor quality habitat for most user groups. Finally, recreation satisfaction was statistically equal to perceived scenic beauty from both good and poor-quality RCW habitats for most of the user groups, thus suggesting the importance of scenic beauty on forest sites in determining recreation users’ attainment of visit satisfaction. Findings conclude that forest sites developed as good quality RCW habitat in the present state also offer quality experience to recreation users, thus supporting multi-objective forestry practices in public forests.
Tue, 3 April 2018
ARTICLE Download: 236| View: 342| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0034.v1
Online: 3 April 2018 (08:01:26 CEST)
This paper explores as a case study the development of e-cigarette use and smoking within small friendship group (n=8) in Glasgow, Scotland. Interviewed twice at six months apart these 16/17 year olds reported substantial change in their use of and attitudes towards e-cigarettes and tobacco. At time 1 vaping generated much excitement and interest, with 6/8 having their own vape device. At time 2 only two young people still vaped, with the others no longer professing any interest in continued vaping. The two regular smokers, who had been smoking before they first vaped, now only vaped privately and to reduce their tobacco intake. This small case study illustrates plasticity in the use of electronic cigarettes; just as young people can initiate using these devices so too can they more away from their use- with such changes in actual use occurring within a relatively short period of time. These findings demonstrate more than anything else the volatility in young peoples’ substance use behaviour. If we are to better understand these behaviours we require both quantitative and qualitative research studies that are capable of both monitoring changes in individual and group behaviour over time but which are also able to elucidate the nuance of individual behaviour differentiating between long term, frequent, consistent use and more episodic, experimental and infrequent use by young people.
Fri, 16 March 2018
ARTICLE Download: 176| View: 250| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0127.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Social Psychology Keywords: causal relationship model; disposing of used batteries; households
Online: 16 March 2018 (05:07:24 CET)
This research aimed to develop a causal relationship model of the behavior of a Thai rural community in disposing of used batteries. The variables studied were 1) the household latent variable (three observable variables); 2) the social latent variable (six observable variables); 3) the intention latent variable (three observable variable); and 4) the behavior latent variable (three observable variables). Six hundred households were surveyed using a questionnaire. The questionnaire developed was validated by seven experts and its reliability was established by testing it with a sample group. Results showed that the modified model do present a good overall level of fit. The House and social positively and directly influenced intention. Intention positively and directly influenced behavior. The theoretical and practical implications relating specifically to intention to the behavior in disposing of used dry batteries by households are emphasized. The modified model indicated eighty-nine percent of the variance in the behavior in disposing of used dry batteries by households was explained by the intention factors. The most direct effect on behavior was the intention factors with 0.89 of effect size. The factors with indirect effects on behavior were household and social factors with an effect size of 0.52 and 0.35.
Tue, 27 February 2018
ARTICLE Download: 214| View: 279| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201802.0183.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Social Psychology Keywords: PILAR; CATME; collaboration; peer assessment; inter-rater bias
Online: 27 February 2018 (15:23:37 CET)
The PILAR model provides a dynamical systems perspective on collaboration. Two studies are performed using peer assessment data, both testing empirical support for the five Pillars (prospects, involved, liked, agency, respect) that constitute member’s perceptions of collaboration viability. The first study analyses peer-assessment data collected online from 458 first-year engineering students (404 males; 54 females). A nine-item instrument was inherited from past year’s usage in the course, expanded with four additional items to elaborate upon the agency and liked Pillars. Exploratory factor analysis was conducted on student responses to test whether they thematically aligned to constructs consistent with the five Pillars. As anticipated, twelve of the thirteen items grouped into five components, each aligned with a Pillar, providing empirical evidence that the five Pillars represent perceptions of collaboration. The second study replicated the first study using a retrospective analysis of 87 items included in the Comprehensive Assessment of Team Member Effectiveness (CATME) peer-assessment tool. The associated factor analyses resulted in five components and conceptual alignment of these components with Pillars was evident for three of five CATME components. We recommend a peer-assessment instrument based upon PILAR as potentially more parsimonious and reliable than an extensive list of behaviours, such as employed by CATME. We also recommend including items that target inter-rater bias, which is aligned with the liked Pillar, that instruments such as CATME exclude.
Thu, 25 January 2018
ARTICLE Download: 575| View: 532| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0236.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Social Psychology Keywords: Internet addiction; mobile phone addiction; online social network; university students; technological addictions; behavioral addictions
Online: 25 January 2018 (05:10:00 CET)
1) Background: It has been more than a decade since the concern about addictive use of the Internet and mobile phones was first expressed and its possible inclusion into the lists of mental disorders has been a popular topic of discussion recently, thus it seems to be a fitting moment to investigate the evolution of this issue over time. The aim of the present study was to analyze the evolution of the perception of problematic Internet and smartphone use in young people over the period 2006–2017; 2) Methods: To this end, a questionnaire on Internet use habits and the CERI and CERM questionnaires on negative consequences of Internet and smartphone use were administered to a sample of 792 university students and compared with data from former studies over the period 2006–2017; 3) Results: The perception of problematic Internet and mobile phone use has increased over the last decade, social networks are considered responsible for this increase, and females are the ones perceived to be more affected than males. The degree to which participants agree with the statement “I am addicted to the Internet” can be used as a screening item for problematic use.
Thu, 7 December 2017
REVIEW Download: 558| View: 374| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201707.0070.v3
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Social Psychology Keywords: guilt; shame; emotion; functionalist; social-adaptive; test of self-conscious affect; TOSCA
Online: 7 December 2017 (05:50:39 CET)
Within the field of guilt and shame, two competing perspectives have been advanced. The first, the social-adaptive perspective, proposes that guilt is an inherently adaptive emotion and shame is an inherently maladaptive emotion; thus, those interested in moral character development and psychopathology should work to increase an individual’s guilt-proneness and decrease an individual’s shame-proneness. The functionalist perspective, in contrast, argues that both guilt and shame can serve a person adaptively or maladaptively—depending on the situational appropriateness, duration, intensity, and so forth. This paper reviews the research conducted supporting both positions, critiques some issues with the most widely used guilt- and shame-proneness measure in the social-adaptive research (the TOSCA), and discusses the differences in results found when assessing guilt and shame at the state versus trait level. The conclusion drawn is that although there is broad support for the functionalist perspective across a wide variety of state and trait guilt/shame studies, the functionalist perspective does not yet have the wealth of data supporting it that has been generated by the social-adaptive perspective using the TOSCA. Thus, before a dominant perspective can be identified, researchers need to (1) do more research assessing how the social-adaptive perspective compares to the functionalist perspective at the state level, and (2) do more trait research within the functionalist perspective to compare functionalist guilt- and shame-proneness measures with the TOSCA.
Tue, 10 October 2017
ARTICLE Download: 537| View: 490| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201710.0064.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Social Psychology Keywords: Energy use; indoor environment; health; behaviour change; awareness campaign; people-centred approach
Online: 10 October 2017 (17:41:16 CEST)
This paper attempts to alter a prevailing assumption that buildings use energy to an understanding that in fact, people use energy. Therefore, to successfully accelerate the transition to a low-carbon society and economy more emphasis should be on motivating people and increasing their awareness by making them energy conscious building users and therefore active players in the energy transition process. In this context, this paper provides insights from the Horizon 2020 MOBISTYLE project. It demonstrates research and development approaches, highlights the main project objectives, and presents findings of an ethnographic (qualitative) study of users’ habits, practices, and needs. The aim of the project is to motivate behavioural change by raising consumer awareness through the provision of attractive personalized information on user’s energy use, indoor environment and health, all enabled by an integrated information and communication technology (ICT) service. In this context, the anthropological people-centred approach is integrated into the MOBISTYLE approach putting users at the centre of the ICT tools development process. The main quantitative objective of the project is a reduction of energy use for at least 16 % prompted by the provision of combined information and feedback systems on energy, indoor environmental quality (IEQ) and health. The most relevant motivational factors and key performance indicators (KPIs) for encouraging a more energy conscious and healthy lifestyle were defined by means of a people-centred approach, adopting anthropological inquiries in different settings. Information about users’ lifestyles and their needs was collected in focus groups with potential users in five case studies, located in different European Union (EU) countries. Behaviour change is achieved through awareness campaigns, which encourage users to be pro-active about their energy consumption and to simultaneously improve health and well-being.
ARTICLE Download: 454| View: 494| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201710.0056.v1
Online: 10 October 2017 (02:55:22 CEST)
This study aimed to know the conditioning factors of the transition process to the self-care of women diagnosed with HIV/AIDS. This qualitative study was carried out from June to September 2015 with seven seropositive women, users of a specialized service in sexually transmitted diseases in the municipality of Imperatriz, Maranhão State, Brazil. For the data collection, an individual interview was used, and data analysis was performed by content analysis delineated by Hsieh and Shannon (2005). The resources that influence the self-care in the transition process of women with HIV/AIDS are represented by personal conditioning factors, such as the meaning they attribute to the living with the disease, personal attitudes and cultural beliefs, socioeconomic status, preparation and knowledge about the disease, and by conditioning factors found in the community and society. The transition theory can provide important insights about the resources present in the adaptation process of women diagnosed with HIV so that they can perform their self-care satisfactorily.
Thu, 21 September 2017
REVIEW Download: 347| View: 295| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201707.0070.v2
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Social Psychology Keywords: guilt; shame; emotion; functionalist perspective; TOSCA
Online: 21 September 2017 (04:11:10 CEST)
Within the field of guilt and shame, two competing perspectives have been advanced. The first, the inherent adaptivity perspective, has been primarily advanced by Tangney and colleagues. This position advocates that guilt is an inherently adaptive emotion and shame is an inherently maladaptive emotion; thus, those interested in moral character development and psychopathology should work to increase an individual’s guilt-proneness and decrease an individual’s shame-proneness. The functionalist perspective, in contrast, has advocated that both guilt and shame can serve a person adaptively and maladaptively—depending on the situational appropriateness, duration, intensity, and so forth. This paper reviews the research conducted supporting both positions, critiques some issues with the most widely used guilt- and shame-proneness measure in the inherent adaptivity research (the TOSCA), and discusses the differences in results found when assessing guilt and shame at the state versus trait level. The conclusion drawn is that although there is broad support for the functionalist perspective across a wide variety of state and trait guilt/shame studies, the functionalist perspective does not yet have the wealth of data supporting it that has been generated by the inherent adaptivity perspective using the TOSCA. Thus, before a dominant perspective can be identified, researchers need to (1) do more research assessing how the inherent adaptivity perspective compares to the functionalist perspective at the state level, and (2) do more trait research within the functionalist perspective to compare functionalist-generated guilt- and shame-proneness measures with the TOSCA.
Tue, 25 July 2017
REVIEW Download: 321| View: 456| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201707.0070.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Social Psychology Keywords: guilt; shame; emotion; functionalist perspective; TOSCA
Online: 25 July 2017 (05:48:34 CEST)
Within the field of guilt and shame, two competing perspectives have been advanced. The first, the inherent adaptivity perspective, has been primarily advanced by Tangney and colleagues. This position advocates that guilt is an inherently adaptive emotion and shame is an inherently maladaptive emotion; thus, those interested in moral character development and psychopathology should work to increase an individual’s guilt-proneness and decrease an individual’s shame-proneness. The functionalist perspective, in contrast, has advocated that both guilt and shame can serve a person adaptively and maladaptively—depending on the situational appropriateness, duration, intensity, and so forth. This paper reviews the research conducted supporting both positions, critiques some issues with the most widely used guilt- and shame-proneness measure in the inherent adaptivity research (the TOSCA), and concludes that the functionalist perspective is more broad in scope and fits the existing research better.
Tue, 10 January 2017
ARTICLE Download: 980| View: 1125| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201701.0049.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Social Psychology Keywords: Afghan, civic engagement, discrimination, distress, ethnic identity, pre-resettlement trauma
Online: 10 January 2017 (10:24:10 CET)
This study investigates the effect of perceived discrimination on the mental health of Afghan refugees, and secondly, tests the distress moderating effects of pre-migration traumatic experiences and post-resettlement adjustment factors. In a cross-sectional design, 259 Afghans completed surveys assessing perceived discrimination and a number of other factors using scales developed through inductive techniques. Multivariate analyses consisted of a series of hierarchical regressions testing the effect of perceived discrimination on distress, followed by a sequential analysis of moderator variables. Perceived discrimination was significantly associated with higher distress, and this relationship was stronger among those with a strong intra-ethnic identity, high civic engagement, and high pre-resettlement traumatic experiences. Discrimination is a significant source of stress for Afghan refugees, which may exacerbate stresses associated with other post-migration stressors. Future research is needed to tailor interventions that can help mitigate the stress associated with discrimination among this highly vulnerable group.
Tue, 9 August 2016
ARTICLE Download: 1499| View: 1156| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0091.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Social Psychology Keywords: sustainable waste management behaviors; protection motivation theory; pro-environmental behaviors; threat appraisal, coping appraisal
Online: 9 August 2016 (10:29:00 CEST)
This study aims to explain individual engagement in sustainable waste management behaviors (SWMBs) based on the application of protection motivation theory (PMT). SWMBs include waste avoidance, green purchasing behavior, reuse and recycle, and waste disposal behaviors. This study applies PMT to explore how individuals’ SWMBs are influenced by their perceived threats caused by environmental contamination from waste disposal and their perceived coping capability. The Bangkok metropolitan area was selected as a case study because it has faced serious waste management problems caused by massively increasing amounts of solid waste during the last ten years. Questionnaire surveys were conducted with 193 public and private officers residing in the city of Bangkok. The one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed to justify the effect of individual threat appraisal and coping appraisal on the engagement in SWMBs. The results demonstrated that respondents’ self-efficacy highly influenced all types of SWMBs. The perceived probability of being impacted from pollutants influenced all of the SWMBs except green purchasing behaviors. Response efficacy did not influence all SWMBs; however, the perceived severity of adverse consequences caused by pollutants highly influenced reuse and recycle behaviors. It could be suggested that PMT is well suited for investigating low-cost and simple SWMBs. It could also be suggested that different communication campaigns should be established to enhance citizens’ engagement in each type of SWMB.
Thu, 4 August 2016
ARTICLE Download: 1353| View: 1137| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0030.v2
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Social Psychology Keywords: occupational stress; job burden-capital model; structural equation model; depression; well-being
Online: 4 August 2016 (12:47:57 CEST)
Background: This study aimed to identify the association between occupational stress and depression-well-being by proposing a comprehensive and flexible job burden-capital model with its corresponding hypotheses. Methods: For this research, 1618 valid samples were gathered from the electronic manufacturing service industry in Hunan Province, China; self-rated questionnaires were administered to participants for data collection after obtaining their written consent. The proposed model was fitted and tested through structural equation model analysis. Results: Single-factor correlation analysis results indicated that coefficients between all items and dimensions had statistical significance. The final model demonstrated satisfactory global goodness of fit (CMIN/DF=5.37, AGFI=0.915, NNFI=0.945, IFI=0.952, RMSEA=0.052). Both the measurement and structural models showed acceptable path loadings. Job burden and capital were directly associated with depression and well-being or indirectly related to them through personality. Multi-group structural equation model analyses indicated general applicability of the proposed model to basic features of such a population. Gender, marriage and education led to differences in the relation between occupational stress and health outcomes. Conclusions: The job burden-capital model of occupational stress-depression and well-being was found to be more systematic and comprehensive than previous models.
Wed, 3 August 2016
ARTICLE Download: 538| View: 607| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0030.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Social Psychology Keywords: occupational stress; job burden-capital model; structural equation model; depression; well-being
Online: 3 August 2016 (10:38:57 CEST)
Background: This study aims to detect the association between occupational stress, depression and well-being. An exploratory theory as job burden-capital model is proposed and the corresponding hypotheses are to be discussed. Methods: 1618 valid samples were recruited from electronic manufacturing service industry in Hunan province. And all the data were collected by self-rated questionnaires after written consent. This paper introduced a more comprehensive and flexible and it was fitted and validated through the structural equation model analysis. Results: The results of single factor correlation analysis show that the coefficients between all items and dimensions present statistical significance. The final fitting model has satisfactory global goodness of fit (CMIN/DF=5.37, AGFI=0.915, NNFI=0.945, IFI=0.952, RMSEA=0.052). Both of the measurement model and structural model have acceptable path loadings. Job burden and capital could either directly associate with depression and well-being or indirectly relate to them through personality. Multi-group structural equation model analyses indicate general applicability of the model to the basic features of such population and gender, marriage and education made difference on the effects between occupational stress and health outcomes. Conclusions: The job burden-capital model of the occupational stress-depression and well-being shows more systematicness and comprehensiveness.