ARTICLE Download: 64| View: 76| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0193.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Clinical Psychology Keywords: binge eating; body image; cognitive control; compulsive behavior; eating disorders; emotional regulation; impulsive behavior; non-suicidal self-injury; self-injurious behavior; urgency
Online: 15 December 2019 (14:26:45 CET)
Eating disorder (ED) symptoms often co-occur with nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI). This comorbidity is consistent with evidence that trait negative urgency increases risk for both of these phenomena. We previously found that impaired late-stage negative emotional response inhibition (i.e., negative emotional action termination or NEAT) might represent a neurocognitive mechanism for heightened negative urgency among people with NSSI history. The current study evaluated whether relations between negative urgency and ED symptoms similarly reflect deficits in this neurocognitive process. One hundred and five community adults completed an assessment of ED symptoms, negative urgency, and an emotional response inhibition task. Results indicated that, contrary to predictions, negative urgency and NEAT contributed independent variance to the prediction of ED symptoms, while controlling for demographic covariates and NSSI history. Worse NEAT was also uniquely associated with restrictive eating, after accounting for negative urgency. Our findings suggest that difficulty inhibiting ongoing motor responses triggered by negative emotional reactions (i.e., NEAT) may be a shared neurocognitive characteristic of ED symptoms and NSSI. However, negative urgency and NEAT dysfunction capture separate variance in the prediction of ED-related cognitions and behaviors, distinct from the pattern of results we previously observed in NSSI.
Sun, 17 November 2019
REVIEW Download: 62| View: 28| Comments: 0
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Clinical Psychology Keywords: Iran; sanctions; mental health; quality of life
Online: 17 November 2019 (10:53:30 CET)
In order to synchronize foreign policies of governments, firm actions in the form of economic sanctions have long been employed by western countries. Those countries that tend to have independent views and policies are made to undergo economic adversity to fall in line. But the hardest hit by these coercive actions are the ordinary citizens who have to endure immense difficulty with social and economic issues not to mention the human rights violations. This paper provides a review regarding the effect of economic sanctions on mental health and quality of life of Iranian citizens based on data available from Iran post-sanctions. From 2012 stronger sanctions have been implemented on Iran as its nuclear program failed to draw faith in terms of its peaceful execution. Evidence have pointed out that economic sanctions imposed by western countries have a detrimental and destructive effect on the health of individual Iranians and they violated some basic human rights.
Wed, 30 October 2019
ARTICLE Download: 59| View: 80| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0355.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Clinical Psychology Keywords: dispositional mindfulness; cognitive defusion; anxiety; mindfulness based on interventions; mental health; experiential avoidance; children and adolescents
Online: 30 October 2019 (10:11:48 CET)
Nowadays, mindfulness-based interventions (MBI) have experimented a remarkable development of studies among childhood and adolescent interventions. For this reason, dispositional mindfulness (DM) measures for children and adolescents have been developed to determine the effectiveness of MBI at this age stage. However, little is known about how key elements of DM (f. e., cognitive de/fusion or experiential avoidance that both conform psychological inflexibility) are involved in the mechanisms of the children and adolescents’ mental health outcomes. This research examined the mediating effect of cognitive fusion between DM and anxiety and other negative emotional states in a sample of 318 Spanish primary-school students (aged between 8 and 16 years, M=11.24, SD=2.19, 50.8% males). Participants completed the AFQ-Y, which is a measure of psychological inflexibility that encompasses cognitive defusion and experiential avoidance; CAMM (DM for children and adolescents), PANAS-N (positive and negative affect measure for children, the Spanish version of PANASC), and STAIC (an anxiety measure for children). The study accomplished ethical standards. As MBI relevant literature has suggested, cognitive defusion was a significant mediator between DM and symptoms of both negative emotions and anxiety in children and adolescents. However, experiential avoidance did not show any significant mediating relationship. Probably, it is needed improvement of the assessment of experiential avoidance. MBI programs for children and adolescents may include more activities for reducing the effects of the cognitive defusion on their emotional distress.
Mon, 30 September 2019
ARTICLE Download: 53| View: 152| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0345.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Clinical Psychology Keywords: action planning; coping planning; health education; oral care behavior; periodontal disease; theory of planned behavior
Online: 30 September 2019 (08:15:24 CEST)
Background: Strengthening adherence to self-care behaviors in patients with periodontal disease (PD) and reducing plaque index is crucial for improving PD treatment. We evaluated the effectiveness of a theory of planned behavior (TPB)-based health education intervention involving planning strategy on self-care behaviors in patients with PD. Methods: A randomized controlled trial was conducted; 158 and 139 patients comprised the experimental group (EG) and control group (CG), respectively. Both groups received a leaflet, and the EG also received a planning intervention, which was a brief one-on-one counseling session with a planning sheet. Data were collected using a self-administered questionnaire. Results: Between-group comparisons of TPB measures revealed significant differences in all domains when controlling for baseline covariates. The EG exhibited significantly higher levels of action and coping planning than the CG at 2-week follow-up (effect size (ES) = 5.54 and 5.57, respectively) and 6-week follow-up (ES = 5.66 and 5.66, respectively). Between-group differences in changes of brushing behaviors increased significantly. More frequent use of dental floss was observed in the EG than in the CG at 2-week and 6-week follow-ups (24.7% and 22.8%, respectively). Conclusions: The intervention involving planning strategy effectively promoted adherence to self-care behaviors in patients with PD.
Mon, 20 May 2019
ARTICLE Download: 37| View: 168| Comments: 0
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Clinical Psychology Keywords: rational decisions; resilience; coping strategies; annual flood
Online: 20 May 2019 (12:10:26 CEST)
A rational decision is a systematic and logical way of making a resolution. It is needed in critical situation, especially the unavoidable ones such as annual floods. People affected by this natural disaster, continue living their lives if good rational decisions are made. The current research consists of two studies. The first identifies rational decisions based on age, education, socio-economic and gender, while the second is based on decisions associated with resilience, coping strategies and age. A total number of 354 participants from various cities in East Java were used as participants of the study. The results in the first study, 58% of the people made good rational decisions, with the remaining 42% making low decisions. Furthermore, education was found to significantly influence the decision making process. The second study found a significant relationship between the resilience, coping strategies, age with the rational decisions. Conclusion of the study will be used make better decisions for the community in order to minimize physical and psychological impacts.
Tue, 30 October 2018
ARTICLE Download: 114| View: 234| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0721.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Clinical Psychology Keywords: perinatal; mental health; perinatal mental health program; South Africa
Online: 30 October 2018 (09:28:12 CET)
Background. Perinatal depression is one of the leading causes of disability in perinatal women and is highly prevalent in disadvantaged communities in LMICs. However, care capacity remains low in most LMICs. As such, we decided to find and assess a screening program that addresses perinatal mental health problems in a resource-efficient manner. This leads us to a critically appraisal of the Perinatal Mental Health Project (PMHP), a screening program based in peri-urban Western Cape Town that stresses task sharing and stepped care intervention. Method. PubMed, Ovid Medline (1946 to 2018), and Google Scholar were searched for publications until March 2018, with data or evaluation of the PMHP. PMHP website publications were used for data and interpretation. The program’s viability was evaluated based on criteria published by UK National Screening Council. The program’s impact was analyzed using published patient outcome data. Access to care was evaluated at three barriers to accessing care proposed by Gjerdingen et al. (2007). The financial model was evaluated using the “four-pillars” of sustainable organization financial management proposed by León (2001). Findings. The PMHP’s screening program viability satisfies most criteria of the UK National Screening Council, and the program’s benefits outweigh its harms. Patient self-reports indicate successful impact with several highlights in accessibility. The program also demonstrates financial sustainability and potential for scaling-up. Interpretations. The operation model of the PMHP shows satisfactory viability and sustainability. With modifications fitting local context and government cooperation, this model offers promising potential in bringing public health and economic benefits.
Mon, 13 August 2018
REVIEW Download: 142| View: 220| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0224.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Clinical Psychology Keywords: disability, ageing, health, disablement, wellbeing, functioning, participation, inclusion, oldest olds, genetics, environmental variables, lifestyles, World Health Organization
Online: 13 August 2018 (09:47:22 CEST)
In the last decades there has been a progressive aging of the population, known as “demographic revolution” or “demographic transition”. As a consequence of the worldwide progressive aging of population and of the increasing of general life expectancy, the relationship between aging and disability became a very important one and received a huge interest in research for its consequences on participation, inclusion and quality of life of ageing people and for its consequences on socio-sanitary organizations. The aim of this paper is to analyze this relationship and to discuss consequences on participation, inclusion and quality of life of ageing people, according to recent conceptual models of disability and active ageing. According to previous papers this relationship could be considered in two ways: ageing with disability (which refers to people living with long-term effects of disabling conditions acquired from birth to middle age) and disability with ageing (which refers to people which disabling conditions acquired later or age-related conditions), but newer papers proposed a convergence of these two approaches, taking into account the similarities and the differences between the two ways.
Fri, 8 June 2018
ARTICLE Download: 175| View: 254| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0133.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Clinical Psychology Keywords: military; veterans; anger; aggression; PTSD; mental health
Online: 8 June 2018 (12:40:42 CEST)
Prevalence rates of anger and aggression are often higher in military personnel, so it is important to understand more about why this is and factors with which they are associated. Despite this, there is little evidence relating to anger and aggression in UK veterans who are seeking treatment for mental health difficulties such as PTSD. This study investigated the prevalence rates of anger and aggression in this population, as well as the associations between anger and aggression, and various sociodemographic, functioning and mental health variables. A cross-sectional design was used, with participants completing a battery of self-report questionnaires. Prevalence rates for significant anger and aggression were 74% and 28% respectively. Both women and those over 55 were less likely to report difficulties. Those with high levels of PTSD and other mental health difficulties were more likely to report anger and aggression. Other factors related to anger and aggression included childhood adversity; unemployment due to ill health; and a perceived lack of family support. Findings show that veterans who are seeking support for mental health are likely to experiencing significant difficulties with anger and aggression, especially if they have co-morbid mental health difficulties. The associations between anger and aggression and other variables has implications for the assessment and treatment of military veterans.
Wed, 21 March 2018
ARTICLE Download: 281| View: 354| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0190.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Clinical Psychology Keywords: thinness, girls, youth, body satisfaction, body mass index
Online: 21 March 2018 (16:00:02 CET)
Psychological wellbeing can be impacted substantially by changes in body image during youth, which can be a predictive factor for positive or negative attitudes, such as for self-esteem and satisfaction. In this study, adherence to the thinness model and to healthy behaviours were analysed in terms of the emotional patterns and body management of the young female Italian population (N = 2287). Skinny girls fitting better with the thinness model tended to develop higher positive emotional patterns, but their body management was low. Findings suggest the urgent need for preventive programmes to enhance awareness of healthy behaviours against appearance models.
Mon, 18 December 2017
ARTICLE Download: 457| View: 422| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201712.0123.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Clinical Psychology Keywords: work context; work conditions; work stress; job satisfaction; lifestyle; sonographers; ergonomics
Online: 18 December 2017 (11:53:13 CET)
Work context is essential to understand in relation to handle the stress at work that ultimately creates a feeling of satisfaction or dissatisfaction among health professionals. The current study was conducted to investigate the relationship of work context and work stress among sonographers (n=153) in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Additionally, the study provided a gender-based comparison of both variables among sonographers. Work context was measured by administering subscale of work context derived from Work Design Questionnaire. Whereas, work stress was measured by Job Stress Scale. In addition, relationship of lifestyle was explored with work context and work stress. Data was collected through survey research forms. Results revealed the significant relationship of work context and work stress (r=.251, p=.002). Among lifestyle variables, perceived good health (r= .214, p=.008) and sleep (r=.242. p=.003) were found positively related with satisfaction toward work. Whereas, the strong positive correlation was found between work context and frequency of physical activity (r=.255, p=.005). No significant difference was found among male and female sonographers. The findings of this study contributed to evaluating the working condition of sonographers in relation to work stress. Effective strategies for better working settings as well as strategies for achieving satisfaction in work will be discussed to enhance the performance of sonographers.
Mon, 11 December 2017
ARTICLE Download: 298| View: 413| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201712.0064.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Clinical Psychology Keywords: sex differences; suicide attempt; late life; depression; physical disability
Online: 11 December 2017 (13:04:01 CET)
Relatively little research attention has been paid to sex issues in late life suicidal behaviour. The aim was to compare clinical characteristics of women and men aged 70+ who were hospitalized after a suicide attempt. We hypothesized higher depression and anxiety scores in women, and we expected to find that men would more often attribute the attempt to health problems and compromised autonomy. Participants (56 women and 47 men, mean age 80) were interviewed by a psychologist. In addition to psychiatric and somatic health assessments, participants responded to an open-ended question concerning attributions of the attempt. There were no sex differences in depression and anxiety, but women were more likely to report that they found their situation hopeless (67.9% vs. 43.8%, p = 0.02). At least one serious physical disability was noted in 60.7% of the women and 53.2% of the men (p = 0.55). Proportions attributing their attempt to somatic illness did not differ (women, 14.5% vs. men 17.4%, p = 0.79), and similar proportions attributed the attempt to reduced autonomy (women, 21.8% vs. men, 26.1 %, p = 0.64). The unexpected lack of sex differences might be influenced by cultural context in which sex norms play a part.
Mon, 24 April 2017
CONCEPT PAPER Download: 1044| View: 784| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201704.0152.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Clinical Psychology Keywords: suicide; suicidal mental imagery; flash-forwards; intrusions; preventive intervention; eye movement dual task (EMDT)
Online: 24 April 2017 (11:59:53 CEST)
Suicide and suicidal behavior are major public health concerns and affect 3-9% of the population worldwide. Despite growing evidence, there are still few effective interventions available to reduce suicide risk. In this article, we describe theoretical models of suicide ideation and behavior and propose to examine the possible effectiveness of a new and innovative preventive strategy. A model of suicidal intrusion (mental imagery related to suicide, also referred to as suicidal flash-forwards) is presented describing one of the assumed mechanisms in the etiology of suicide and the mechanism of therapeutic change. We provide a brief rationale for an Eye Movement Dual Task (EMDT) treatment for suicidal intrusions describing techniques that can be used to target these suicidal mental images and thoughts to reduce overall behavior. Based on the available empirical evidence for the mechanisms of suicidal intrusions, this approach appears to be a promising new treatment to prevent suicidal behavior as it potentially targets one of the linking pins between suicidal ideation and suicidal actions.
Tue, 18 April 2017
CONCEPT PAPER Download: 1260| View: 1000| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201704.0103.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Clinical Psychology Keywords: suicide prevention; e-mental health; implementation; fundamental research; ecological momentary assessment; experience sampling; network analysis
Online: 18 April 2017 (03:24:13 CEST)
Suicidal behaviour remains difficult to predict and prevent, even for experienced mental health care professionals. The known distal risk factors for suicidal behaviour are not sufficiently specific to fully understand the complex dynamic processes that precede a suicide attempt. Real-time mobile monitoring data can be used to analyse proximal risk mechanisms within the suicidal process. At the same time smartphone-based safety planning and self-monitoring may enhance a patient’s self-management skills thereby increasing their capacity to respond to a suicidal crisis and to become more aware of crisis symptoms. The current paper describes the theoretical and conceptual rationale for the CASPAR study which applies an innovative approach to the study of suicidal processes. It uses basic science approaches to inform the implementation of an innovative suicide prevention intervention. We aim to develop and implement mobile safety plan in conjunction with real-time monitoring in order to both directly implement suicide prevention interventions and to study the ongoing dynamics of individual suicidal behaviour by applying network analysis.