REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0089.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Behavioral Neuroscience Keywords: Serotonin; Chemical imbalance theories of psychopathology; Circular causality; Biocultural psychopathology; Critical neuroscience
Online: 3 August 2022 (11:24:47 CEST)
Serotonin (5-HT) show important relations to stress, and this relationship is crucial to understanding the psychobiology of common mental disorders. Environmental stressors regulate phasic and tonic serotonin levels, which are related to valence and outcome probabilities. This regulation takes place at smaller timescales, but also at the level of gene expression regulation. Moreover, genes related to the synthesis, metabolism, and transport of 5-HT are also involved in this regulation. Genetic variations in these genes modulate how stressors can lead to mental distress, but stressors also modulate gene expression in a genotype-dependent manner. As a result, the relationship between psychosocial stress and the regulation of the expression of 5-HTergic genes is bidirectional. This suggests a “circular causality” in which gene variations control tonic and phasic 5-HT signals (“upward causality”), while configurations and functions of the entire organism determine which genes are up- or downregulated, or which gene products are actually relevant in each situation (“downward causality”). The highly important role of social factors in human psychopathology is highlighted, and factors such as attachment and socioeconomic status modulate how the circular vertical causality between genes, neurotransmitters, and behavior is organized, representing circular horizontal causality. These complex interrelationships also suggest that more refined epistemologies are needed to fully grasp the relationship between 5-HT and common mental disorders.
Tue, 2 August 2022
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0055.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Developmental Psychology Keywords: COVID-19; vaccine hesitancy; young children; parents; health disparities, social determinants
Online: 2 August 2022 (09:22:32 CEST)
On 17 June 2022, the U.S. FDA authorized the Pfizer-BioNTech and Moderna COVID-19 (SARS-CoV-2) vaccines for emergency use in children ages 6 months – 4 years. Seroprevalence has increased during the current Omicron variant wave for children under 5 years and the burden of hospitalization for this age group is similar or exceeds other pediatric vaccine preventable diseases. Research following the October 2021 approval of vaccines for children 5 – 11 indicates high prevalence of parental vaccine hesitancy and low uptake, underscoring the urgency of understanding attitudes and beliefs driving parental COVID-19 vaccine rejection and acceptance for younger children. One month prior to FDA approval, in the present study 411 U.S. female guardians of children 1 – 4 years from diverse racial/ethnic, economic, and geographic backgrounds participated in a mixed method online survey assessing determinants of COVID-19 pediatric vaccine hesitancy. Only 31.3% of parents intended to vaccinate their child, 22.6% were unsure, and 46.2% intended not to vaccinate. Logistic regression indicated significant barriers to vaccination uptake including: Concerns about immediate and long-term vaccination side effects for young children, the rushed nature of FDA approval and distrust in government and pharmaceutical companies, lack of community and family support for pediatric vaccination, conflicting media messaging, and lower socioeconomic status. Vaccine-resistant and unsure parents were also more likely to believe children were not susceptible to infection and that the vaccine no longer worked against new variants. Findings underscore the need for improved public health messaging and transparency regarding vaccine development and approval, the importance of community outreach, and increased pediatrician attention to parental concerns to better improve COVID vaccine uptake for young children.
Mon, 1 August 2022
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0012.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Other Keywords: International Online Shopping; One Belt One Road Initiative; Chinese Bands; Brand Preference; International Online Consumers
Online: 1 August 2022 (08:41:02 CEST)
Since the advent of the OBORI, it was subjected to numerous studies. However, most previous studies investigated only the potential impact of the OBORI on the Chinese economy and geopolitics. Therefore, its real effect on Chinese international commerce in OBORI countries is not evaluated yet. Accordingly, this study intends to model the OBORI effect on Chinese product brand purchases across country members. The assessment is made on 18362 purchases of the International Online Consumers (IOCs) from a Chinese international online selling platform. The Data was obtained from a programming language and the octopus software. The OBORI policy's effect on Chinese brands' purchases was examined through a Different In Different Model (DIDM). Results show that the impact of OBORI is weak in the real market. However, it could be significant if OBORI includes more developed and economically strong countries. To Chinese brands and policymakers, we show how the inclusion in the OBORI project of developed countries could contribute more to Chinese product brands' purchases. Thus, the study enables decision-makers to understand the current impact of OBORI on the real market and its potential effect if more developed and economically strong countries are included.
Tue, 26 July 2022
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0397.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Other Keywords: Familial hypercholesterolemia; Neuropsychological outcomes; Cognition; Health literacy; Quality of Life; Affective ranges; HADS; WHO-QOL BREF; Oman; Famiilial hypercholesterolemia; Neuropsychological outcomes; Cognition; Health Literacy; Affective ranges; HADS; Oman
Online: 26 July 2022 (08:16:04 CEST)
BACKGROUND: Over the past few years, there has been an increasing interest to view the diagnosis of Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) through the lens of the biopsychosocial model. However, other than a few epidemiological surveys, there is a dearth of studies from emerging economies that have examined FH using the biological, psychological and socio-environmental facets of the aforementioned model. AIM. The three aims of the current study were as follows: (i) to examine the psychosocial status among patients with genetically confirmed FH, (ii) to compare the intellectual capacity and cognitive outcomes with a reference group, and (iii) to examine the relationship between health literacy and cognitive functioning. METHOD: Consecutive FH patients referred to the lipid clinic at a tertiary care center for an expert opinion were recruited into this study, conducted from September 2019 to March 2020. Information regarding psychosocial functioning, health literacy, quality of life, and affective ranges were surveyed. Indices of current reasoning ability (attention and concentration, memory, and executive functioning) were compared with an age-matched reference group. The current hypothesis also explored the impact of FH on health literacy and cognition. RESULT: A total of 70 participants out of 106 (response rate: 66.0%) initially agreed to participate. However, 18 out of 70 dropped out of the study, yielding a final total of 52 FH patients. With 27 (51.9%) males and 25 (48.1%) females, the mean participant age stood at 37.2 years (SD=9.2), ranging from 21 to 52 years of age. In the psychosocial data, thirty-two percent (n=17) of them had anxiety (HADS≥ 8), and twenty-five percent (n=13) had depressive symptoms (HADS≥ 8). The performance of the FH patients was significantly impaired compared to the control group on the indices of current reasoning ability and all domains of cognitive functioning. In univariate analysis conducted to compare cognitive functioning with health literacy status, only indices of attention and concentration emerged as being significant. CONCLUSION: To date, there are only a few studies employing the biopsychosocial paradigm to investigate the FH population. The current study indicates that the FH population is marked by an impediment in almost all of the core features that are characteristically assessed by the biopsychosocial approach.
Mon, 25 July 2022
HYPOTHESIS | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0369.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Cognitive & Experimental Psychology Keywords: Dopaminergic Pathways; Symmetry; Memory; NG Bosons; Addiction
Online: 25 July 2022 (09:38:50 CEST)
Human addiction, as a learned behaviour, has and is constantly being treated psychologically, with specific and timely interventions from Neuroscience. We endorse that human addiction can receive further boost as regards treatment, when we firmly understand how it works from a quantum scale. This is majorly because the dopaminergic pathway (DP) that is well elaborated in the brain of every addict is connected to the memory pathway. This further implies that the recall process in the brain of the addict, as regards his/her addiction is fully functional in line with the pleasure that arises from the element of his/her addiction. This dopamine-led pathway shows itself as prominent in what pertains to addiction, this is because of the role it plays in reward. As a neurotransmitter, dopamine flickers when reward is in the offing. It should be noted that a full understanding of the dimensions of addiction in the human person has not be attained to, therefore, we seek to add to this ongoing research, by considering excerpts arising from Quantum Field Theory. We are introducing excerpts from QFT, because DP, is an attendant element in the process of reward and motivation. In clear terms, we are alluding that it all begins with the memory.
Thu, 21 July 2022
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0326.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Behavioral Neuroscience Keywords: Frontal Cortex; PFC; Self-enhancement; Self-deception; SE
Online: 21 July 2022 (10:55:56 CEST)
Self-enhancement (SE) is often overlooked as a fundamental cognitive ability mediated via the Pre-Frontal Cortex (PFC). Here we present research that establishes the relationship between the PFC, SE, and the potential evolved beneficial mechanisms. Specifically, we believe there is now enough evidence to speculate that SE exists to provide significant benefits and should be considered a normal aspect of the self. Whatever the metabolic or social cost, the upside of SE is great enough that it is a core and fundamental psychological construct. Furthermore, though entirely theoretical, we suggest that a critical reason the PFC has evolved so significantly in Homo sapien is to, in part, sustain SE. We therefore elaborate as to its proximate and ultimate mechanisms.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0319.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Cognitive & Experimental Psychology Keywords: dual-task; Trail-Walking Test; gait disorder; diagnosis; motor-cognitive interference; Parkinson's disease
Online: 21 July 2022 (08:57:20 CEST)
Background and Aims. Most research on Parkinson's disease (PD) focuses on describing symp-toms and movement characteristics. Studies rarely focus on the early detection of PD and the search for suitable markers of a prodromal stage. Early detection is important, so treatments that may potentially change the course of the disease can be attempted early on. While gait disturb-ances are less pronounced in the early stages of the disease, the prevalence, and severity increase with disease progression. Therefore, postural instability and gait difficulties could be identified as sensitive biomarkers. The aim was to evaluate the discriminatory power of the Trail-Walking Test (Schott, 2015) as a potential diagnostic instrument to improve the predictive power of the clinical evaluation concerning the severity of the disease and record the different aspects of walking. Methods. 20 older healthy (M = 72.4 years, SD = 5.53) adults and 46 older adults with PD and the motor phenotypes postural instability/gait difficulty (PIGD; M = 69.7 years, SD = 8.68) and tremor dominant (TD; M = 68.2 years, SD = 8.94) participated in the study. The participants performed a motor-cognitive dual task (DT) of increasing cognitive difficulty in which they had to walk a given path (condition 1), walk to numbers in ascending order (condition 2), and walk to numbers and letters alternately and in ascending order (condition 3). Results. With an increase in the cognitive load, the time to complete the tasks (seconds) become longer in all groups, F(1.23, 73.5) = 121, p < .001, ɳ2p = .670. PD-PIGD shows the longest times in all conditions of the TWT, F(2, 60) = 8.15, p < .001, ɳ2p = .214. Mutual interferences in the cognitive and motor domain can be observed. How-ever, clear group-specific patterns cannot be identified. A differentiation between the motor phenotypes of PD is especially feasible with the purely motor condition (TWT-M; AUC = . 685, p = 0.44). Conclusions. PD patients with PIGD must be identified by valid, well-evaluated clinical tests that allow a precise assessment of the disease's individual fall risk, the severity of the dis-ease, and the prognosis of progression. The TWT covers various aspects of mobility, examines the relationship between cognitive functions and walking, and enables differentiation of the motor phenotypes of PD.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0316.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Cognitive & Experimental Psychology Keywords: acute injury; antioxidant; behavior; mitochondria; mitoquinone; neuroinflammation; oxidative stress; repeated mild TBI
Online: 21 July 2022 (08:17:28 CEST)
Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) or concussion accounts for the bulk of all head injuries and represents a major health concern. Although an mTBI event may not manifest in neurobehavioral impairment, repeated injuries, known as repeated mTBI (rmTBI), can result in a cumulative effect that may progress to long-term cognitive and functional deficits. To date, there is no FDA-approved drug for TBI in general and rmTBI in particular. In previous studies, we have demonstrated the neuroprotective role of mitoquinone (MitoQ), a mitochondrial antioxidant, in an open head injury model and a model of repeated mild TBI (rmTBI) at a chronic time point (30 days). In this work, we set out to assess the neuroprotective potential of MitoQ at acute (3 days) and subacute time points (7 days) post-injury in a controlled cortical impact model of rmTBI. C57BL/6 male mice were injected intraperitoneally with MitoQ (5 mg/kg) one hour after the first mTBI, and three days after the first injury in both the 3-day and 7-day MitoQ + rmTBI subgroups, with an additional injection four days after the second injection in the 7-day group. Cognitive function was evaluated using the Morris water maze (MWM) while gross and fine motor functions were evaluated by the pole climbing, grip strength, and ladder rung tests. Dihydroethidium (DHE) staining was performed to evaluate oxidative stress while qRT-PCR was used to measure the gene expression of different antioxidant enzymes. Also, immunofluorescence staining was performed on brain tissue to assess the degree of microgliosis and astrocytosis. Our results showed that MitoQ conferred significant protection on days 3 and 7 post-injury against fine motor function impairment induced by rmTBI. Moreover, MitoQ enhanced cognitive function and reduced astrogliosis, microgliosis, and levels of oxidative stress on day 7 post-injury. However, antioxidant gene expression generally remained unaffected. In light of our results, MitoQ administration may be considered a preventive approach that helps to alleviate the neurological manifestations associated with rmTBI early before symptoms progress to long-term deficits.
Mon, 18 July 2022
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0246.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Cognitive & Experimental Psychology Keywords: complex problem solving; microworlds; personality; investment traits; within-individual variabil-ity; performance trajectories
Online: 18 July 2022 (03:43:39 CEST)
Complex problem-solving (CPS) tasks have become an increasingly popular tool for understand-ing and assessing cognitive ability. These tasks have been repeatedly shown to be predictors of academic and workplace success above and beyond traditional measures of general intelligence and fluid intelligence. To date, there has been little exploration of the underlying mechanisms that drive this additional predictive utility. In this study, we examined the role of a variety of non-cognitive personality and investment traits that could drive performance on CPS tasks. Adult participants (n = 152) were recruited via M-Turk and completed a battery of personality and in-vestment trait measures, a measure of general mental ability, and a 61-trial microworlds-style CPS task. Generalised linear mixed-effects models revealed a wide variety of personality and in-vestment traits influenced task performance above and beyond general mental ability. Specifical-ly, two clusters of traits emerged as important determinants of performance: one cluster that in-fluenced the capacity to deal with the introduction of system randomness (Conscientiousness and Extraversion) and one cluster that influenced the capacity to deal with the introduction of system delays (NFC, Learning Goal Orientation, and Intellect). These findings suggest that CPS tasks do capture more than just general mental ability and may be good predictors of academic and workplace success because they tap into both cognitive ability and the motivation and willingness to engage in cognitive exploration and mental effort.
Fri, 15 July 2022
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0233.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: primary and middle school teachers; justice; organizational justice; salary satisfaction; turnover intention; China
Online: 15 July 2022 (12:45:37 CEST)
Primary and middle school teachers are a critical part of China’s foundational education; teacher turnover heavily affects the stable development of foundational education. In this study, interviews with 20 teachers found that relatively low income, high work pressure, unfair distribution, and difficulty in achieving promotion to higher professional titles are the main reasons for teacher turnover intention. This study investigates 485 primary and middle school teachers from Zhejiang and Jiangsu provinces. We found that primary and middle school teachers reported intense feelings of unfairness about their distribution of income. Their salary satisfaction was low, and the ratio of turnover intention was high. The main reasons for teachers’ high turnover intentions were low income, high pressure from work, unfair distribution, and the difficulty of achieving professional title promotion. To lower teachers’ turnover intentions, China should raise teachers’ income appropriately and increase the number of teachers with high professional titles. Schools should improve procedural, distributive, and interactive justice. Teachers should adjust their income references and perceptions of fairness. This situation can be effectively resolved only if all parties work hard to make positive changes.
Thu, 14 July 2022
HYPOTHESIS | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0092.v3
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Cognitive & Experimental Psychology Keywords: Cognitive psychology; determinism; materialism; new physics; theoretical hypothesis; thought ex-periment; ultraquantum particles
Online: 14 July 2022 (04:17:43 CEST)
It seems that no scientific study has been able to find evidence of an afterlife, and the mechanism of consciousness is two of the most challenging questions. Here, I show a hypothesis for consciousness and the probability of an afterlife through three simple thought experiments and theoretical evidence, yet more studies need to precisely understand the mechanism. I found that consciousness might be discussed from three fundamental theories: (1) quantum-level particles of functional neurons in the brain according to quantum mechanics, (2) the brain and its more significant matter than quantum particles behave to general relativity, and (3) a new theory is needed if any other additional mechanism exists. Here, I hypothesize that when a person or animal dies, the selection of a new neuronal system's characteristic of a new life might depend on the characteristics of the finally evolving ultraquantum genome. Here, I suggest that the positive or adverse evolution of the ultraquantum genome depends on the natural evolution of the materialistic brain's cognition, including intelligence. When a brain dies, the ultraquantum particles might emit from the dead brain and simultaneously bond with the suitable early vacant nervous system anywhere in the universe/s, forming a new life with the impact of new nurture.
Tue, 12 July 2022
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0165.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Behavioral Neuroscience Keywords: Helmholtz-Kohlrausch effect; luminance; brightness; saturation; contraception; menstrual cycle; hormones
Online: 12 July 2022 (03:53:09 CEST)
Saturated lights appear brighter than white lights of the same luminance. This phenomenon is known as the Helmholtz-Kohlrausch (H-K) effect and can be estimated by modeling achromatic luminance and saturation to total brightness. These models have been shown to differ between women and men and are more variable in women. The variation in brightness models among women may be due to hormonal changes across the menstrual cycle. To test this, total brightness and achromatic luminance were measured across blue, green, yellow-green, yellow, and red hues. These data were measured along with salivary hormone levels for nine cycling women at points representing the menstrual, peri-ovulation, and luteal phases. These data were also collected for seven oral contraceptive (OC) users. There were no main effects of OC use nor menstrual cycle phase on B/L ratios, but ratios were higher for the red stimulus in cycling women than OC users. Red B/L ratios were also higher for cycling women than OC users during the luteal phase. Estrogen, progesterone, and their interaction predicted 18% of the variation in brightness for cycling women. These models could not be fit for OC users, and estrogen only accounted for 5% of brightness variance with progesterone terms omitted. These findings and potential mechanisms are discussed in the context of previous results.
Mon, 11 July 2022
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0154.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Behavioral Neuroscience Keywords: post-stroke aphasia; pharmacotherapy; cholinergic treatment
Online: 11 July 2022 (08:58:05 CEST)
Despite the relative scarcity of studies focusing on pharmacotherapy in aphasia, there is evidence in the literature indicating that remediation of language disorders via pharmaceutical agents could be a promising aphasia treatment option. Among the various agents used to treat chronic aphasic deficits, cholinergic drugs have provided interesting results. In the current review, we focused on published reports investigating the impact of acetylcholine on language and further cognitive disturbances. It has been suggested that acetylcholine plays an important role in neuroplasticity and is related to several aspects of cognition, such as memory and attention. Moreover, cholinergic input is diffused to a wide network of cortical areas, which have been associated with language sub-processes. This could be a possible explanation for the positive reported outcomes of cholinergic drugs in aphasia recovery, and specifically in distinct language processes, such as naming and comprehension, as well as overall communication competence. However, evidence with regard to functional alterations in specific brain areas after pharmacotherapy is rather limited. Finally, despite the positive results derived from the relevant studies, cholinergic pharmacotherapy treatment in post-stroke aphasia has not been widely implemented. The present review aims to provide an overview of the existing literature in cholinergic pharmacotherapy interventions in post-stroke aphasia, following an integrated approach by converging evidence from neuroanatomy, neurophysiology, and neuropsychology.
Fri, 8 July 2022
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0132.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Behavioral Neuroscience Keywords: developmental stuttering; attention; auditory feedback
Online: 8 July 2022 (05:24:28 CEST)
It has been known for a long time that many people who stutter are immediately fluent in certain conditions, for instance, when they speak in unison with others, in sync with the clicking of a metronome, or when they hear themselves speak in an altered manner. To understand why stuttering is reduced or even eliminated in such conditions is desirable because it may help understand why stuttering occurs in normal speaking conditions. However, empirical findings in this area appear conflicting and confusing, especially with regard to the role of auditory feedback. The article gives an overview of the variety and diversity of fluency-enhancing conditions and of theories proposed to explain their effect. These theories are evaluated in the light of recent empirical findings. A new hypothesis is proposed, based on findings showing that speech processing is limited without attention to the auditory channel. It is assumed that fluency-enhancing conditions draw the speaker’s attention to the auditory channel and, thereby, improve the processing of auditory feedback and its use in speech control. Implications of this account for a causal theory of stuttering and for the treatment of the disorder are discussed.
Wed, 6 July 2022
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0092.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Other Keywords: Heavy metals; Risk assessment; Source analysis; Surface sediment; Qinjiang River
Online: 6 July 2022 (08:57:28 CEST)
Heavy metals are toxic, persistent and non-degradable. After sedimentation and adsorption, they accumulate in water sediments. The aim of this study was to understand the heavy metal pollution of Qinjiang River sediments on the ecological environment and apportioning sources. The mean total concentrations of Mn, Zn, Cr, Cu, and Pb are 3.14, 2.33, 1.39, 5.79, and 1.33 times higher than the background values, respectively, except for the Co, Ni, and Cd, which are lower than the background values; Fe, Co, Ni, Cd, Cr, Cu, and Pb are all primarily in the residual state, while Mn and Zn are primarily in the acid-soluble and oxidizable states, respectively. Igeo, RI, SQGs and RAC together indicate that the pollution status and ecological risk of heavy metals in Qinjiang River sediments are generally moderate; among them, Fe, Co, Ni, Cd, Cr, and Pb are not harmful to the ecological environment of the Qinjiang River. Cu is not readily released because of its higher residual composition, depicting that Cu is less harmful to the ecological environment. Mn and Zn, as the primary pollution factors of the Qinjiang River, are harmful to the ecological environment. This heavy metal pollution in surface sediments of the Qinjiang River primarily comes from manganese and zinc ore mining. Manganese carbonate and its weathered secondary manganese oxide are frequently associated with a significant amount of residual copper and Cd, as a higher pH is suitable for the deposition and enrichment of these heavy metals. Lead-zinc ore and its weathering products form organic compounds with residual Fe, Co, Cr, and Ni, and their content is related to salinity. The risk assessment results of heavy metals in sediments provide an important theoretical basis for the prevention and control of heavy metal pollution in Qinjiang River.
Mon, 4 July 2022
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0044.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Social Psychology Keywords: sexual orientation; sexual fluidity; British National Survey of Sexual Attitudes and Lifestyles
Online: 4 July 2022 (09:29:47 CEST)
Background: Previous study of sexual minorities has documented both instability in the sex of sex partners and incongruity among all three dimensions of sexual orientation (attraction, behavior and identification), but no attempt has been made to relate the two. How, if at all, does past change affect present incongruity? This study attempts, for the first time, to examine this question. Method: Using a representative probability sample of the British population (n = 15,162), the current dimensions of sexual orientation were compared across changes in sex partner type—opposite-sex only (O/Sex), same-sex only (S/Sex), or both opposite-sex and same-sex (B/Sex)— over three time periods—before 5 years ago (Time 1), 5 years to 1 year ago (Time 2), and the past year (Time 3)—for the nonheterosexual population. Differences and trends in population-weighted percentage frequencies stratified by sex were assessed by t-test or inspection of 95% confidence intervals. Results: Overall incongruity and instability were high: 74% of men and 85% of women did not report congruent lifetime sexual attraction, behavior and identification; of persons reporting any same-sex sex partners at Time 1, 82% reported a different partner type at Time 3. Most change (80% for women, 84% for men) involved a single partner type transition (transience) rather than multiple changes (fluidity) and movement toward increased heterosexual orientation (69%; 65% to O/Sex partners. From Time 1 to Time 3, 19% of persons with S/Sex partners moved to O/Sex partners; 0.1% of persons with O/Sex partners moved to S/Sex partners. Instability moderately reduced already high incongruity for the majority moving toward increased heterosexual orientation, but increased already low incongruity for the minority moving toward increased same-sex orientation. Among presently S/Sex partnered persons (comprising 12% of sexual minorities), incongruity was reported by 1.4% of persons with stable partnership history and 11% of persons with unstable partnership history (p=.0052). For all except presently S/Sex partnered persons (comprising 88% of sexual minorities), incongruity was reported by 97% of persons with stable partnership history and 86% of persons with unstable partnership history (p=.0000). Conclusion: For most sexual minority persons, partner type instability contributed to a modest reduction of high sexual minority orientation incongruity after moving toward increased heterosexual practice. Among current S/Sex partnered persons, however, instability strongly increased incongruity between identification and behavior or attraction. These results are consistent with minority stress theory but inconsistent with homosexual immutability, and counsel caution regarding legal restrictions on support for sexual minority persons moving toward increased heterosexual partnership.
Thu, 30 June 2022
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0418.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Other Keywords: transformational leadership; workplace engagement; education; meta-analysis; endogeneity; causal studies
Online: 30 June 2022 (07:43:16 CEST)
One of the major areas of research in a business setting has been the effect of the transformational leadership style on workplace engagement. Much debate has taken place on the definitions of both constructs but in recent years, general agreement appears to have been reached on the Multi-Factor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ) (Avolio and Bass, 2004) as the measure of transformational leadership, and on workplace engagement measured by the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES) (Schaufeli et al, 2006). However, in the education setting, there is much less agreement on the definition of transformational leadership. Furthermore, there is less of a focus on workplace engagement than in the business field even though available evidence suggests that workplace engagement worldwide is in crisis. This study sought to address both the lack of agreement on the transformational leadership definition and the lack of focus on workplace engagement in educational research by means of a meta-analysis. The meta-analysis resulted in a significant pooled effect size although due recognition is given to the endogeneity problem in causal studies. The endogeneity issue together with the results of the meta-analysis are discussed with a view to furthering educational leadership research.
Wed, 29 June 2022
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0391.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Social Psychology Keywords: occupational health; leadership; mental health; workplace climate; worksite
Online: 29 June 2022 (03:27:08 CEST)
Objectives: This study validated the Japanese version of O’Donovan et al.’s (2020) composite measure of psychological safety scale and examined the associations of psychological safety with mental health and job-related outcomes. Methods: Online surveys were administered twice to Japanese employees with teams of more than three members. Internal consistency and test-retest reliability was tested using Cronbach’s α and intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC). Structural validity was examined using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and exploratory factor analysis (EFA). Convergent validity was tested. Multiple linear regression analyses were conducted to examine the relationship between psychological safety and psychological distress, work engagement, job performance, and job satisfaction. Results: Two hundred healthcare workers and 200 non-healthcare workers were analyzed. The Cronbach’s alpha of the total score was 0.92 - 0.96 and ICC was 0.88 - 0.92. CFA demonstrated poor fit, and EFA yielded a two-factor structure, suggesting one factor combined with peers and team. The scale showed good convergent validity. The total score of the scale showed significant associations with all outcomes in adjusted model in all workers. Conclusions: The Japanese version of the measure of the psychological safety scale presented good reliability and validity. Psychological safety is important for employees’ mental health and performance.
HYPOTHESIS | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0092.v2
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Cognitive & Experimental Psychology Keywords: Cognitive psychology; determinism; materialism; new physics; theoretical hypothesis; thought ex-periment; ultraquantum particles
Online: 29 June 2022 (03:15:06 CEST)
It seems that no scientific study has been able to find evidence of an afterlife, and the mechanism of consciousness is two of the most challenging questions. Here, I show a hypothesis for consciousness and the probability of an afterlife through three simple thought experiments and theoretical evidence, yet more studies need to precisely understand the mechanism. I found that consciousness might be discussed from three fundamental theories: (1) quantum-level particles of functional neurons in the brain according to quantum mechanics, (2) the brain and it's larger matter than quantum particles behave to general relativity, and (3) a new theory is needed for the function of two ultraquantum particles. When a person or animal dies, the selection of a new neuronal system's quality of new life might depend on the quality of the finally evolving ultraquantum genome. Here, I suggest that the positive or negative development of the ultraquantum genome depends on the natural evolution of the brain's cognition, including intelligence. When a brain dies, the ultraquantum particles might emit from the dead brain and simultaneously bond with the suitable early vacant nervous system anywhere in the universe/s, creating a new life with the impact of new nurture.
Tue, 28 June 2022
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0386.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Other Keywords: Emerging economies; Economic development; Renewable and sustainable energy
Online: 28 June 2022 (10:43:23 CEST)
The last few years have witnessed an explosion of research on Sustainable development. Most of this research is concentrated on the developed countries related to the issues not compatible with developing countries. This paper fills the gap and reviews the literature related to developing and emerging economies and their environmental and social constraints under Renewable energy and sustainable development (RESD). It also investigates how RESD can be implemented in the presence of serious issues pertaining to population increase, shortage of energy supply, lack of transportation, shortage of clean water, less food production and bad environmental systems and these are coupled with war, and hunger and political instability. The main contribution of this paper is to present extensive discussion in the context of hypotheses of economic growth and its association with energy consumption, and renewable energy options for sustainable development.
Mon, 20 June 2022
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0267.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Social Psychology Keywords: affective computing; empathy; facial mimicry; facial recognition technology; deep learning
Online: 20 June 2022 (10:08:13 CEST)
Facial expressions play a key role in interpersonal communication when it comes to negotiating our emotions and intentions, as well as interpreting those of others. Research has shown that we can connect to other people better when we exhibit signs of empathy and facial mimicry. However, the relationship between empathy and facial mimicry is still debated. Among the factors contributing to the difference in results across existing studies is the use of different instruments for measuring both empathy and facial mimicry, as well as often ignoring the differences across various demographic groups. This study first looks at the differences in empathetic abilities of people across different demographic groups based on gender, ethnicity and age. The empathetic ability is measured based on the Empathy Quotient capturing a balanced representation of both emotional and cognitive empathy. Using statistical and machine learning methods, the study then investigates the correlation between the empathetic ability and facial mimicry of subjects in response to images portraying different emotions displayed on a computer screen. Unlike the existing studies measuring facial mimicry using electromyography, this study employs a technology detecting facial expressions based on video capture and deep learning. This choice was made in the context of increased online communication during and post the COVID-19 pandemic. The results of this study confirm the previously reported difference in the empathetic ability between females and males. However, no significant difference in the empathetic ability was found across different age and ethnic groups. Furthermore, no strong correlation was found between empathy and facial reactions to faces portraying different emotions shown on a computer screen. Overall, the results of this study can be used to inform the design of online communication technologies and tools for training empathy team leaders, educators, social, and health care providers.
Wed, 15 June 2022
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0215.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Social Psychology Keywords: socioeconomic health inequality; public awareness; social class; life expectancy
Online: 15 June 2022 (08:17:27 CEST)
Objective. It is unknown whether the public accurately estimate socioeconomic health inequality and whether they wish to see it reduced or eliminated. Methods. Representative samples of the UK and US indicated the perceived and ideal lifespan of people working in “higher managerial/professional” and “routine” occupations. We present perceived and desired lifespan ratios for each sample and for key socio-demographic variables. Results. The UK public estimated the lifespan of professionals to be 5.9% longer than routine workers (true value of 5.8%), and 67.8% (UK) and 53.7% (US) participants correctly identified that professionals live longer than routine workers. In both populations, the median respondent expressed equal ideal lifespans for routine workers and professional workers. Conclusion. The UK public appear well-appraised on the average lifespan for professionals and routine workers. Across nationalities and most socio-demographic groups, the median respondent was aware of social class inequalities in lifespan and preferred that they be eliminated.
Tue, 14 June 2022
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0204.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Cognitive & Experimental Psychology Keywords: sonification evaluation, auditory display evaluation, visualization
Online: 14 June 2022 (11:10:46 CEST)
Comparing sonification with visualization is like comparing apples and oranges. While visualizations are ubiquitous to the public and have established names, principles, application areas, and sophisticated designs, sonifications tend to be unique, self-made and completely new to users. In this study we developed a rudimentary visualization that is related closely to the principle of the sonification designs that we want to evaluate. In addition, we implemented a prototypical sonification that uses the most common mapping principles. Experiment results show that participants perform similarly well using the rudimentary visualization and the prototypical sonification, which is much better than chance but significantly worse than using our new sonification results. We therefore argue that both rudimentary visualization and prototypical sonifications can serve as a suitable benchmark to evaluate new sonifications designs against.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0194.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Developmental Psychology Keywords: Children; Growth; Development Modeling; Role Modeling; Stunting
Online: 14 June 2022 (05:28:12 CEST)
Stunting, during the Covid-19 pandemic, is increasingly becoming a big problem in the world, especially in poor and developing countries. Observational studies have shown that stunting is associated with poor nutrition, especially a plant-based diet, inflammation, caused by infection, enteric dysfunction, an environment with clean water, inadequate sanitation and hygiene (WASH), and endogenous inflammation associated with excess adiposity. This causes nutritional interventions to be often unsuccessful (Kemenkes RI, 2018).The government intervenes to reduce stunting to the target party, which is divided into two categories. The first category is specific nutrition intervention, namely monitoring children under five at the posyandu, giving immunizations, giving vitamin A, giving Supplementary Foods (PMT), and others. The second category is sensitive nutrition interventions, namely the provision of drinking water and proper sanitation, postnatal family planning (KB) services, providing information related to stunting, food social assistance, conditional cash assistance, and others. (KEMEN-PMK, 2018). WHO states, that the impact of stunting can be divided into short-term and long-term impacts. The short-term impacts are; increased incidence of morbidity and mortality; cognitive, motor, and verbal development in children is not optimal; and increased healthcare costs. While the long-term impact; Posture that is not optimal as an adult (shorter than usual); Increased risk of obesity and other diseases; The decline in reproductive health; Less than optimal learning capacity and performance during school years; and Low productivity and work capacity (Kemenkes RI, 2018). The nursing goal is to help people achieve quality, holistic health. Implementation of Modeling and Role Modeling Theory is an option in implementing nursing care for children with stunting. “Modeling” is gaining an understanding of the client’s world from the client’s perspective. That is to build a “model” of the client’s worldview. “Role‑Modeling” is based on the assumption that all humans want to interact with others, they want to carry out selected roles in society. Role-Modeling is using the client’s model of the world to plan interventions that meet his or her perceived needs, grow, develop and heal. Role-Modeling requires that we aim to build trust, promote a positive orientation and a sense of control, affirm strengths and set specific mutual goals.
Mon, 13 June 2022
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0185.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Other Keywords: Sitting; intervention; feasibility; office workers; behaviour change wheel; police; QR codes; activity breaks; cardiometabolic risk; behaviour change; wellbeing
Online: 13 June 2022 (10:45:43 CEST)
The aim of this study was to evaluate the acceptability and feasibility of a theory-derived sedentary workplace intervention (single arm, pre-post design) for police office staff. Twenty-four staff participated in an 8-week intervention incorporating an education session, team competition with quick response (QR) codes, team trophy, and weekly leaderboard newsletters, a self-monitoring phone app, and electronic prompt tools. The intervention supported participants to reduce and break up their sitting time with three minutes of incidental movement every 30 minutes at work. Feasibility and acceptability were assessed using mixed methods via the RE-AIM QuEST and PRECIS-2 frameworks. The intervention was highly pragmatic in terms of eligibility, organisation, adherence, outcome, and analysis. It was slightly less pragmatic on recruitment and setting. Delivery and follow-up were more explanatory. Reach and adoption indicators demonstrated feasibility among police staff, across a range of departments, who were demographically similar to participants in previous office-based multi-component interventions. The intervention was delivered mostly as planned with minor deviations from protocol (Implementation fidelity). Participants perceived the intervention components as highly acceptable. Preliminary results showed improvements in workplace sitting and standing, as well as small improvements in weight and positive affect. Evaluation of the intervention in a fully powered randomised controlled trial to assess behaviour and health outcomes is recommended.
Wed, 8 June 2022
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0127.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: telemedicine; emergency medicine; emergency medical services; workload; work job satisfaction; technology acceptance; knowledge sharing; Dunning-Kruger effect
Online: 8 June 2022 (11:32:45 CEST)
Background: Tele-emergency physicians (TEPs) take an increasingly important role in the need-oriented provision of emergency patient care. To improve emergency medicine in rural areas, we set up the project Land|Rettung (English: Rural|Rescue), which uses TEPs to restructure professional rescue services using information and communication technologies (ICTs) in order to reduce the therapy-free interval. Successful implementation of ICTs relies on user acceptance and knowledge sharing behavior. Methods and findings: We conducted a factorial design with active knowledge transfer and technology acceptance as a function of work satisfaction (high vs. low), workload (high vs. low) and point in time (prior to vs. after digitalization). Data were collected via machine readable questionnaires issued to 755 persons (411 pre, 344 post), of which 304 or 40.3% of these persons responded (194 pre, 115 post).Technology acceptance was higher after the implementation of TEP for nurses but not for other professional groups, and it was higher when the workload was high. Regarding active communication and knowledge sharing, employees with low work satisfaction are more likely to share their digital knowledge as compared to employees with high work satisfaction. Additional and more detailed analyses reveal that this is an effect of previous knowledge concerning digitalization. After implementing the new technology, work satisfaction increased for the more experienced employees, but not for the less experienced ones. Results are discussed considering the Dunning-Kruger effect. The Dunning-Kruger effect describes a cognitive bias. People with high expertise often underestimate their actual skill level. They have a more critical attitude towards their performance and feel the urgent need to fill possible knowledge gaps they notice. Conclusions: Our research illustrates that employees’ workload has an impact on the intention of using digital applications. The higher the workload, the more people are willing to use TEPs. Regarding active knowledge sharing, we see that employees with low work satisfaction are more likely to share their digital knowledge compared to employees with high work satisfaction. This might be attributed to the Dunning-Kruger effect. Highly knowledgeable employees initially feel uncertain about the change, which translates into temporarily lower work satisfaction. They feel the urge to fill even small knowledge gaps, which in return leads to higher work satisfaction. Those responsible need to acknowledge that digital change affects their employees’ workflow and work satisfaction. During such times, employees need time and support to gather information and knowledge in order to cope with digitally changed tasks.
Tue, 7 June 2022
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0108.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Cognitive & Experimental Psychology Keywords: Triple X syndrome; Adults; Neurocognitive functioning; Sex Chromosomal Disorders; Attention; Psychomotor speed; Executive functioning
Online: 7 June 2022 (11:26:18 CEST)
Triple X syndrome (TXS, also known as trisomy X or 47,XXX) has been associated with impaired overall neurocognitive functioning in children and relatively young adults. However, neurocognitive functioning in adults with TXS is poorly understood. The aim of this study was, therefore, to examine cognitive functioning in adults with TXS. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, data were collected from 34 adult women with TXS (mean age = 32.9; SD = 13.1) and 31 controls (mean age = 34.9; SD = 13.7). General intellectual functioning, semantic/verbal memory, visual/episodic memory, psychomotor speed, and attention and executive functioning were then compared between these two groups. Results: We found that general intellectual functioning was significantly lower in the TXS group compared to the control group. In addition, women with TXS had more attention problems and lower psychomotor speed, particularly motor processing speed. When the analyses were adjusted for IQ, the strength of these associations decreased. The women in the TXS group also scored significantly lower at free recall in the verbal memory test, but not in immediate or delayed recognition. Finally, visual/episodic memory and executive functioning did not differ significantly between groups. Conclusions: Our analysis revealed that women with TXS score lower in general intellectual functioning and have impairments in motor processing speed and attention compared to controls, but do not differ with respect to executive functioning. These results offer new insights for improving the support of adults with TXS both at school and in the workplace.
HYPOTHESIS | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0092.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Cognitive & Experimental Psychology Keywords: Cognitive psychology; determinism; materialism; new physics; theoretical hypothesis; thought ex-periment; ultraquantum particles
Online: 7 June 2022 (03:57:22 CEST)
No scientific study has been able to find evidence of an afterlife, and consciousness is still one of the most challenging questions. Here, I show a hypothesis for consciousness and the probability of an afterlife through three simple thought experiments and theoretical evidence, yet I do precisely understand the mechanism. I found that consciousness might discuss from three fundamental theories: quantum-level particles of neuronal function according to quantum mechanics; the brain, neurons, and molecules behave to general relativity, and a new theory needs for ultraquantum particles. Simultaneously, a person or animal's death selection of a new neuronal system's quality of contemporary life might depend on the state of the finally evolving ultraquantum genome in the natural evolution of intelligence. Ultraquantum particles might emit and bond simultaneously with the suitable early nervous system or embryo when a brain dies
Thu, 2 June 2022
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0023.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Cognitive & Experimental Psychology Keywords: well-being; innate health; positive psychology; mental health; three principles; self-control; pro-social behaviors; criminology; incarcerated men; prisoners; inmates
Online: 2 June 2022 (02:57:49 CEST)
Knowledge about one’s innate health is central to a variety of positive mental health markers. However, men living in prison rarely receive education about how to access these internal resources. As such, this study seeks to replicate and extend emerging data on an innate health intervention. Volunteers from HMP Nottingham, England (n=126) participated in normal prison programming and the intervention group (n=65) received an additional 3-day intensive. The primary question: Does innate health function as a mediator in the same way self-control does within an incarcerated population? We conducted a mediation analysis, tested social desirability bias, and examined the impact of the intervention on crucial variables. This study found higher levels of innate health, self-control, wellbeing, and prosocial behavior and lower levels of aggression in the intervention group as compared to the control group. Importantly, innate health did play a mediating role equivalent to and/or partnering with self-control.
Thu, 26 May 2022
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0359.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Behavioral Neuroscience Keywords: emotion；conceptualization；interoception；afferent；efferent
Online: 26 May 2022 (08:57:02 CEST)
Empirical and theoretical advances in human neuroscience have led to a reappraisal of the relationships between mind, brain and body, the implications of which are particularly relevant to understanding emotions, which is revealed to be embodied owing to the facts that they are on the one hand primarily arise from the internal bodily states controlled by interoceptive system, on the other they give rise to physiological reactions and physical action evoked by autonomic nervous system. More specifically, when considering the ‘embodied mind’ (i.e., how mental processes are inescapably contextualized by their location within the body), the brain, instead of the ‘master’ of the body, is increasingly revealed to function as the ‘servant’, with its primary goal to maintain the body’s homeostatic integrity. This is achieved through the control of interoceptive information concerning body’s physiological state, initially as ‘simple’ organ-level homeostatic reflexes and then through higher-order coordination across organ-systems allowing ‘allostatic policies’ to predict and maintain future health of the integrated whole ‘biological-self’. In this context, motivational and emotional feelings arise from interoceptive signals that accompany (motivational and emotional) internally-directed physiological responses, and externally-directed behaviors. Emotion concepts are thus the categorized embodied outcomes of bidirectional brain-body interactions and may arguably be differentiated into afferent interoceptive processes, i.e., from body to brain, and efferent/autonomic processes, i.e., from brain to body. When comparing emotion words used in Chinese and English languages, afferent/interoceptive processes seem to dominate conceptualization of embodied emotions in Chinese, while the efferent processes feature more commonly in English. The presence of distinct conceptual systems relating to emotions may, according to the linguistic relativity hypothesis as well as the theory of constructed emotion, significantly shape the distinct values and ‘national character’ of Chinese and English–speaking cultures. Correspondingly, it is argued that, in the expression of affective traits, Chinese-speaking people are biased towards being more receptive, reflective and adaptive, whereas native English speakers may tend to be more reactive, proactive and interactive. These patterns also encompass functions historically ascribed to bodily organs by traditional Chinese and ancient Greek medicine.
Wed, 25 May 2022
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0339.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, General Psychology Keywords: digital-divide; malnutrition; child psychology; child-labor; COVID-19; India
Online: 25 May 2022 (03:49:43 CEST)
Since the origin of COVID-19, everyone is getting accustomed to the new rules and regulations, travel restrictions and new lifestyle. Constant changes in the government advisories and the COVID-19 guidelines poses a real challenge for children to adapt to causing stress, anxiety and other mental health issues. Therefore, it is imperative to raise awareness about the challenges that Indian children are dealing with to help them better cope with this stressful and frantic time. The focus of this review is on various child-related problems that the Indian government is trying to tackle such as stress, depression, malnutrition, school closures, digital divide, child labor, child trafficking in context of mental health issues caused by them during COVID-19. Highlights:The reader will come to appreciate that: Digital-divide caused by shifting offline learning to online mode. Strategies implemented by Indian government to combat malnutrition Effect of COVID-19 lockdown on children suffering from mental disorders Child labor and trafficking and the strategies that aim to decrease child labor during the pandemic Educating the children appropriately regarding COVID protocols
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0338.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Clinical Psychology Keywords: Psychodrama; Spontaneity; Psychological tests
Online: 25 May 2022 (03:48:26 CEST)
Spontaneity and its connections to mental health and wellbeing are a central issue in both theory and practice of psychodrama, and the specialized literature sometimes even associates the presence of pathology to a lack of spontaneity. This paper describes spontaneity in Moreno's theory, its assessment, its association with other measures and concepts, and scientific advances in the field. Specifically, we present results obtained with the English and Portuguese-language versions concerning its assessment. The main purpose of this work was to study the spontaneity measure (SAI-R) in a 3 first-order factors version for a Portuguese sample of 719 subjects, divided into two independent samples. The participants were aged 18 to 69. The mean age of participants was 28.5 years (SD = 7.51), and ages ranged between 18 and 69 years. Data was collected through an online platform of a Portuguese market research company. The results revealed that the 3-factor model has acceptable validity when items 1 (“Creative”) and 7 (“Euphoric”), confirming the composite reliability, the convergent validity, but not the discriminant validity. Through multigroup analysis, the model showed to be stable. Notwithstanding the need for complementary studies, including clinical samples, the SAI-R is a short and valid instrument in clinical and non-clinical contexts when evaluating spontaneity.
Tue, 24 May 2022
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0331.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Clinical Psychology Keywords: Robot-based activities; hospitalized children; psychological health; well-being; CoderBot; positive emotion; single-setting
Online: 24 May 2022 (10:16:05 CEST)
Being hospitalized is a threatening and stressful experience for many children. From a psychological point of view, children may experience increased feelings of anxiety and fear that can negatively interfere with behavioral, cognitive, and emotional outcomes. To limit these impacts on children's well-being and mental health, interventions that could contribute to protecting the emotional domain of hospitalized children are welcomed. The present research reported a single-setting case study intervention to evaluate the impact of educational play-based activity with a CoderBot robot in a pediatric short-term recovery ward (N=61). The methodology included multiple sources of data (i.e., children, parents, nurses), observations on the field, and a sequential (quantitative-qualitative) mixed-method approach to data analysis. Results supported the idea that robot-based activities were associated with increased participant well-being (particularly positive emotions). The conclusions of this pilot study discuss the strengths, limitations, and further developments of using robots with hospitalized children.
Fri, 20 May 2022
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0176.v2
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Other Keywords: colorectal cancer screening; breast cancer screening; BC; CRC; cancer prevention; cancer screen-ing; FOBT; mammography; Flanders
Online: 20 May 2022 (12:03:16 CEST)
Despite the recognized benefits of fecal occult blood test (FOBT) and mammography screenings, participation in breast (BC) and colorectal cancer (CRC) screening programs is still suboptimal. This study investigates municipal characteristics associated with their BC/CRC screening uptake profiles among women aged 55–69 years. Using data from 308 municipalities of Flanders from 2014 to 2017, a profile for each municipality based on its BC/CRC screening uptake compared with the median screening uptake was created. Logistic regression with generalized estimating equations was used to assess the associations between municipal characteristics and BC/CRC screening uptake profiles. The overall median uptake of cancer screening was higher for CRC (57.4%) than for BC (54.6%). The following municipal characteristics were associated with worse performance in terms of only CRC, only BC, or both CRC and BC screening uptake, respectively: foreign nationality, self-employment rate, (early) retirement rate, diabetes, disabilities; (early) retirement rate; age group 65–69, foreign nationality, self-employment rate, (early) retirement rate, wage-earners, diabetes. The following municipal characteristics were associated with better performance in terms of only CRC, only BC, or both CRC and BC screening uptake respectively: residential stability, having a partner, having children, jobseeker rate, GP visits, preventive dental visits; having children, GP visits; age group 55–59, residential stability, having a partner, having children, jobseeker rate, higher education, GP visits, preventive dental visits. This study’s results regarding the interrelation between the BC and CRC screening could be used to tailor interventions to improve the participation of the target population in both programs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0270.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Social Psychology Keywords: adolescents; Internet addiction; problematic Internet use; game addiction; social media addiction; Russia
Online: 20 May 2022 (08:26:04 CEST)
We aimed to assess the prevalence, content structure and psychological comorbidity of PIU in Russian adolescents. In addition, the design of our research provided an opportunity to compare demographic and psychological patterns of different forms of PIU: generalised (PIUgen) and specific – problematic video game use (PUgame) as well as problematic social media use (PUsocial). Methods: This is a one-stage cross-sectional observational study of school sampling in three major Siberian cities. A total of 4514 schoolchildren aged 12-18 (mean age 14.52±1.52 years) were surveyed. Chen Internet Addiction Scale, Game Addiction Scale for Adolescents”, and The Social Media Disorder Scale were used to identify PIU and its types. Results: The prevalence of PIUgen among adolescents in Central Siberia was 7.2%; the prevalence of PUgame was 10.4%; the prevalence of PUsocial was 8.0%. The results of structural equation modelling, as well as the correlation analysis data, suggest two possible patterns of psychosocial problems with PIU – the first one characteristic of both PIUgen and PUsocial, the second one, significantly different, – of PUgame. Conclusions: Urban adolescents in Central Siberia do not differ significantly from their Asian and European peers. Our findings support the concept of rejecting the term “generalised PIU” as a single psychological construct.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0268.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Other Keywords: HPV self-sampling; cervical cancer; women living with HIV; low- and middle-income coutries
Online: 20 May 2022 (03:40:58 CEST)
Introduction. Self-sampling has the potential to increase cervical cancer screening (CCS) among women living with HIV (WLWH) in low and middle-income countries (LMICs). However, our understanding of how HPV self-collection studies have been conducted in WLWH is limited. The purpose of this scoping review was to examine the extent to which the HPV self-sampling has been applied among WLWH in LMICs. Method: We conducted multiple searches in several databases for articles published between 2000 and January 2022. With the combination of keywords relating to HPV self-sampling, LMICs, and WLWH, we retrieved over 9,000 articles. We used pre-defined inclusion and exclusion criteria to select relevant studies for this review. Once a study met the inclusion criteria, we created a table to extract each study’s characteristics and classified them under common themes. We used a qualitative descriptive approach to summarize the scoping results. Results: A total of 12 articles were included in the final review. Overall, 3,178 women were enrolled in those studies and 2,105 (66%) of them were WLWH. The self-sampling participation rate was 92.6%. The findings of our study show that 43% of the WLWH in 8 of the studies reviewed tested positive for high-risk HPV (hr-HPV) genotypes, indicating 4 out of 10 WLWH in the studies are at risk of cervical cancer. The prevalence of the hr-HPV in WLWH was 18% higher than that of HIV-negative women. Most women in the study found the self-sampling experience acceptable, easy to use, convenient, and comfortable. Self-sampling performance in detecting hr HPV genotypes is comparable to clinician-performed sampling. However, limited access (i.e., affordability, availability, transportation), limited knowledge about self-screening, doubts about the credibility of self-sampling results, and stigma remain barriers to wide acceptance and implementation of self-sampling. In conclusion, the findings of this review highlight that (a) cervical cancer is a threat to every sexually active woman but for WLWH the threat increases, (b) self-sampling laboratory performance is similar to clinician performed sampling, (c) self-sampling is associated with an increase in cervical cancer screening uptake and (d) WLWH reported a positive experience with self-sampling. However, personal, environmental, and structural barriers challenge the application of self-sampling in LMICs, and these need to be addressed. Keywords: keyword 1; keyword 2; keyword 3 (List three to ten pertinent keywords specific to the article yet reasonably common within the subject discipline.)
Fri, 13 May 2022
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0181.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Behavioral Neuroscience Keywords: Teevra cells; Komal cells; medial septum; freely behaving animals; ripples; delta; theta
Online: 13 May 2022 (07:52:48 CEST)
Hippocampus plays a crucial role in spatial and episodic memory. The acquisition of new memories is impossible without participation of the hippocampus. There are two main functional states or “modes” of the hippocampal activity, theta and non-theta state. They have different behavioral correlates and clearly different spectral content of the LFPs and neuronal spiking. Hippocampal theta state is present under active exploratory behavior, locomotion, cognitive situations requiring attention and REM sleep. Slow-wave sleep and quiet wakefulness (immobility, eating, grooming) represent the non-theta hippocampal state. The nodal point for the regulation of hippocampal activity is the MS. The activation or suppression of different types of MS cells appears to be responsible for controlling hippocampal theta and non-theta states. Functional coupling between MS neurons and hippocampal interneurons varies in a state-dependent manner.
Mon, 9 May 2022
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0115.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Developmental Psychology Keywords: qualitative analysis; deconversion; case study; Faith Development Interview; subjective religiosity; narrative identity; content analysis
Online: 9 May 2022 (10:02:48 CEST)
This article addresses the question how the religious narrative identity and subjective religiosity change over the course of 15 years. The cases portrayed are deconverts who have changed their religious affiliations multiple times. It will be carved out what led to their deconversion and what remains as a core of their faith after they have turned away from organized religion for good. Interviews have been conducted at three time points and are analyzed using content analysis. It will become clear that the needs and expectations of the two individuals differ highly, as well as the reasons for turning away from a religious community; yet what is a common core in this joint faithful journey is their need to live their religiosity, now in a private setting.
Fri, 6 May 2022
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0080.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Behavioral Neuroscience Keywords: One Health; shelter dog; dog adoption; dog well-being; dog behavior
Online: 6 May 2022 (13:55:36 CEST)
Today, the kennel is considered one of the crucial concerns of the human-animal relationship, since it is very often regarded as animal dump where dogs exile, thus representing a burden on society. Therefore, drawing up strategies for a new “kennel conception”, as an added value for human society, environment, and dogs is still an unmet need. Here, we described the activities of a shelter dog in southern Italy, which faithfully meets criteria aimed at One Health perspective. It normally relies on an initial careful assessment by veterinary behaviorist, in order to guarantee the most suitable life conditions for the animals in the kennels, increase the chances of adoption and enroll them in projects tailored to their predispositions. Accordingly, dogs housed there are normally included in training courses to increase the skills to be used in different human social contexts, like support to the inmates, rescue in the rubble, animal-assisted interventions, as well as zooanthropology educational programs. The main strength for this groundbreaking shelter relies on the environmental protection schedule, where the purposes, employing technically and economically sustainable tools, point towards the continuous improvement and minimization of the environmental impact, promoting joint integrative projects for a sustainable One Health framework.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0075.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Behavioral Neuroscience Keywords: nap; sleep; motor adaptation; learning; consolidation
Online: 6 May 2022 (10:36:15 CEST)
Daytime napping offers benefits for motor memory learning and is used as habitual countermeasure to improve daytime functioning. A single napping is shown to ameliorate motor memory learning, although the effect of consecutive napping on motor memory consolidation remains unclear. This study aimed to explore the effect of daytime napping over multiple days on motor memory learning. Twenty university students were divided into the napping group and no-nap (awake) group. Napping group performed motor adaption tasks before and after napping for three consecutive days, whereas no-nap group performed the task on the similar time schedule as the napping group. In addition, a subsequent retest was conducted one week after the end of the intervention. The speed to complete the task of the napping group was significantly shorter than that of the awake group in the retention test. No significant difference was confirmed for trajectory length to complete the task. Thus, consecutive napping may facilitate motor learning and motor memory consolidation in the long term.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0186.v2
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Behavioral Neuroscience Keywords: Habituation; Genelist; Molecular pathway; Cognition; Neurodevelopmental disorders
Online: 6 May 2022 (08:58:50 CEST)
Habituation is the most ancient and fundamental form of learning. As a firewall that protects our brain from sensory overload, it is indispensable for higher cognitive processes. Studies in humans and animal models provide a growing body of evidence that habituation is affected in autism and related monogenic neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs). An integrated application of habituation assessment in NDDs and their animal models has currently unexploited potential for fundamental neuroscience and medical care.With the aim to gain mechanistic insights, we systematically retrieved genes that have been demonstrated in the literature to underlie habituation. We identified 258 evolutionarily conserved genes across species, describe the biological processes they converge on, and highlight regulatory pathways and drugs that may alleviate the habituation deficits associated with their dysregulation. We also summarize current habituation paradigms and extract the most decisive arguments from the literature that support the crucial role of habituation for cognition in health and disease. We conclude that habituation is a conserved, quantitative, cognition- and disease-relevant process that can connect preclinical and clinical work, and hence is a powerful tool to advance research, diagnostics,’’ and treatment of NDDs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0058.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Other Keywords: warning labels; Health Star Rating; Nutriscore; GDA; food policy; obesity prevention; non-communicable diseases
Online: 6 May 2022 (04:23:49 CEST)
Policies to require front-of-package labels (FOPLs) on foods may help Indian consumers better identify foods high in nutrients of concern including sugar, saturated fat, and sodium, and discourage their consumption, outcomes critical for preventing rises in diet-related non-communicable disease. The objective was to test whether FOPLs helped Indian consumers identify ‘high-in’ foods and reduce intentions to purchase them. We conducted an in-person randomized experiment (n=2,869 adults between ages 18 and 60 years old) in six states of India in 2022. Participants were randomized to one of five FOPLs: a control label (barcode), warning label (octagon with “High in [nutrient]”), Health Star Warning (HSR), Guideline Daily Amount (GDA), or traffic light label. Participants then viewed a series of foods high in sugar, saturated fat, or sodium with the assigned FOPL, and rated product perceptions and label reactions. Fewer than half of participants in the control group (39.1%) correctly identified all products high in nutrient(s) of concern. All FOPLs led to an increase in this outcome, with the biggest differences observed for the warning label (60.8%, p<0.001) followed by the traffic light label (54.8%, p<0.001), GDA (55.0%, p<0.001), and HSR (45.0%, p<0.01). Relative to the control, only the warning label led to a reduction in intentions to purchase the products. The results suggest that warning labels are the most effective FOPL to help Indian consumers identify and avoid unhealthy foods.
Thu, 5 May 2022
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0053.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Social Psychology Keywords: pro-environmental behaviours; recycling; teenagers’ engagement; gamified learning activities
Online: 5 May 2022 (16:39:33 CEST)
Edcraft, a recycling and upcycling event for Malaysian secondary school students, particularly in the Klang Valley area in 2020. The event's goal was to look into gamified solutions to encourage recycling and upcycling among the students’ age group. Lectures, talks, practical exercises and games were used to teach students about climate change and environmental preservation. According to a post-event survey, the percentage of participants who recycle has climbed significantly: 76% now recycle, compared to only 24% previously. The study discovered that gamification-based activities could effectively facilitate recycling and upcycling behaviours. Such solutions can be applied to encourage behavioural changes in different contexts. By interviewing 15 Edcraft students in a focus group study setting, researchers could better understand the motivations. Themes such as 'social connections are vital', 'convenience and rewards are significant motivators', 'gamified activities help attract and engage teens' and 'environmental knowledge is crucial to prolonging recycling' emerged from the thematic analysis. This manuscript proposes gamified activities to induce a behavioural change in upcycling, and the findings yield helpful insights to fuel pro-environmental behaviours.
Wed, 4 May 2022
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0007.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Other Keywords: IPA; Covid-19; Health Perceptions; Korean & Japanese Adolescents
Online: 4 May 2022 (12:26:53 CEST)
This study aims to comparatively analyse the importance and performance of the health of Korean and Japanese adolescents during the prolonged coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Data were collected from 1,341 sampled Korean and Japanese adolescents in September 2021 through online and offline surveys. The collected data were analysed with frequency analysis, reliability testing, t-test, and importance-performance analysis (IPA). The following results were obtained. First, adolescents in the two countries perceive various factors about health as important during the COVID-19 pandemic, but their performance is weak compared to their perceived importance. Second, Korean adolescents had greater perceived importance for all factors of health perception compared to their Japanese counterparts. Third, the difference in performance between Korean and Japanese adolescents was especially evident for ‘hygiene management’, and there were significant differences in performance in ‘disease management’ and ‘physical activity’. Fourth, in quadrant 4 of the IPA matrix, there were similarities and differences in a particular factor of health perception between Korean and Japanese adolescents. Based on these results, we proposed measures to emphasise the importance of health and enhance performance among Korean and Japanese adolescents.
Fri, 29 April 2022
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0306.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Clinical Psychology Keywords: Fear of missing out; FoMO; social media; Social networking sites; addiction; depression; anxiety; sleep; exercise
Online: 29 April 2022 (13:50:46 CEST)
The fear of missing out (FoMO) is characterized in the literature as a fear that others are having rewarding experiences while one is missing out, and a constant need to keep connected with one’s social network. Driven by Social Determination Theory (SDT) FoMO has been linked with Problematic Social Networking Sites use (PSNSU), negative affectivity (NA), self-esteem (SE) and sleep disturbances. The present study reports findings from 512 individuals (79.1% women, mean age 30.5 years, SD= 8.61). Structural equation modelling (SEM) suggests that the duration of SNSs use and the numbers of SNSs platforms actively used partially mediated the relationship between FoMO and PSNSU. In turns, PSNSU partially mediated the relationship between FoMO and NA. Furthermore, the present study has extended the literature by incorporating the Vulnerability Model in the FoMO concept, identifying that SE partially mediated the relationship between FoMO and NA, while NA fully mediated the relationship between FoMO and sleeping disturbances. Accordingly, the present has extended previous research findings in showing exercise as a potential protective factor to prevent against FoMO. Practical and theoretical implications are discussed.
Wed, 27 April 2022
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0246.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Social Psychology Keywords: meat attachment; food neophobia; consumer preference; preference for organic foods
Online: 27 April 2022 (03:45:28 CEST)
Meat-based diets are still the norm and vegans and vegetarians represent only a small minority of the population. A transition respectively behavioural change towards a diet with less meat can only occur with the adoption of a positive attitude towards dietary changes based on reasons and motivations. The main aim of this study is to validate the so-called meat attachment scale (MEAS) for Germany in order to analyse if this construct is a barrier towards a diet with less meat in this country. The findings show that the MEAS can be applied in Germany and a similar structure as reported for Spain and other countries could be found. Furthermore, a correlation analysis demonstrated that food neophobia and MEAS are not correlated with each other. That is, that meat attachment represents an independent and single predictor for trust in food (processing) technologies as e.g. plant-based proteins or cultured meat.
Tue, 26 April 2022
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0242.v1
Online: 26 April 2022 (12:34:42 CEST)
Executive functioning is a key component involved in many of the processes necessary for effective weight management behavior change (e.g., setting goals). Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and third-wave CBT (e.g., mindfulness) are considered first-line treatments for obesity, but it is unknown to what extent they can improve or sustain executive functioning. This pilot randomized controlled trial examined if a CBT-based generalized weight management intervention would affect executive functioning and executive function-related brain activity in individuals with obesity or overweight. Participants were randomized to an intervention condition (N=24) that received the Noom Weight program or to a control group (N=26) receiving weekly educational newsletters. EEG measurements were taken during Flanker, Stroop, and N-back tasks at baseline and months 1 through 4. After 4 months, the intervention condition evidenced greater accuracy over time and, to some extent, neural markers of executive function (error-related negativity and beta and gamma band powers) compared to the control group on the Flanker and Stroop tasks. The intervention condition also lost more weight than controls (-7.1 pounds vs. +1.0 pounds). Given mixed evidence on whether CBT-based interventions can change markers of executive function, this study contributes preliminary evidence that a multicomponent CBT-based weight management intervention (i.e., that provide both support for weight management and is based on CBT) can help individuals sustain executive function compared to controls.
Mon, 18 April 2022
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0155.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Behavioral Neuroscience Keywords: cardiac-brain interaction; context-familiarity; naturalistic paradigm; mixed effect modelling; emotional film; emotional arousal; introception
Online: 18 April 2022 (05:43:25 CEST)
Our brain continuously interacts with the body as we engage with the world. Although we are mostly unaware of internal bodily processes, such as our heartbeats, they may be influenced by and in turn influence our perception and emotional feelings. While there is a recent focus on understanding cardiac interoceptive activity and interaction with brain activity during emotion processing, the investigation of cardiac-brain interactions with more ecologically valid naturalistic emotional stimuli is still very limited. We also do not understand how an essential aspect of emotions like context familiarity influences affective feelings and is linked to cardiac-brain interactions. Hence to answer these questions, we designed an exploratory study by recording ECG and EEG signals for the emotional events while participants were watching emotional movie clips. Participants also rated their familiarity with the stimulus on the familiarity scale. Linear mixed effect modelling was performed in which the ECG power and familiarity were considered as predictors of EEG power. We focused on three brain regions, including prefrontal (PF), frontocentral (FC) and parietooccipital (PO). The analyses showed that cardiac-brain interaction is dependent on familiarity such that the interaction is stronger with high familiarity. In addition, the results indicate that arousal is predicted by cardiac-brain interaction, which also depends on familiarity. The results support emotional theories that emphasize context dependency and interoception. Multimodal studies with more realistic stimuli would further enable us to understand and predict different aspects of emotional experience.
Fri, 15 April 2022
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0143.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: Family Resilience; Caregiving; Elderly; Religious Coping; Nursing Philosophy
Online: 15 April 2022 (10:38:34 CEST)
This article presents an overview of the philosophical and theoretical foundations of the Family Resilience, The Resiliency Model of Family Stress, the Adjustment, and Adaptation Model in families caring for the elderly, The Concept of Religious Coping and its application in order to strengthen family resilience. It is based on the phenomenon the increasing elderly population worldwide has become a global problem, along with the fact that the extension of life expectancy in a person is also accompanied by a decrease in function due to degenerative processes, that require complex health care services. So far, the family is still the primary care setting of choice in the care of the elderly. However, as an informal caregiver, the family also has many limitations that cause the burden of caring for the elderly to become a source of stress in itself. Hence, it impacts the quality of care and the quality of life of the elderly themselves. Meanwhile, from various sources, it is known that religious coping is one of the sources of overcoming stress. So that a strategy is needed to strengthen family resilience in accepting the responsibility of health care for the elderly with a religious coping approach.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0141.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, General Psychology Keywords: externalizing problems; internalizing problems; parental depression; prosocial behavior; self-compassion
Online: 15 April 2022 (09:11:15 CEST)
Building on a framework of risk transmission to children of depressed parents, the present study investigated the associations between parents’ self-compassion, parent’s depressive symptoms, and child adjustment. A total 189 Chinese parents (101 mothers) whose children were 2-8 years old were recruited to complete a questionnaire, including measures of self-compassion, depressive symptoms and children’s prosocial behavior, internalizing problems, and externalizing problems. Findings indicated mediation effects, in that parents’ depressive symptoms mediated the associ-ation between their self-compassion and child adjustment outcomes, namely children’s internal-izing and externalizing problems, after controlling the effects of monthly family income, child gender, and parent gender. Competing hypothesis suggested that parents’ self-compassion did not moderate between parents’ depressive symptoms and child adjustment outcomes. Hence, the association between parental depressive symptoms and child adjustment was not dependent on the level of parents’ self-compassion. As an implication, researchers and practitioners should be made aware of the protective role of parents’ self-compassion in the family context.
Thu, 14 April 2022
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0131.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Other Keywords: Air quality; Geolife; Olympics; Traffic demand; Transport planning; Transport regulation
Online: 14 April 2022 (10:25:45 CEST)
Over the years, researchers have been studying the effect of weather and context data on the transport mode choice. The majority of these works are based on survey data, however the accuracy of their findings relies on how respondents give accurate and honest answers. In this paper, the potential of using GPS trajectories as an alternative to travel surveys in studying the impact of weather and context data on transport mode choices is investigated in Beijing city. In the analysis, we apply both descriptive and statistical models such as the MNL and MNP models. Our findings indicate that temperature has the most prominent effect among weather conditions. For instance, for temperatures greater than 25 °C, the walking share increases by 27% and the bike share reduces by 21%, which is line with the results from several survey studies. In addition, the evidence of government policy on transport regulation is revealed when the air quality becomes hazardous as people are encouraged to use environmentally friendly travel mode choices such as the bike instead of the bus and car, which are known CO2 emitters. Moreover, due to a series of traffic restrictions introduced by the Beijing government during the 2008 summer Olympics, a decrease of 17.5% in the car share and an increase of 13% and 10% in the walking and bus shares, respectively are observed. These findings provide a scientific basis for effective transport regulation and planning purposes.
Thu, 7 April 2022
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0062.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Behavioral Neuroscience Keywords: Chemobrain; Cancer; Cognitive function; Insomnia
Online: 7 April 2022 (14:08:49 CEST)
Abstract: Background: Of the many side effects suffered by cancer patients, those related to cognitive performance have become increasingly prominent in clinical practice. We know that chemotherapy generates a series of side effects, such as nausea and vomiting, alopecia, and so on, which can be counteracted by complementary medication. However, in the case of post-chemotherapy cognitive impairment, or chemo brain, these cannot be controlled with drug therapies. However, before any intervention can be considered, it is necessary to know exactly what cognitive impairment is being triggered. For this reason, we decided to study the cognitive status of breast cancer patients. Methods: analytical, prospective, three-measure longitudinal, intrasubject unifactorial, non-probabilistic and accidental assignment study. The sample came from the Medical Oncology Department at Hospital de Salamanca, in Spain. Cognitive function (Trail Making Test and Stroop Test) was established as the primary variable; the presence of sleep disorders (Insomnia Severity Index, ISI) and anaemia (haemoglobin levels in blood) were analysed as secondary variables, in addition to sociodemographic variables (age, stage, type of carcinoma, radiotherapy, menopause, social support network, marital status, years of schooling and employment status). Results: We recruited 151 individuals according to the selection criteria. We can confirm that factors including anaemia, menopause, patient support network and marital status, years of schooling, and employment status did affect the cognitive performance of the patients in active chemotherapy treatment in the study. In contrast, sleep disorders, age, radiotherapy treatment, stage of disease, and type of carcinoma did not affect the cognitive performance of the cancer patients. Conclusions: Chemotherapy does impact the cognitive performance of breast cancer patients.
Tue, 29 March 2022
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0372.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Other Keywords: HIV; stigmatizing attitudes; women migrant workers; industrial zones; Vietnam
Online: 29 March 2022 (03:36:48 CEST)
Despite intensive HIV education and prevention efforts in the past years, stigmatizing attitudes toward people living with HIV (PLWH) remain a major barrier to HIV prevention and treatment efforts in Vietnam. The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence of stigmatizing attitudes regarding HIV and identifying correlative factors that impact perceptions of PLWH among women migrant workers working in the industrial zones (IZ) in Hanoi, Vietnam. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 1061 women migrant workers aged 18 to 29 from January to November 2020 in Hanoi, Vietnam. Stigmatizing attitudes toward PLWH were measured using a four-item scale. Multiple logistic regression was conducted to examine factors associated with stigmatizing attitudes. Over seventy-six (76.2 %) of the participants reported having at least one of the four stigmatizing attitudes. Greater levels of stigmatizing attitudes toward PLH were significantly associated with lower HIV knowledge, lower education and being Kinh (the ethnic majority in Vietnam). A high level of stigmatizing attitudes toward PWH among the study participants suggests that there is an urgent need for the development of appropriate culturally interventions and outreach education activities to reduce stigmatizing attitudes toward PWH among women migrant workers working in the IZs in Vietnam.Despite intensive HIV education and prevention efforts in the past years, stigmatizing attitudes toward people living with HIV (PLWH) remain a major barrier to HIV prevention and treatment efforts in Vietnam. The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence of stigmatizing attitudes regarding HIV and identifying correlative factors that impact perceptions of PLWH among women migrant workers working in the industrial zones (IZ) in Hanoi, Vietnam. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 1061 women migrant workers aged 18 to 29 from January to November 2020 in Hanoi, Vietnam. Stigmatizing attitudes toward PLWH were measured using a four-item scale. Multiple logistic regression was conducted to examine factors associated with stigmatizing attitudes. Over seventy-six (76.2 %) of the participants reported having at least one of the four stigmatizing attitudes. Greater levels of stigmatizing attitudes toward PLH were significantly associated with lower HIV knowledge, lower education and being Kinh (the ethnic majority in Vietnam). A high level of stigmatizing attitudes toward PWH among the study participants suggests that there is an urgent need for the development of appropriate culturally interventions and outreach education activities to reduce stigmatizing attitudes toward PWH among women migrant workers working in the IZs in Vietnam.
Mon, 28 March 2022
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0364.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Developmental Psychology Keywords: Working memory training; intervention; developmental language disorder; children
Online: 28 March 2022 (13:43:53 CEST)
Recent research has suggested that working memory training interventions may benefit children with Developmental Language Disorder (DLD). The current study investigated a short and engaging adaptive working memory intervention that targeted executive skills and aimed to improve both language comprehension and working memory abilities in children with DLD. Forty-seven 6- to 10-year-old children with DLD were randomly allocated to an executive working memory training intervention (n=24) or an active control group (n=23). A pre-test/intervention/post-test/9-month-follow-up design was used. Outcome measures included assessments of language (to evaluate far transfer of the training) and working memory (to evaluate near transfer of the training). Hierarchical multiple regression analyses controlling for pre-intervention performance and age found group to be a significant predictor of sentence comprehension and of performance on six untrained working memory measures at post-intervention and 9-month follow-up. Children in the intervention group showed significantly higher language comprehension and working memory scores at both time points than children in the active control group. The intervention programme showed potential to improve working memory and language comprehension in children with DLD and demonstrated several advantages: it involved short sessions over a short period; caused little disruption in the school day; and was enjoyed by children.
Fri, 25 March 2022
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0349.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: Moral observer-licensing; Immoral behavior; Role involvement; Moral Credits Model; Internet; Social media
Online: 25 March 2022 (15:29:49 CET)
Moral observer-licensing happens when people condone others’ morally questionable conducts due to their history of moral behaviors. We investigated in four studies (N = 808) this phenomenon in the context of cyberspace and its contributing factors and boundary conditions. Study 1 determined what participants perceived as typically moral and immoral behaviors in cyberspace. Then in Study 2, participants condemned less a story character’s online immoral behavior when they were informed of the character’s prior online moral behavior than when they were not, which indicates moral observer-licensing in cyberspace. Study 3 confirmed the presence of moral observer-licensing in cyberspace and further demonstrated that a character’s prior moral or immoral behavior online respectively reduces or intensifies the negativity of the character’s subsequent immoral behavior. Finally, Study 4 showed that participants who identified with the victim in a hypothetical scenario showed less forgiveness and more condemnation of a character’s immoral behavior than those who identified with the perpetrator or the bystander. These findings are of theoretical and practical significance for our understanding of cyber ethics.
Wed, 23 March 2022
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0316.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Cognitive & Experimental Psychology Keywords: 1; Social interaction 2; Self-organization 3; Imitation 4; Coordination dynamics 5; Group nor-malization 6; Interpersonal symmetry
Online: 23 March 2022 (12:36:52 CET)
I present an experimental paradigm to explore the interpersonal dynamics generating a collective mind. I hypothesized that collective organization is based on dual interpersonal modes: (1) symmetrical and (2) anti‑symmetrical. I specified the geometric topology of these modes by detecting the spatiotemporal patterns that embed cooperative agents in a three‑dimensional matrix. I found that the symmetrical mode is executed automatically and without guidance. Conversely, the anti‑symmetrical mode required explicit direction and recruited attention for execution. I demonstrate that self‑other mirror‑symmetry stabilized group dynamics, enabled fast and efficient symmetrical imitation that optimized information transmission, whereas anti‑symmetrical imitation was comparatively slow, inefficient, and unstable. I determined that the anti‑symmetrical mode spontaneously transitioned to the symmetrical mode under perturbations. Crucially, this renormalization mechanism never transitioned from symmetrical to anti‑symmetrical. These self-organizing dynamics speak to interpersonal symmetry‑breaking. In the present work, spontaneous group choice mandated that agents synchronize cooperative cycles in symmetrical space under internal or external perturbations. I provide examples to illustrate that this self-regulating pullback attractor manifests in invertebrates and vertebrates alike. I conclude by suggesting that inter‑agent symmetry provides the social stability manifold through which attention-driven interactions enable intrapersonal and interpersonal change.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0313.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Other Keywords: resilience; depression; anxiety; COVID-19; amygdala; hippocampus; burnout; researchers; narrative; ordering memory
Online: 23 March 2022 (08:51:08 CET)
Depression and anxiety are prevalent, persistent and difficult to treat industrialized world mental health problems. These disorders negatively modify an individual’s life perspective through brain function imbalances, notably in the amygdala and hippocampus, and are primarily treated with pharmaceuticals and psychotherapy. Nevertheless, these mental health issues have only increased in the number of individuals affected and the intensity of their suffering—especially as a result of COVID-19 restrictions and fears. An approach to alleviating depression and anxiety in relation to researchers self-identifying as experiencing burnout is promising. Enhancing resilience, the approach considers depression and anxiety as consequences of the particular method people adopt in ordering their memories, and focuses on narrative development. The method encourages accepting of different perspectives as unique and necessary in creating safe protection from research burnout. Moving from an identification of personal character to prompting plot development of memory, the method promotes resilience by encouraging thoughtful reconsideration of the negative assessments by participants of their circumstances that can lead to depression and anxiety. The method of ordering and group members’ feedback are inspected, including during the period of COVID-19 restrictions, and conclusions are offered regarding further research to encourage burnout resilience to diminish depression and anxiety.
Mon, 21 March 2022
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0055.v2
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, General Psychology Keywords: Coronavirus disease 2019/COVID-19; Internet Gaming Disorder Scale9—Short form (IGDS9-SF); university students; factorial structure/psychometric properties/structural validity/validation; cultur*/collectivisti*/individualis*; invariance; gender; game type
Online: 21 March 2022 (11:04:57 CET)
The prevalence of internet gaming disorders (IGD) is considerably high among youth, especially with social isolation imposed by the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. IGD adversely affects mental health, quality of life, and academic performance. The Internet Gaming Disorder Scale (IGDS9-SF) is designed to detect IGD according to DSM-IV diagnostic criteria. However, inconsistent results are reported on its capacity to diagnose IGD evenly across different cultures. To ensure the suitability of the IGDS9-SF as a global measure of IGD, this study examined the psychometric properties of the IGDS9-SF in a sample of Sri Lankan university students (N = 322, mean age =17.2 ± 0.6, range = 16-18 years, 56.5% males) and evaluated its measurement invariance across samples from Sri Lanka, Turkey, Australia, and the USA. Among Sri Lankan students, a unidimensional structure expressed good fit, invariance across different groups (e.g., gender, ethnicity, and income), adequate criterion validity (strong correlation with motives of internet gaming, daily gaming duration, and sleep quality), and good reliability (alpha = 0.81). Males and online multiplayers expressed higher IGD levels, greater time spent gaming, and more endorsement of gaming motives (e.g., Social and Coping) than females and offline players. Across countries, the IGDS9-SF was invariant at the configural, metric, and scalar levels, albeit strict invariance was not maintained. The lowest and highest IGD levels were reported among Turkish and American respondents, respectively. In conclusion, the IGDS9-SF can be reliably used to measure IGD among Sri Lankan youth. Because the scale holds scalar invariance across countries, its scores can be used to compare IGD levels in the studied countries.
Fri, 18 March 2022
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0264.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Developmental Psychology Keywords: factors; suspected delayed language development; early childhood
Online: 18 March 2022 (07:34:39 CET)
Many children have suspected delayed language development and need extensive support from parents and the health care team. This study aimed to investigate suspected delayed language development and factors associated with suspected delayed language development among early childhood in Southern Thailand. Children aged 24 to 60 months were recruited as study samples using stratified random sampling conducted in 23 districts and simple randomized seven sections (425 children). Instruments comprised demographic data of the children and families, The preschool temperament questionnaire, and the Language Development Screening questionnaire using developmental surveillance and promotion manual. I was collecting data from July 2020 to January 2021. Data analysis used descriptive statistics and logistic regression. The results showed that 40.9 percent suspected delayed development. Daily screen time exceeding 2 hours per day (A.O.R. = 17.30, 95% CI: 7.35-40.72), and regarding a child's temperament, moderate-to-difficult temperament (A.O.R. = 9.56, 95% CI: 5.12-17.85) were significantly associated with a suspected delay of language development. The study suggested two-way communication and appropriate responses will help develop children's language.
Tue, 15 March 2022
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0221.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Other Keywords: urban mobility; dynamic risk perception; data-driven model; policy analysis
Online: 15 March 2022 (15:56:15 CET)
In many countries, governments have implemented non-pharmaceutical techniques to limit COVID-19 transmission. Restricting human mobility is one of the most common interventions, including lockdown, travel restrictions, working from home, etc. However, due to the strong transmission ability of the virus variants, further rounds of interventions, including a strict lockdown, are not considered as effective as expected. The paper aims to understand how the lockdown policy and pandemics changed human mobility in the real scenario. Here we focus on understanding the mobility changes caused by compliance with restrictions and risk perceptions, using the mobility index from the Google report during three strict lockdown periods in Leeds, the largest city in the county of West Yorkshire, England from March 2020 to March 2021. The research proposed the time-varying z-scores and Principal Component Analysis (PCA) to simulate how local people dynamically process and perceive health risk based on multi-dimensional daily COVID-19 reports first. Further modelling highlights exponentially increasing policy non-compliance through the duration of lockdown, probably attributable to factors such as mental anxiety and economic pressures. Finally, the proposed nonlinear regression model examines the mobility changes caused by the population's dynamic risk perceptions and lockdown duration. The case study at Leeds fits data well and shows that the third lockdown policy took effect much slower than the first. At the same time, the negative impact of the epidemic on population mobility decayed 40% in the third lockdown period in contrast with the first lockdown. The risk perception estimation methods could reflect that the local population became increasingly accustomed to the COVID-19 situation, and local people rationally evaluated the risks of COVID in the third lockdown period. The results prove that simulated risk perceptions and policy decay could explain urban mobility behaviour during the mobility well during lockdown periods, which could be a reference for future decision-making processes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0208.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Other Keywords: behaviour change; digital intervention; COVID-19; school
Online: 15 March 2022 (11:05:30 CET)
The rapid transmission of COVID-19 in school communities has been a major concern. To ensure that mitigation systems were in place and support was available, a digital intervention to encourage and facilitate infection control behaviours was rapidly adapted and optimised for implementation as a whole school intervention. Using the person-based approach, ‘Germ Defence’ was iteratively adapted, guided by relevant literature, co-production with Patient and Public Involvement representatives, and think aloud interviews with forty-five school students, staff, and parents. Suggested infection control behaviours deemed feasible and acceptable by the majority of participants included handwashing/hand-sanitising and wearing a face covering in certain contexts such as crowded public spaces. Promoting a sense of collective responsibility was reported to increase motivation for the adoption of these behaviours. However, acceptability and willingness to implement recommended behaviours seemed to be influenced by participants’ perceptions of risk. Barriers to the implementation of recommended behaviours in school and at home primarily related to childcare needs and physical space. We conclude that it was possible to rapidly adapt Germ Defence to provide an acceptable resource to help mitigate against infection transmission within and from school settings. Adapted content was considered acceptable, persuasive, and accessible.
Mon, 14 March 2022
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0176.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Other Keywords: colorectal cancer screening; breast cancer screening; BC; CRC; cancer prevention; cancer screening; FOBT; mammography; Flanders
Online: 14 March 2022 (08:48:50 CET)
Despite the recognized benefits of fecal occult blood test (FOBT) and mammography screenings, participation in breast (BC) and colorectal cancer (CRC) screening programs is still suboptimal. In this study we investigate municipal characteristics associated with their BC/CRC screening uptake profiles among women aged 55-69 years. Using data from 308 municipalities of Flanders during 2014–2017, a profile for each municipality based on its BC/CRC screening uptake compared with the median screening uptake was created. Logistic regression with generalized estimating equations was used to assess the associations between municipal characteristics and BC/CRC screening uptake profiles. The overall median uptake of cancer screening was higher for CRC (57.4%) than for BC (54.6%). The following municipal characteristics were associated with worse performance in terms of only CRC, only BC, or both CRC and BC screening uptake respectively: non-Belgian/Dutch nationality, diabetes, 65-69 age group; non-Belgian/Dutch nationality, diabetes, disabilities; GP attendance and having children; The following municipal characteristics were associated with better performance in terms of only CRC, only BC, or both CRC and BC screening uptake respectively: having a partner, undergoing preventive dental care, jobseeker rate, higher education, residential stability; having a partner, undergoing preventive dental care, jobseeker rate; average income and (early) retirement rate. This study’s results regarding the interrelation between the BC and CRC screening could be used to tailor interventions aimed at improving participation of the target population in both programs.
Tue, 8 March 2022
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0116.v1
Online: 8 March 2022 (05:09:57 CET)
This paper proposes to study mystical experience by contrasting it with “ordinary” experience, i.e., with standard consciousness. It emphasises the construed nature of standard consciousness and the role that the mutual connectedness of mental contents plays in its construction. It then shows that removal of the factors that are responsible for the “making” of standard consciousness accounts for the principal features of mystical experience; these features are therefore mainly negative. The understanding of mystical experience as the suppression of factors that contribute to the construction of standard consciousness, along with a discussion of the mechanism that makes this possible, permits answers to some frequently asked questions, such as: why is mystical experience ineffable? what is its epistemic status? does it have implications for our understanding of mind, consciousness, and self?
Thu, 3 March 2022
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0070.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Other Keywords: automation bias; human – automation interaction; human decision-making; level of automation; moral decision
Online: 3 March 2022 (17:28:15 CET)
Automation technologies are present in almost every domain of human activity and they are now more and more present in our everyday life. The reason for this massive deployment of automated systems would reside in all the benefits they offer to the users. In experimental settings, multiple studies have demonstrated the positive effects the introduction of automation can have on human decision-making and performance. However, studies have also demonstrated that the introduction of automation can have important negative effects as well. Considering that automation is now introduced in sensitive domains like military defense or medicine, more than ever we need a complete understanding of the effects caused by these systems on human performance and decision-making, and particularly in tasks and contexts with social or moral dimension. In this paper we will firstly review the main effects produced on a human agent’s behaviors by the introduction of automation. Then, we will review the conditions identified as underlying factors of these effects, and see how they are currently integrated in models of human – automation interaction. We will conclude this review by highlighting new directions for future investigations on human – automation interaction.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0064.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Other Keywords: Computer vision; Google Street View; Built Environment; Walkability; Micro-scale; Deep learning
Online: 3 March 2022 (13:49:08 CET)
The study purpose was to train and validate a deep-learning approach to detect micro-scale streetscape features related to pedestrian physical activity. This work innovates by combining computer vision techniques with Google Street View (GSV) images to overcome impediments to conducting audits (e.g., time, safety, and expert labor cost). The EfficientNETB5 architecture was used to build deep-learning models for eight micro-scale features guided by the Microscale Audit of Pedestrian Streetscapes-Mini tool: sidewalks, sidewalk buffers, curb cuts, zebra and line crosswalks, walk signals, bike symbols, and streetlights. We used a train--correct loop, whereby images were trained on a training dataset, evaluated using a separate validation dataset, and trained further until acceptable performance metrics were achieved. Further, we used trained models to audit participant (N=512) neighborhoods in the WalkIT Arizona trial. Correlations were explored between micro-scale features and GIS-measured- and participant reported-macro-scale walkability. Classifier precision, recall, and overall accuracy were all >84%. Total micro-scale was associated with overall macro-scale walkability (r=0.300,p<.001). Positive associations were found between model-detected and self-reported sidewalks (r=0.41,p<.001) and sidewalk buffers (r=0.26,p<.001). Computer vision model results suggest an alternative to trained human raters, allowing for audits of hundreds or thousands of neighborhoods for population surveillance or hypothesis testing.
Tue, 1 March 2022
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0020.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Developmental Psychology Keywords: heterogeneity; autism models; subgroups in autism; ASD-questionnaires; analysis tools
Online: 1 March 2022 (11:51:15 CET)
The goal of this paper is to review the relevant literature on autism questionnaires, models, analytic tools, and subgrouping, focusing on the opportunities and limitations. We examined how the size and nature of the database and the number and type of parameters measured determine the use of analytic tools and the expected type of results. To support our position about the examined aspects, we rely on various parts of the reviewed articles. We emphasize that the individual results in each article can only be interpreted in the light of the methods that brought about the conclusions. The reviewed literature suggests a heterogeneous palette in autism subtypes instead of distinct, well-characterized subgroups, or a single-dimensional continuous spectrum.
Thu, 24 February 2022
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0310.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Behavioral Neuroscience Keywords: Sex-recognition; mate-recognition; sexual orientation; puberty; vomeronasal-organ; VNO; learning sexual behavior; Medial-geniculate-nucleus; MGN; MASH
Online: 24 February 2022 (10:06:07 CET)
A large part of our understanding of the biological substrates of sex-recognition and mate-recognition is derived by studying animal models. In performing those tasks, rodents rely mostly of pheromones and other olfactory cues, whereas humans rely mostly on visual cues. That may hinder the translation of rodents’ biology to humans’ biology, especially at the neural-networks level, where those cues traverse different networks in humans and rodents brains. That may be called the “pheromonal-visual gap”. A theoretical model presented here addresses those issues. The model merges observations from humans and model-animals, as reported in specific scientific reports, and general biological principles that are accepted by the scientific community. The model suggests that the voices of men and women are the innate cues based on which humans learn to use visual cues in sex-recognition and mate-recognition. Children learn the two tasks in associative learning mechanisms, by being immersed in their community, and observing adult role-models in innocuous, non-sexual scenarios. The model proposes that the human medial-geniculate-nucleus (MGN) is the analog of the rodents’ accessory-olfactory-bulb (AOB) and the main-olfactory-bulb (MOB), and that the human MASH pathway (MGN, amygdala, bnST, hypothalamus) is the analog of the rodents’ VNOP (Vomeronasal-organ-pathway). Considering the differences in the pathways should facilitate the translation from rodents’ brain nuclei and tracks to humans’. Also, the model hypothesizes that innate direct and indirect connections between auditory centers, e.g., MGN, and sex-control centers, e.g., hypothalamus, vary across three groups of children, and those variations determine the individual’s mate-recognition that emerges at puberty.
Fri, 18 February 2022
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0231.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Other Keywords: Behavior-Based safety; Critical behavior checklist; Behavioral definition; Intervention; Safe behavior
Online: 18 February 2022 (09:53:30 CET)
Background: It is necessary to apply a behavior-based safety (BBS) program to prevent at-risk behavior. An effective BBS program requires the implementation of not only behavioral definitions and a customized critical behavior checklist (CBC) but also observations of behavior, coupled with customized interventions at power plants. Method: In this study, a customized CBC and behavioral definition were developed through a review of five different sites that previously used a CBC. The rules of observation, flow, and target were established to initiate the observations. Customized interventions were selected to increase safe behaviors. CBC scoring was used to evaluate observed safe behaviors for three years. Recognized safe behaviors were evaluated with a questionnaire that included four items each for conformity and participation behaviors and were then analyzed through a factor analysis and a t-test. The questionnaires were conducted three months before and after the implementation of the BBS program. Results: The customized CBC, behavioral definition, and interventions were effective, such that observed safe behaviors and the levels of workers’ recognized safe behaviors increased. Conclusion: The application of the BBS program was found to increase the observed and recognized safe behaviors. Therefore, the program applied to this site can help increase safe behaviors at other identical or similar sites, as well as prevent an accident, which also corresponds with the results of prior studies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0228.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Clinical Psychology Keywords: Early-Intervention; High-risk for Eating Disorders; Acceptance and Commitment Therapy; Gamification; Digital Intervention; Vicarious learning
Online: 18 February 2022 (09:12:15 CET)
Eating Disorders (ED) constitute a serious public health issue affecting predominantly women and appearing typically in adolescence or early adulthood. EDs are extremely difficult to treat as these disorders are ego-syntonic and many patients do not seek treatment. It is vital to focus on the development of successful early-intervention programs for individuals presenting at-risk and are on a trajectory towards developing EDs. This study is a randomized controlled trial evalu-ating an innovative digital gamified Acceptance and Commitment early-intervention program (AcceptME) for young females showing signs and symptoms of an ED and at high-risk for an ED. Participants (N=92; Mage=15.30 years, SD=2.15) received either AcceptME (N=62) or a waitlist control (N=30). Analyses indicated that the AcceptME program effectively reduced weight and shape concerns, with large effects when compared to waitlist controls. Most participants scored below the at-risk cut-off (WCS score<52) in the AcceptME at end-of-intervention (57.1%) com-pared to controls (7.1%) with odds of falling into the at-risk group being 14.5 times higher for participants in the control group. At follow-up, 72% of completers reported scores below the at-risk cut-off in the AcceptME group. The intervention also resulted in a decrease in ED symp-tomatology and increased body image flexibility. Overall, results suggest that the AcceptME program holds promise for early-intervention of young women at-risk for developing an ED.
Thu, 17 February 2022
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0205.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, General Psychology Keywords: taste; smell; quality of life; sensitivity; threshold; QUEST
Online: 17 February 2022 (10:00:37 CET)
Taste and smell function decline with age, with robust impairment in the very old. Much less is known about taste and smell function in young and middle old. We investigated taste and smell sensitivity via thresholds in a sub-sample of the NutriAct Family Study (NFS), the NFS Examinations cohort (NFSE; N=251, age M=62.5 years). We examined different aspects relating to taste and smell function: the degree to which taste and smell sensitivity relate to another and to taste and smell preferences, the role of gender and age, as well as effects on Quality of Life (QOL). Taste thresholds were highly correlated but no correlation was observed between taste and smell thresholds and between thresholds and preference. Women were more sensitive for both taste and smell than men. We found no effect of age on sensitivity and no effect of sensitivity on QoL. All null-findings were corroborated with Bayesian statistics providing evidence for the null hypotheses. Together our results indicate the independence of taste and smell despite their overlap during sensorial experiences. We found no evidence for age-related sensory decline, which could be due to our sample´s characteristics of non-clinical volunteers with good dental health and 93% non-smokers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0203.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Social Psychology Keywords: Sustainable Development Goals; Social Psychology; scientific publications; Spain
Online: 17 February 2022 (08:17:58 CET)
This study analyses the papers published by Spanish social psychologists to determine whether they address topics related with the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Publications by Spanish institutions indexed by the Web of Science in the thematic category of “Social Psychology” were subjected to bibliometric analysis. The publications were classified by their relationship with the SDGs using OSDG, an open-source labelling tool, and an in-depth content analysis was performed to validate the results. A corpus of 1632 papers published by Spanish institutions between 1980 and 2020 was identified. Thirty-four percent of the papers address matters related with the SDGs; 23 % concern matters related with Goal 3 (good health and well-being), and 5 %, with Goal 5 (gender equality). Only 3 % are interventions to modify behaviour or change social environments. Conclusions: The review of these papers allows detecting to what extent the research conducted in Social Psychology contributes to achieving the goals proposed in each of the SDGs. Also, the content analysis of this publications identifies several factors (cognitive, emotional, social or cultural) which should be investigated to improve knowledge on how to achieve the Sustainable Development Goals.
Wed, 9 February 2022
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0271.v2
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Other Keywords: mesothelin; ovarian carcinoma; biomarker; mesothelin-targeting therapy
Online: 9 February 2022 (12:59:34 CET)
Mesothelin is a protein that is expressed in the mesothelial cell lining in the pleura, peritoneum, and pericardium. The gene of mesothelin encodes a precursor protein that is processed to yield mesothelin, which is attached to the cell membrane by a glycophosphatidylinositol linkage and a shred fragment named the megakaryocytic-potentiating factor. The biological functions of this substance in normal cells are still unknown. Experimental studies on knockout mice suggest that this substance does not play an important role in development and reproduction. In contrast, it has been observed that mesothelin is produced in abnormal amounts in several malignant neoplasms, such as mesotheliomas and pancreatic adenocarcinomas. Given that mesothelin is overexpressed in many solid tumours and has antigenic properties, this molecule could be considered a tumour marker or an antigenic target for many malignancies. Many molecular studies also have demonstrated that mesothelin is overexpressed in serous ovarian carcinomas and may bind to ovarian cancer antigen Ca-125, favouring the spread of the tumour in the abdominal cavity. 3 Here, we discuss the current knowledge of mesothelin and focus on its role in clinical and pathological diagnoses as well as its impact on the prognosis in serous ovarian carcinomas. We also briefly discuss the latest progress of mesothelin-targeting therapies for this aggressive and lethal neoplasm.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0138.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Other Keywords: eHealth; measure; psychometrics; factor analysis; Multiple Sclerosis
Online: 9 February 2022 (11:05:49 CET)
Introduction: This study aimed to validate the psychometric properties of the German eHealth Impact Questionnaire (eHIQ-G), which is divided into two independently administered and scored parts. Methods: 162 people with MS browsed one of two possible websites containing information on MS and completed an online survey. Internal consistency was assessed by Cronbach’s alpha and structural validity by Confirmatory Factor Analysis. Construct validity was examined by assessing correlations with the eHealth Literacy Questionnaire and the General Self-Efficacy Scale. Moreover, the mean difference of the eHIQ-G score between the two websites was investigated. Results: Cronbach’s alpha for the eHIQ-G subscales ranged from .833 to .885. The eHIQ-G part 1 achieved acceptable levels of goodness-of-fit indices, whereas the fit for the eHIQ-G part 2 was poor and likewise for the alternative modified models. The correlations with the reference instruments were 0.08 – 0.62 and as expected. Older age was related with lower eHIQ-G part 1 score, whereas no significant effect was found for education. Although not significant, the website ‘AMSEL’ reached higher mean scores on eHIQ part 2. Conclusion: The eHIQ-G has good internal consistency, and sufficient structural and construct validity. It will facilitate the measurement of the impact of websites providing health information.
Tue, 8 February 2022
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0323.v2
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, General Psychology Keywords: social media; netnography; mental health; natural language processing; visualization; data analysis; COVID-19
Online: 8 February 2022 (11:12:14 CET)
Abstract: Understanding social media networks and group interactions are crucial to the ad-vancement of linguistic and cultural behaviour. This includes the manner in which people ac-cessed advice on health, especially during the global lockdown periods. Some people turned to social media to access information on health where most activities were curtailed with isolation rules, especially for older generations. Facebook public pages, groups and verified profiles, using "senior citizen health", "older generations", and "healthy living" keywords were analysed over a 12-month period to analyse the engagement promoting good mental health. CrowdTangle was used to source English language status updates, photo and video sharing information which resulted in an initial 116,321 posts and 6,462,065 interactions Data analysis and visualisation were used to explore large datasets, including natural language processing for “Message” content discovery, word frequency and correlational analysis and co-word clustering. Preliminary results indicate strong links to healthy aging information shared on social media which showed correla-tions to global daily confirmed case and daily death totals. The results can be used to identify public concerns early on and address mental health issues in the senior generation on Facebook.
Fri, 4 February 2022
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0077.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Behavioral Neuroscience Keywords: externalizing behavior; adolescence; gray matter volume; white matter integrity; heritability; genetic correlation; longitudinal; magnetic resonance imaging
Online: 4 February 2022 (15:07:45 CET)
Externalizing behavior in its more extreme form is often considered a problem to the individual, their families, teachers and society as a whole. Several brain structures have been linked to externalizing behavior and such associations may arise if the (co)development of externalizing behavior and brain structures share the same genetic and/or environmental factor(s). We assessed externalizing behavior with the Child Behavior Checklist and Youth Self Report, and brain volumes and white matter integrity (FA and MD) with magnetic resonance imaging in the BrainSCALE cohort, consisting of twins and their older siblings from 112 families measured longitudinally at ages 10, 13, and 18 years of the twins. Genes influenced externalizing behavior and changes therein (h2 up to 88%). More pronounced externalizing behavior was associated with higher FA (observed correlation rph up to +0.20) and lower MD (rph up to –0.20); with sizeable genetic correlations (FA ra up to +0.42; MD ra up to –0.33). Cortical gray matter (CGM; rph up to –0.20) and cerebral white matter (CWM; rph up to +0.20) volume were phenotypically but not genotypically associated with externalizing behavior. These results suggest a potential mediating role for global brain structures in the display of externalizing behavior during adolescence that are both partially explained by the influence from the same genetic factor.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0074.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Behavioral Neuroscience Keywords: animal emotions; animal welfare; sensors; animal-based measures; affective states; emotion modelling
Online: 4 February 2022 (12:20:22 CET)
Emotions or affective states recognition in farm animals is an underexplored research domain. Despite significant advances in the animal welfare research, the animal affective computing through the development and application of devices and platforms that can not only recognize but interpret and process the emotions, are in nascent stage. By capitalizing on the immense potential of biometric sensors, the artificial intelligence enabled big data methods substantially offers advancement of animal welfare standards and meet the urgent need of caretakers to respond effectively to maintain the wellbeing of their animals. Farm animals, numbering over 70 billion worldwide, are increasingly managed in large-scale, intensive farms. With both public awareness and scientific evidence growing that farm animals experience suffering, as well as affective states such as fear, frustration and distress, there is an urgent need to develop efficient and accurate methods for monitoring their welfare. At present, there are no scientifically validated ‘benchmarks’ for quantifying transient emotional (affective) states in farm animals, and no established measures of good welfare, only indicators of poor welfare, such as injury, pain and fear. Conventional approaches to monitoring livestock welfare are time consuming, interrupt farming processes and involve subjective judgments. Biometric sensors data enabled by Artificial Intelligence are an emerging smart solution to unobtrusively monitoring livestock, but their potential for quantifying affective states and groundbreaking solutions in their application are yet to be realized. This review provides innovative methods for collecting big data on farm animal emotions, which can be used to train artificial intelligence models to classify, quantify and predict affective states in individual pigs and cows. Extending this to the group level, social network analysis can be applied to model emotional dynamics and contagion among animals. Finally, ‘digital twins’ of animals capable of simulating and predicting their affective states and be-havior in real time are a near-term possibility.
Thu, 3 February 2022
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0056.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: virtual reality; autism spectrum disorder; education; intervention; childhood and adolescence
Online: 3 February 2022 (15:17:12 CET)
Virtual reality (VR) technology gains theoretical support from rehabilitation and pedagogical theories and offers a variety of capabilities in educational and interventional contexts with affordable products. VR is attracting increasing attention in the medical and healthcare industry as it provides fully interactive three-dimensional simulations of real-world settings and social situations, which are particularly suitable for cognitive and performance training including social and interaction skills. The worldwide rising trend in the prevalence of autism spectrum disorder calls for innovative and efficacious techniques for assessment and treatment. The article offers a summary of current perspectives and evidence-based applications of VR technology as an educational and intervention tool for individuals with autism spectrum disorder, with a primary focus on social communication including social functioning, emotion recognition, and speech and language. Technology- and design-related limitations as well as the disputes over the application of virtual reality to autism research and therapy are discussed and future directions of this emerging field are highlighted with regards to application expansion and improvement, technology enhancement, and the development of brain-based research and theoretical models.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0055.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, General Psychology Keywords: Coronavirus disease 2019; Internet Gaming Disorder Scale9—Short form (IGDS9-SF); university students; factorial structure/psychometric properties/structural validity/validation; culture; invariance; gender; game type
Online: 3 February 2022 (15:14:16 CET)
The prevalence of internet gaming disorders (IGD) is considerably high among youth, especially with social isolation imposed by the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. IGD adversely affects mental health, quality of life, and academic performance. The Internet Gaming Disorder Scale (IGDS9-SF) is designed to detect IGD according to DSM-IV diagnostic criteria. However, inconsistent results are reported on its capacity to diagnose IGD evenly across different cultures. To ensure the suitability of the IGDS9-SF as a global measure of IGD, this study examined the psychometric properties of the IGDS9-SF in a sample of Sri Lankan university students (N = 322, mean age =17.2 ± 0.6, range = 16-18 years, 56.5% males) and evaluated its measurement invariance across samples from Sri Lanka, Turkey, Australia, and the USA. Among Sri Lankan students, a unidimensional structure expressed good fit, invariance across different groups (gender, ethnicity, income, etc.), adequate criterion validity (strong correlation with motives of internet gaming, daily gaming duration, and sleep quality), and good reliability (alpha = 0.81). Males and online multiplayers expressed higher IGD levels, greater time spent gaming, and more endorsement of gaming motives (e.g., Social and Coping) than females and offline players. Across countries, the IGDS9-SF was invariant at the configural, metric, and scalar levels, albeit strict invariance was not maintained. The lowest and highest IGD levels were reported among Turkish and American respondents, respectively. In conclusion, the IGDS9-SF can be reliably used to measure IGD among Sri Lankan youth. Because the scale holds scalar invariance across countries, its scores can be used to compare IGD levels in the studied countries.
Wed, 2 February 2022
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0028.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, General Psychology Keywords: social media; addiction; anxiety; fear; health issues
Online: 2 February 2022 (10:53:03 CET)
Social media addiction has attracted the attention of researchers especially during the COVID era because negative emotions generated from the pandemic may have increased social media addiction. The present study aimed to investigate the role of negative emotions and social media addiction on health problems during and after the COVID lockdown. A survey was conducted with 2926 participants aged between 25 and 45 years. The data collection period was between 2nd September and 13th October 2020. Partial Least Square Structural Equation Modeling was conducted for data analysis by controlling the respondents' working time, leisure time, gender, education, and age. Our study showed that social media addiction and time spent on social media impact health. Interestingly, while anxiety about COVID increased social media addiction, fear about COIVD reduced social media addiction. Also, long working hours contributed most to people’s health issues, and its impact on social media addiction and hours was much higher than negative emotions, where males faced more health challenges than females. The impacts of negative emotions generated by the COVID on social media addiction and health issues should be reconsidered. Government and employers' control of people's working time stress should prioritize solving social media addiction-related issues.
Mon, 31 January 2022
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0469.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Clinical Psychology Keywords: tinnitus; self-help; ecological momentary assessment; ehealth; smart-phone; intervention
Online: 31 January 2022 (14:00:09 CET)
Tinnitus is an auditory phantom perception in the ears or head in the absence of a corresponding external stimulus. There is currently no effective treatment available that reliably reduces tinnitus. Educative counseling is a treatment approach that aims to educate patients and inform them about possible coping strategies. For this feasability study, we implemented educational material and self-help advice in a smartphone app. Participants used the educational smartphone unsupervised during their daily routine over a period of 4 months. Comparing the tinnitus outcome measures before and after smartphone-guided treatment, we measured changes in the tinnitus-related distress, but not in tinnitus loudness. Improvements on the Tinnitus Severity numeric rating scale reached an effect size of .408, while the improvements on the THI were much smaller with an effect size of .168. Analysis on the user behavior showed that frequent and intensive use of the app is a crucial factor for treatment success: participants that used the app more often and interacted with the app intensively, reported a stronger improvement of the tinnitus. Between study allocation and final assessment, 26 of 52 participants dropped out of the study. Reasons for the dropouts and lessons for future studies are discussed in this paper.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0451.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Developmental Psychology Keywords: coping; pain; children; sedation; analgesia; treatment effects
Online: 31 January 2022 (11:43:26 CET)
Children with leukaemia experience difficulties adapting to medical procedures and to the chemotherapy’s adverse effects. Study’s objectives were to identify which coping strategies could be associated with the treatments’ factors and with the dosage of sedation analgesic drugs during bone marrow aspirates. 125 patients (M = 6.79 years; SD = 3.40), majority with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (90.4%) and their parents received, one month after diagnosis, the PPCI. Data on the severe treatment effects and on the dosage of drugs in sedation-analgesia were also collected. An ANCOVA model (R2=0.25) showed that, weighing the age factor (F=3.47; df=3; p=0.02), the number of episodes of fever (F=4.78; df=1; p=0.03), nausea (F=4.71; df=1; p=0.03) and mucositis (F=5.81; df=1; p=0.02) influenced the use of distraction. Cognitive self-instructions (R2=0.22) were influenced by the number of hospitalizations (F=5.14; df=1; p=0.03) and mucositis (F=8.48; df=3; p=0.004) and by child’s age (F=3.76; df=3; p=0.01). Children who sought parental support more frequently (F=9.7; df=2; p=0.0001) and who tended not to succumb to a catastrophic attitude (F=13.33; df=2; p=0.001) during the induction treatment phase required lower drug dosages, especially propofol. The clinical application of these results could be to encourage the use of cognitive self-instructions and search for social support.
Fri, 28 January 2022
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0433.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Behavioral Neuroscience Keywords: cohousing; stress; CD1 mouse; C57BL/6J mouse; Sprague Dawley rat; fecal corticosterone or cortisol metabolites; dyadic social interaction; conditioned place preference
Online: 28 January 2022 (11:13:58 CET)
Rats, including those of the Sprague Dawley strain, may kill mice. Because of this muridical behavior, it is standard practice in many research animal housing facilities to separate mice from rats (i.e., the predators) to minimize stress for the mice. We therefore tested the effect of cohousing on the stress levels of mice from either the C57BL/6J (BL6) or the CD1 strain and Sprague Dawley (SD rat) by determining their fecal corticosterone or cortisol metabolites (FCM) concentration and investigated how cohousing impacts a behavioral assay, i.e., conditioned place preference for intragenus (i.e., mouse-mouse or rat-rat) dyadic social interaction (DSI CPP) that had been shown be sensitive to social factors, especially to handling by humans. We found that the two delivery batches of BL6 mice or SD rats, respectively, had different stress levels at delivery that were statistically significant for the BL6 mice. Even so, the BL6 mice cohoused with rats had significantly increased FCM concentrations, indicative of higher stress levels, as compared to (1) BL6 mice housed alone or (2) BL6 mice at delivery. In contrast to their elevated stress levels, the attractiveness for contextual cues associated with mouse-mouse social interaction (DSI CPP) even increased in rat-cohoused BL6 mice, albeit nonsignificantly. Thus, cohousing BL6 mice and rats did not impair a behavioral assay in BL6 mice that had proved to be sensitive to handling stress by humans in our laboratory. SD rats cohoused with BL6- or CD1 mice and CD1 mice cohoused with SD rats showed DSI CPP that was not different from our previously published data on SD rats and BL6 mice of the Jackson- or NIH substrain obtained in the absence of cohousing. Our findings suggest that the effect of cohousing rats and mice under the conditions described above on their stress levels as opposed to their behavior might be less clearcut than generally assumed and might be overriden by conditions that cannot be controlled, i.e., different deliveries. Our findings can help to use research animal housing resources, which usually are limited, more efficiently.
Thu, 27 January 2022
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0368.v2
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Clinical Psychology Keywords: Public Safety Personnel; First Responders; Mental Disorders; Mental Health; Well-Being; Trauma; Operational Stress Injuries; Post-Traumatic Stress Injuries; Resilience; Peer Support; Paramedics; Emergency Medical Services
Online: 27 January 2022 (13:57:44 CET)
There is growing recognition in research and policy of a mental health crisis among Canada’s paramedics but despite this, epidemiological surveillance of the problem is in its infancy. Just weeks before the emergence of the COVID-19 pandemic, we surveyed paramedics from a single, large, urban paramedic service in Ontario, Canada to assess for symptom clusters consistent with Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), major depressive disorder, and generalized anxiety disorder and to identify potential risk factors for each. In total, we received 589 completed surveys (a 97% completion rate) and found that 11% screened positive for PTSD, 15% for depression, and 15% for anxiety, with 1 in 4 active-duty paramedics screening positive for any of the three as recently as February 2020. In adjusted analyses, the risk of a positive screen varied as a function of employment classification, gender, self-reported resilience, and previous experience as a member of the service’s peer support team. Our findings support the position that paramedics screen positive for mental disorders at high rates – a problem likely to have worsened since the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic. We echo the calls of researchers and policymakers for urgent action to support paramedic mental health in Canada.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0422.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, General Psychology Keywords: Perinatal Mental Health; Anxiety Disorders; Perinatal Anxiety; Fear of Childbirth; Screening
Online: 27 January 2022 (13:21:05 CET)
Background: Perinatal anxiety and related disorders are common (20%), distressing and impairing. Fear of childbirth (FoB) is a common type of perinatal anxiety associated with negative mental health, obstetrical, childbirth and child outcomes. Screening can facilitate treatment access for those most in need. Objectives: The purpose of this research was to evaluate the accuracy of the Childbirth Fear Questionnaire (CFQ) and the Wijma Delivery Expectations Questionnaire (W-DEQ) of FoB as screening tools for specific phobia, FoB. Methods: A total of 659 English-speaking pregnant women living in Canada and over the age of 18 were recruited to the study. Participants completed an online survey of demographic, current pregnancy, and reproductive history information, as well as the CFQ and the W-DEQ, and a telephone interview to assess specific phobia FoB. Results: Symptoms meeting full and subclinical diagnostic criteria for specific phobia, FoB were reported by 3.3% and 7.1% of participants, respectively. The W-DEQ met or exceeded the criteria for a “good enough” screening tool across several analyses, whereas the CFQ only met these criteria in one analysis, and came close in three others. Conclusions: The W-DEQ demonstrated high performance as a screening tool for specific phobia, FoB, with accuracy superior to that of the CFQ. Additional research, to ensure the stability of these findings, is needed.
Wed, 26 January 2022
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0394.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Clinical Psychology Keywords: parenting; 5HTTLPR; serotonin transporter; maternal sensitivity; polymorphism; gene X environment
Online: 26 January 2022 (12:19:45 CET)
The current systematic review examines whether there is an association between the genetic 5-HTTPLR pol-ymorphism and parenting and the mechanisms by which this association operates. The literature was searched in various databases such as PubMed, Scopus and ScienceDirect. In line with our inclusion criteria, nine articles were eligible out of 22. Most of the studies, analysed in this review, found an association between 5HTTLPR and parenting. Four studies found a direct association between 5-HTTLPR and parenting with conflicting findings: two studies found that mothers carrying the short variant were more sensitive to their infants, while two studies found that parents carrying the S allele were less sensitive. In addition, several studies found strong interaction between genetic and environmental factors, such as childhood stress and disruptive child behaviour, quality of early care experiences, poor parenting environment, and quality of environment. Only one study found an association between children’s 5HTTLPR and parenting. Parenting can be described as a highly complex construct influenced by multiple factors, including environmental, parenting and child charac-teristics. According to the studies, maternal 5-HTTLPR polymorphism is most likely associated with sensitive parenting.
Tue, 25 January 2022
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0385.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Behavioral Neuroscience Keywords: Trace amine-associated receptor 5; cognition; decision-making; switch task
Online: 25 January 2022 (14:49:51 CET)
Trace amine-associated receptors (TAARs) are a family of G protein-coupled receptors present in mammals in the brain and in several peripheral organs. Apart from its olfactory role, TAAR5 is expressed in the major limbic brain areas and regulates brain serotonin functions and emotional behaviors. However, most of its functions remain undiscovered. Given the role of serotonin and limbic regions in some aspects of cognition, we used a temporal decision-making task to unveil a possible role of TAAR5 in cognitive processes. We found that TAAR5 knock-out (KO) mice showed a generally better performance due to a reduced number of errors and displayed a greater rate of improvement at the task than WT littermates. However, task-related parameters, such as time accuracy and uncertainty have not changed significantly. Overall, we show that TAAR5 modulates specific domains of cognition, highlighting a new role in brain physiology.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0368.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Clinical Psychology Keywords: Public Safety Personnel; First Responders; Mental Disorders; Mental Health; Well-Being; Trauma; Operational Stress Injuries; Post-Traumatic Stress Injuries; Resilience; Peer Support; Paramedics; Emergency Medical Services
Online: 25 January 2022 (08:28:25 CET)
There is growing recognition in research and policy of a mental health crisis among Canada’s paramedics but despite this, epidemiological surveillance of the problem is in its infancy. Just weeks before the emergence of the COVID-19 pandemic, we surveyed paramedics from a single, large, urban paramedic service in Ontario, Canada to assess for clinically significant symptoms of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), depression, and anxiety and to identify potential risk factors for each. In total, we received 589 completed surveys (a 97% completion rate) and found that 11% met the screening criteria for PTSD, 15% for depression, and 15% for anxiety, with 1 in 4 active-duty paramedics meeting the criteria for any of the three as recently as February 2020. In adjusted analyses, the risk of a positive screen varied as a function of employment classification, gender, self-reported resilience, and previous experience as a member of the service’s peer support team. Our findings support the position that paramedics have high rates of current mental illness – a problem likely to have worsened since the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic. We echo the calls of researchers and policymakers for urgent action to support paramedic mental health in Canada.
Fri, 21 January 2022
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0323.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, General Psychology Keywords: social media; netnography; mental health; natural language processing; visualization; data analysis; COVID-19
Online: 21 January 2022 (12:59:09 CET)
Understanding social media networks and group interactions are crucial to the advancement of linguistic and cultural behaviour. This includes the manner in which people accessed advice on health, especially during the global lockdown periods. Some people turned to social media to access information on health where most activities were curtailed with isolation rules, especially for older generations. Facebook public pages, groups and verified profiles, using "senior citizen health", "older generations", and "healthy living" keywords were analysed over a 12-month period to analyse the engagement promoting good mental health. CrowdTangle was used to source English language status updates, photo and video sharing information which resulted in an initial 116,321 posts and 6,462,065 interactions Data analysis and visualisation were used to explore large datasets, including natural language processing for “Message” content discovery, word frequency and correlational analysis and co-word clustering. Preliminary results indicate strong links to healthy aging information shared on social media which showed correlations to global daily confirmed case and daily death totals. The results can be used to identify public concerns early on and address mental health issues in the senior generation on Facebook.
Thu, 20 January 2022
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0314.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Other Keywords: executive functions; executive control; birds; inhibition; working memory; shifting; flexibility
Online: 20 January 2022 (20:52:34 CET)
Executive functions comprise top-down cognitive processes that exert control over information processing, from acquiring information to issuing a behavioural response. These cognitive processes of inhibition, working memory and shifting underpin complex cognitive skills, such as episodic memory and planning, which have been repeatedly investigated in several bird species in recent decades. Until recently, avian executive functions were studied in relatively few bird species, but have gained traction in comparative cognitive research following MacLean and colleagues’ large-scale study (2014). Therefore, in this review paper, relevant previous findings are collected and organized to facilitate further investigations of these core cognitive processes in birds. This review can assist in integrating findings from avian and mammalian cognitive research and further current understanding of executive functions’ significance and evolution.
Wed, 19 January 2022
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0267.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Clinical Psychology Keywords: Gestalt therapy; dementia; depression; single-case experimental design; psychosocial interventions
Online: 19 January 2022 (09:32:12 CET)
Psychotherapy is one of the evidence-based clinical interventions for the treatment of depression in older adults with dementia. Randomized Controlled Trials are often the first methodological choice to gain evidence, yet they are not applicable to a wide range of humanistic psychotherapies. Amongst all, the efficacy of the Gestalt therapy (GT) is under-investigated. The purpose of this paper is to present a research protocol aiming to assess the effects of a GT-based intervention on people with dementia (PWD) and the indirect influence on their family carers. The study implements the Single-Case Experimental Design with Time-Series Analysis that will be carried out in Italy and Mexico. Ten people in each country, who received a diagnosis of dementia and present depressive symptoms, will be recruited. Eight or more GT sessions will be provided whose fidelity will be assessed by the GT Fidelity Scale. Quantitative outcome measures are foreseen for monitoring participants’ depression, anxiety, quality of life, carers’ burden, and the caregiving dyad mutuality, at baseline and follow-up. The advantages and limitations of the research design are considered. If GT will result effective in the treatment of depression in PWD, it could enrich the range of evidence-based interventions provided by healthcare services.
Mon, 17 January 2022
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0230.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: perceiving campus non-physical bullying; Refusal parenting style; negative affect experiences; negative coping style; mediating effect
Online: 17 January 2022 (14:09:27 CET)
To explore the impact of parenting styles on the perception of campus non-physical bullying, 492 students in upper elementary school grades were surveyed by using the Delaware Bullying Victimization Scale, the Negative Coping Style Scale, the Negative Affect Scale, and the Egna Minnen Beträffende Uppfostran Questionnaire. The questionnaire survey was conducted in the fifth and sixth grades of eight primary schools in Zhejiang province. The results showed that cyberbullying was not significantly related to an anxious parenting style, but negative affect experiences, negative coping styles, negative family parenting styles, and the perception of campus non-physical bullying were all positively correlated with each other (p < 0.05). The refusal parenting style was shown to be an important factor that affected students’ perception of campus non-physical bullying; it was observed to directly affect students’ perception of campus non-physical bullying and indirectly affect students’ perception of campus non-physical bullying by influencing negative affect experiences and negative coping styles. In conclusion, negative affect experiences and negative coping styles had a chain-like mediating effect between the refusal parenting style and students’ perception of campus verbal bullying. Moreover, negative affect experiences had a partial mediating effect between the refusal parenting style and students’ perceptions of campus cyberbullying, relationship bullying, and non-physical bullying total scores. Implications and suggestions based on these results are also discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0227.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Other Keywords: Bayesian inference; race and ethnicity imputation; All Payer Claims Database; vital statistics death records; validation
Online: 17 January 2022 (12:40:15 CET)
Background: All Payer Claims Databases (APCD) are a rich source of health information, however, race and ethnicity (R&E) data are largely missing. Bayesian Improved Surname Geocoding (BISG) is a common R&E imputation method, yet, validation of BISG in APCDs is lacking. We used the BISG to impute missing R&E in the Oregon APCD. Methods: BISG imputed R&E for Asian Pacific Islanders (API), Blacks, Hispanics and Whites were contrasted to the gold standard (vital statistics) and sensitivity and specificity improvements were assessed. Logistic regression examined whether missing R&E was random across patient characteristics. Results: Among 85,857 individuals in the study, 32.1% (n=27,594) had missing R&E. Missing R&E was not randomly distributed. There were higher odds of missingness among males, Whites, those age 65 and older, and commercially insured individuals. Differences in the percent missing were also found by co-morbid conditions and mortality causes. Imputing the missing R&E with BISG method improved the sensitivity to identify White, Black, API, and Hispanics. Conclusions: APCDs can benefit from enhancing missing R&E with BISG imputation to perform more robust population-health level analyses and identify inequities according to R&E without losing power or dropping non-random records with missing R&E data.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0222.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Behavioral Neuroscience Keywords: Tics; Emotions; Basal ganglia; Tourette's syndrome; dopamine; HPA-axis; Premontory sensory phenomena
Online: 17 January 2022 (12:28:48 CET)
Tics can be associated with neurological disorders and are thought to be the result of dysfunctional basal ganglia pathways. In Tourette Syndrome (TS), excess dopamine in the striatum is thought to excite the thalamo-cortical circuits, producing tics. When external stressors activate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, more dopamine is produced, furthering the excitation of tic-producing pathways. Emotional processing structures in the limbic are also activated during tics, providing further evidence of a possible emotional component in motor ticking behaviors. The purpose of the review is to better understand the relationship between emotional states and ticking behavior. We found support for the notion that premonitory-sensory phenomena (PSP), sensory stimulation, and other environmental stressors that impact the HPA-axis can influence tics through dopaminergic neurotransmission. Dopamine plays a vital role in cognition and motor control, and is an important neurotransmitter in the pathophysiology of other disorders such as obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), which tend to be comorbid with ticking disorders and are thought to use similar pathways. It is concluded that there is an emotional component to ticking behaviors. Emotions primarily involving anxiety, tension, stress, and frustration have been associated with exacerbated tics, with PSP contributing to these feelings.
Fri, 14 January 2022
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0210.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Other Keywords: adventure sport; extreme sport; ecological dynamics; transdisciplinary; form of life; skill; skill development; decision-making; freeriding; avalanche education
Online: 14 January 2022 (11:51:24 CET)
The last few decades have witnessed a surge of interest in adventure sports, and an emerging research focus on these activities. However, recent conceptual analyses and scientific reviews have highlighted a major, fundamental question that remains unresolved: what constitutes an adventure sport (and are they ‘sports’ at all)? Despite several proposals for definitions, the field still seems to lack a shared conceptualization. This deficit may be a serious limitation for research and practice, restricting the development of a more nuanced theoretical explanation of participation and prac-tical implications within and across adventure sports. In this article we address another crucial question, how can adventure sports be better understood for research and practice? We briefly summarize previous definitions to address evident confusion and lack of conceptual clarity in the discourse. Alternatively, we propose how an ecological perspective on human behaviors, as in-teractions with the environment, may provide an appropriate conceptualization to guide and enhance future research and practice, using examples from activities such as freeride skiing / snowboarding, white-water kayaking, climbing, mountaineering and the fields of sport science, psychology and avalanche research and education. We draw on ecological dynamics as a trans-disciplinary approach to discuss how this holistic framework presents a more detailed, nuanced, and precise understanding of adventure sports.
Thu, 13 January 2022
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0195.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Clinical Psychology Keywords: Thai START; Forensic psychiatric inpatients; Confirmatory factor analysis with ordinal data; Violence risk assessment; forensic psychology; Psychometrics
Online: 13 January 2022 (15:57:05 CET)
The Short-Term Assessment of Risk and Treatability (START) is deemed the most appropriate instrument for assessing violence risks and management because of its balanced approach between dynamic risk and protective factors. Although several facets of reliability and predictive validity of this tool were strong, its inter-rater reliability, construct validity, and implementation in Asian population were under-investigated. The objective of this research was to examine the inter-rater reliability and construct validity of the START: Thai version within forensic psychiatric inpatients. The participants consisted of 118 forensic psychiatric inpatients hospitalized at Galya Rajanagarindra Institute in Thailand. Trained mental health professionals (i.e., psychiatrists, forensic nurses, clinical psychologists, social workers, and occupational therapists) assessed each participant across twenty domains of the Thai START. The inter-rater reliability was examined using the intraclass correlation coefficient and a confirmatory factor analysis for ordinal data was used to test the construct validity of the scale. The main finding showed a good-to-excellent inter-rater reliability and supported two relational constructs (i.e., strength vs vulnerability subscales) of the Thai START. The Thai START is a promising tool for using in Thai forensic psychiatric setting but some items were not significant in contributing to the scale. This study also provides the guideline for implementing the tool in non-Western forensic psychiatric populations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0192.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Social Psychology Keywords: Single-use plastics (SUPs); plastic pollution management; policy; pollution; Atlantic Canada
Online: 13 January 2022 (13:58:00 CET)
Government-led legislation is a key strategy to reduce plastic pollution; however, societal perception can heavily influence government intervention for environmental issues. To understand the public acceptability of government action to reduce plastic pollution, we examine the perception of existing and upcoming legislative action on single-use plastics by means of a structured survey with additional semi-structured interviews. Our focus is on the four Atlantic provinces of Canada, which was the first region in Canada to implement provincial-wide legislation for plastic reduction at the consumer level in 2019. Results show strong public support (77 %, n = 838) for bans on single-use plastic bags at the consumer level, and for further plastic pollution reduction legislation. However, the level of support differed between regions and by demographics. Semi-structured interviews show that decision-makers should increase efforts in raising consumer awareness and standardizing regulations across jurisdictions for smoother transitions prior to legislative action.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0186.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Behavioral Neuroscience Keywords: habituation learning; habituation genes; habituation pathways; neurodevelopmantal disorders
Online: 13 January 2022 (10:57:23 CET)
Habituation, the most ancient and fundamental form of learning, manifests already before birth. Neuroscientists have been fascinated for decades by its function as a firewall protecting our brains from sensory information overload and its indispensability for higher cognitive processing. Evidence that habituation learning is affected in autism and related monogenic neurodevelopmental syndromes and their animal models has exponentially grown, but the potential of this convergence to advance both fields is still largely unexploited.In this review, we provide a systematic overview of the genes that to date have been demonstrated to underlie habituation across species. We describe the biological processes they converge on, and highlight core regulatory pathways and repurposable drugs that may alleviate the habituation deficits associated with their dysregulation. We also summarize currently used habituation paradigms and extract the most important arguments from literature that support the crucial role of habituation for cognition in health and disease. We conclude that habituation is a powerful tool to overcome current bottlenecks in research, diagnostics and treatment of neurodevelopmental disorders.
Mon, 10 January 2022
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0104.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, General Psychology Keywords: state IQ; aggregate IQ; well-being; g nexus; PIAAC; NAEP
Online: 10 January 2022 (12:05:43 CET)
At the level of the 50 U.S. states, an interconnected nexus of well-being variables exists. These variables have been shown to strongly correlate with estimates of state IQ in interesting ways. But the state IQ estimates (McDaniel 2006) are now more than 16 years old, and the state well-being estimates (Pesta et al., 2010) are over 12 years old. Updated state IQ and well-being estimates are therefore needed. I thus first created new state IQ estimates by analyzing scores from both the Program for the International Assessment of Adult Competency (for adults), and the National Assessment of Educational Progress (for fourth and eighth grade children) exams. I also created new global well-being scores by analyzing state variables from the following four well-being subdomains: crime, income, health, and education. When validating the nexus, several interesting correlations existed among the variables. For example, state IQ most strongly predicted FICO credit scores, alcohol consumption (directly), income inequality, and state temperature. Interestingly, state IQ derived here also correlated .58 with state IQ estimates from over 100 years ago. Global well-being likewise correlated with many old and new variables in the nexus, including a correlation of .80 with IQ. In sum, at the level of the U.S. state, a nexus of important, strongly correlated variables exists. These variables comprise well-being, and state IQ is a central node in this network.
Thu, 6 January 2022
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0062.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: Refugee, Asylum seeker, resettlement, scoping review
Online: 6 January 2022 (10:09:58 CET)
The aim of this scoping review is to conduct a systematic search of the literature as it pertains to interventions delivered by peers to refugees and asylum seekers during the resettlement process. A PRISMA-compliant scoping review based on Arskey and O'Malley's (2006) five steps was used. Four databases, Scopus, Embase, Ebsco, and ScienceDirect were searched for peer-reviewed articles published in English from 2000-2021. Studies were included if they reported on interventions, outcomes or the training received by adult peers to support refugees and asylum seekers during the resettlement process. Of an initial 632 journal articles retrieved, 14 met the inclusion criteria for this review. Most included studies were conducted in Western high-income countries, with the exception of one. Studies were heterogeneous in terms of the nationalities of peers and those receiving peer interventions; the outcomes reported on; the content of interventions, and the methodologies used. Findings suggest that peer interventions seem to be effective in addressing many of the challenges faced by refugees and asylum seekers. Community integration, acculturation and psychological distress are some of the key benefits. When such interventions are co-produced in participatory research involving refugees, asylum seekers and the civil society organisations that support this population, they are naturally culturally responsive and can therefore address issues relative to different ethnic needs during the resettlement process. This is the first scoping review to be conducted in this area and adds to what is a very limited body of research. Refugee, Asylum seeker, resettlement, scoping review
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0053.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Behavioral Neuroscience Keywords: body dysmorphic disorder; EEG; optical illusions; alpha oscillations
Online: 6 January 2022 (09:44:14 CET)
Background: Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) is a psychiatric disorder characterized by excessive preoccupation with imagined defects in appearance. Optical illusions induce illusory effects that distort the presented stimulus thus leading to ambiguous percepts. Using electroencephalography (EEG), we investigated whether BDD is related to differentiated perception during illusory percepts. Methods: 18 BDD patients and 18 controls were presented with 39 optical illusions together with a statement testing whether or not they perceived the illusion. After a delay period, they were prompted to answer whether the statement is right/wrong and their degree of confidence for their answer. We investigated differences of BDD on task performance and self-reported confidence and analysed the brain oscillations during decision-making using nonparametric cluster statistics. Results: Behaviorally, the BDD group exhibited reduced confidence when responding incorrectly, potentially attributed to higher levels of doubt. Electrophysiologically, the BDD group showed significantly reduced alpha power at mid-central scalp areas, suggesting impaired allocation of attention. Interestingly, the lower the alpha power of the identified cluster, the higher the BDD severity, as assessed by BDD psychometrics. Conclusions: Results evidenced that alpha power during illusory processing might serve as a quantitative EEG biomarker of BDD, potentially associated with reduced inhibition of task-irrelevant areas.
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