ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0193.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Art History & Restoration Keywords: Ornaments; Symmetry; Wallpaper Group; Rum Seljuks; Islamic Art
Online: 13 July 2022 (08:42:38 CEST)
The Seljuks, who came from the Central Asian prairies, invaded Asia Minor towards the end of the 11th century. The land had been settled by then mainly by the Christian Eastern Romans and Armenian peoples. Seljuks were Moslems; they built monumental structures, some of which have survived the natural disasters of several centuries to the present day. Most of these architectural marvels contain extraordinary decorations in the form of ornaments, friezes and rosettes. I have studied periodic ornaments and classified them into 17 mathematical wallpaper groups according to their symmetry properties that reveal their global structure. On the other hand, the local details of the ornaments, the motifs, show a clear variation from simple geometric patterns to complicated and refined forms. Seljuk art was originally influenced by Persian styles, later influenced by the Christian population in Asia Minor, and finally represents the impact of Islamic culture.
Fri, 13 May 2022
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0187.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Art History & Restoration Keywords: historic pigments; colorants; nitrocellulose; X-ray radiography; X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy; infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy; Raman spectroscopy
Online: 13 May 2022 (09:44:35 CEST)
This study applied multiple scientific approaches to establish the significance of an old work of art, Red Guitar, by examining its historical origin and the color materials used in its creation. Furthremore, the study provides thus far unknown pieces of Olga Picasso's family history to be added to her biography. Scientific approaches included digital X-ray radiography, X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and elemental thermal conductivity analysis. This combination of techniques provided broad confirmation about the time when the painting was created. The work includes colors (white, black, blue, yellow, green, red, and brown/red) and prevalent use of lead-and iron-based historic pigments Chrome Yellow, Yellow Ochre and Red Ochre. It also documents the use of unconventional materials, the colorant Pigment red 4 and nitrocellulose. This investigation led to the conclusion that the art, Red Guitar, is genuine and in accord with Picasso’s work during the first two decades of the 20th century.
Fri, 25 February 2022
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0299.v2
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Art History & Restoration Keywords: Relics protection; Protection of material heritage; VR animation; Stone statue; The Ming Xiao Mausoleum
Online: 25 February 2022 (13:54:51 CET)
This paper takes the VR animation display of the Ming Xiao Mausoleum General stone statue life as an example to study the advantages of VR animation in the display of material heritage. Combined with literature and pictures, the digital restoration of the Ming Xiao Mausoleum stone statue is carried out in MAYA and Z brush, and the construction of the scene and the output of the final effect are realized in UE4.
Thu, 20 January 2022
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0299.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Art History & Restoration Keywords: Armor in Ming Dynasty; Stone carving in Ming Xiaoling Mausoleum; 3D animation technology; MAYA; Zbrush; UE4
Online: 20 January 2022 (11:08:25 CET)
Based on the historical research on the shape of armor in Ming Dynasty, this paper explores the shape characteristics of general armor in Ming Dynasty in China through field research on the general stone statue of Ming Xiaoling Mausoleum in Nanjing. Through Ming Xiaoling Mausoleum general stone carving 3D animation technology restoration project, virtual material heritage practice is carried out. Through the modeling of the general stone statue in Ming Xiaoling Mausoleum by MAYA and Zbrush, UE4 realizes the construction of scenes and the output of interactive effects, so as to explore a mode of application engine animation that can preserve and propagate general stone carving in Ming Xiaoling Mausoleum.
Mon, 15 November 2021
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0260.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Art History & Restoration Keywords: castles; paintings; colours; decoration; Poland; Bohemia; Teutonic knights
Online: 15 November 2021 (12:40:35 CET)
Colours were ubiquitous in the medieval world, and castles were no exception. While in the eyes of most people their rich colour schemes manifested power and wealth, some could also read the more nuanced messages these colours conveyed. The main objective of this paper is to discuss the use and role of colour in the interiors of castles of medieval Bohemia and Poland. The picture is complemented by the analysis of colour decorations of defensive residences of the Teutonic Order, for which colour schemes of external facades can be addressed as well. The dis-cussion takes into account the varying state of preservation and draws from the available writ-ten accounts. To present the most complete picture possible, we discuss royal residences, for which unfortunately limited data is available, as well as better-preserved castles of dukes and knights. We discuss the identified iconographic programmes and their chivalric, heraldic, and hagiographic motifs. Also within the scope of our discussion are late forms of floral decorations, known as “green chambers”. The numerous examples presented in the paper prove that colour was an important tool of visual social communication in castle architecture: it complemented the symbolism, and sometimes carried an independent message.
Mon, 1 November 2021
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0010.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Art History & Restoration Keywords: color; polychrome, baroque architecture; 16th-18th century; entablature; architectural order.
Online: 1 November 2021 (11:46:41 CET)
The article is dedicated to the role of polychrome solutions of the architectonic order in the concept of the Baroque façade. The ancient principles of designing architectural structures, inherited from the Renaissance were subjected to reinterpretations in order to impart different expressive values. The arrangements of façades, initially balanced or even horizontal, were replaced by ambiguous bivalent compositions. Vertical layouts began to dominate in the Baroque. Appropriately selected polychrome of the elements of the order could emphasize the compositional expression. The relationship between the layout of the polychrome in a given architectural order and the expression of a work of art has been established for quite a long time. However, the generally available data on color schemes of architectural structures in baroque buildings are still not fully organized. The paper analyses examples of Baroque façades preserved in their original state and revalorized in recent years after thorough conservator’s research in the field of architecture and color. The examples are mainly designed in the so-called great order, i.e. pertaining largely to church façades. In the Baroque, the vertical direction of the composition was strongly emphasized by multiplying or applying perspective arrangements of supports, and finally by embattled entablatures. The decisive field of change became the shaping of the coloristic decoration of the entablature – decisions regarding the material and color separation of elements of the frieze above the supports. The uniform color of all vertical elements of the façade structure guaranteed an unambiguous verticality of the composition.
Wed, 1 September 2021
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0005.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Art History & Restoration Keywords: 19-century metal sculpture; art foundries; elemental characterisation; corrosion; outdoor sculpture; Afonso Henriques.
Online: 1 September 2021 (10:44:59 CEST)
The outdoor sculpture of the first Portuguese king, D. Afonso Henriques (~1109 – 1185 AD), placed in Guimarães (North Portugal) is one of the most emblematic national sculptures. Created in 1887 by António Soares dos Reis, it possesses a remarkable symbolic value in the presumed birthplace of the king. In addition to the artistic and heritage importance of the monument, it is one of the few sculptures cast by a Portuguese industrial foundry in the 19th-century. This study obtained data on the sculpture's elemental composition and corrosion products, gathering important historical and technical information. For this purpose, a multi-analytical approach consisting of X-ray fluorescence (XRF), X-ray diffraction (XRD), optical microscopy (OM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM-EDS) was carried out to characterise the bulk metal and corrosion layers. The data revealed a ternary alloy of Cu, Sn, Zn with Pb, Fe, As, Bi and Mn as minor elements. The alloy matches that of other sculptures cast in that period. In terms of corrosion, it is characterised by the presence of oxides. These results represent the first step for applying an appropriate conservation strategy for bronze sculptures with similar characteristics.
Mon, 24 June 2019
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0239.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Art History & Restoration Keywords: marble black crust; carbon nano particles; soluble dust; blue-green algae (cyanophyceae); humic substances
Online: 24 June 2019 (09:22:15 CEST)
The science on the anthropogenic airborne aerosols impacting upon the World Heritage marble monument, the Taj Mahal, at Agra has been studied in the light of modern physico-chemical approaches. The study is an effort to understand yet unrecognized airborne species which were found on the surface of the Taj Mahal monument. These species have been analyzed in the light of current analytical methods to impart characterization features and their possible impacts on the surface of the marble. Chemical constituents of these substrates which were incorporated over the top surface of the monument have been identified. Interestingly, the carbon particulates which were thought in the micro level, popularly called “particulate matters” has now been identified even in the nano domain entity, which are chemically more reactive, have been found on the surface of the monument. Because of their high chemical activity these nano carbons do play newer chemistry in the presence of air and sunlight generating several reactive oxygen species (ROS).These ROS are capable to respond to complicated chemical reactions on the surface of the marble in association with deposited cyanophyceae and other deposits of plant origin causing rapid degradation. This study provides the nature of onslaught borne out by such monument exposed under the prevalent smoggy environmental scenario.
Mon, 28 January 2019
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0278.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Art History & Restoration Keywords: cultural identity; conservation; cultural landscape; value; Uraman Takh
Online: 28 January 2019 (12:11:03 CET)
Identity is the basis and foundation of the cultural landscape. Despite the emphasis of international documents and charters on its various aspects and necessity, today, the cultural landscape is threatened by extinction due to changes of many parameters. Accordingly, it is crucial to find an approach that can sustain cultural identity and its values in the changing world of the twenty-first century. Given the qualitative and the changing nature of cultural identity, achieving an approach which can lead to its continuation is not straightforward. By reviewing and analyzing international conventions and documents, on the one hand, and expert opinions, on the other hand, the present study, therefore, aimed to find out how the approach of cultural landscape values conservation can lead to the continuation of cultural identity in the natural and cultural heritage of Uraman Takht. This paper employed qualitative research methods as a basis for data collection and analysis, which primarily involved the use of content analysis along with field observations and interviews with stakeholders and indigenous residents.
Mon, 29 October 2018
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0651.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Art History & Restoration Keywords: wooden object; cultural heritage; history; analysis
Online: 29 October 2018 (04:32:23 CET)
Aims of the paper are the results of a research on a wooden box that holds an important historical document, which is a hand Bible handwritten in the thirteenth century. The tradition connect this Bible to the name of Marco Polo (Venice, 1254 - Venice, 1324), who would be the owner and that it would accompany him on his travels (1262 and 1271) in China. The Bible, of fine workmanship, written on thin parchment, and its container, along with a yellow silk cloth, is preserved in the ancient and prestigious Laurentian Library in Florence. The manuscript was in very poor condition and in the course of the study (2011) was being restored. Aims of survey were to determine the place and period of realization of the box, or rather if it be contemporary or later than the manuscript it contains and whether it was made in the East or in Europe.
Tue, 3 July 2018
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0047.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Art History & Restoration Keywords: Mudejar, Mexico, Antonio de Mendoza, Guilds, Carpentry.
Online: 3 July 2018 (12:30:33 CEST)
This article aims to approach the Mudejar architecture developed in Mexico during the 16th and 17th centuries. The subject has been little studied although both general and specific contributions have been made by the author’s research group. At the methodological level, this study is based on the existing bibliography as well as archive and field research which allow an accurate scientific approach and results. The article analyses the social and productive conditions in Mexico during the Viceregal period along with the systematization carried by the Viceroy Antonio de Mendoza, the guild ordinances and the architectural typologies. The perception of territory and the use of constructive models by the Viceregal authorities would justify the use of the Mudejar style as cultural and unity criteria
Mon, 19 March 2018
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0159.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Art History & Restoration Keywords: Medea; Argonauts; Etruscan art; Cavatha
Online: 19 March 2018 (11:33:17 CET)
It could be said with some precision, that in Antiquity the myth of the Argonauts and especially of Medea herself as a personage of this myth, has enjoyed popularity not only in Greece but also outside its territories. The first among the Italic tribes to be introduced to the personage of Medea no doubt were the Etruscans, who were the first to establish intensive contacts with the Greeks from Euboea founding a colony in Cumae, Italy. It is noteworthy that the first image of Medea in the World Art is seen on Etruscan ceramics. The paper gives detailed analyses of Etruscan artefacts on which Medea appears, providing a solid precondition for substantive conclusions. Some new versions of an interpretation expressed in relation to each of the artefacts on the basis of critical analysis of Etruscan archeological material, of classical texts and of previously undertaken modern research, are provided. Images of Medea in Etruscan art confirmed from the Orientalist era to the Hellenization period represent an original, local interpretation of Medea's image. Medea's magical art turned out to be familiar to the Etruscans, who were well known all throughout the Mediterranean for divination and being experts of magic. In contrast to the Greeks, they turned Medea into an object of cult worship, identifying her with the Etruscan sun god Cavatha.
Sun, 18 February 2018
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201802.0117.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Art History & Restoration Keywords: Public Art; Cultural identity; Islamic society; Art history; Pakistan.
Online: 18 February 2018 (13:16:07 CET)
The significance of arts incorporated with culture inclusion makes the arts a matter of pressing interest. The arts are vital elements of a healthy society that benefits the nations even in difficult social and economic times. Based on the previous studies this research was conducted for the first time in Pakistan to explore the historical background of public art correlated with cultural and religious ethics. Though, Pakistan has a rich cultural history yet the role of modern public art is new and often used unintentionally. Our findings of different surveys conducted in Pakistan including oldest cities such as Lahore, Peshawar and newly developed, the capital city, Islamabad concluded that Public art has a rich cultural and historical background and the local community are enthusiastically connected to it. Different community groups prefer different types of public art in their surroundings depends on the city’s profile, cultural background, and religious mindset of the local community. Overall, the sculptures and depiction of animated beings are not considering right and debatable among the Pakistani societies. On the other hand, the cultural and historical monuments are highly appreciated and welcomed by the local community of Pakistan. This study may create scope for future estimation and development of public art in Pakistan in association with Islamic laws and cultural norms of the local society.
Tue, 12 December 2017
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201712.0071.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Art History & Restoration Keywords: history of architecture; architectural models; architectural media
Online: 12 December 2017 (07:05:09 CET)
Architecture is more than just buildings. Its associated production and reception processes take place through a variety of different media. Among those media, the model is of special significance: because architecture, like almost every science or art, works with models as representationally or theoretically simplified images mediating between the abstract and the reality. The properties that characterise models give them a special significance in architecture—both in the abstract, as well as in the concrete. The following article sketches out the history of the architectural model as a medium in a short tour d’horizon. A special focus is placed on showing the versatility of the model—for design and presentation and as an artefact, teaching resource and research medium. It transmits a specific form of knowledge which can be replaced by no other medium.
Tue, 28 November 2017
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201711.0178.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Art History & Restoration Keywords: art history; Nordic countries; life reform movement; Ellen Key; 19th Century; 20th Century
Online: 28 November 2017 (05:29:23 CET)
In the second half of the 19th century a wave of modernisation, industrialisation and urbanisation swept the Nordic countries, catapulting what had until then been lagging and primarily rural countries into modernity. These major upheavals, however, also plunged the Nordic countries into a profound social and cultural crisis resulting from their consciousness of their own backwardness vis-a-vis the countries on the European continent, as well as the recognition that a nostalgic nationalism recalling a mythical past had become obsolete in the industrial age. In response to this crisis, a life reform movement emerged that was based on Arts and Crafts movements as well as various artistic and literary reform movements and—equally absorbing rural traditions and progressive social ideas—tried to establish a new national everyday culture. In this article, the two key terms coined by Ellen Key, “Festive Customs” (‘festvanor’) and “Everyday Beauty” (‘vardagsskönhet’)—the programmatic core of the Nordic life reform movement—are analysed and illustrated in various typical manifestations. It also examines to what extent the Nordic life reform movement with these two key concepts as its core agenda found expression in arts and crafts, in painting as well as in the architecture of the late nineteenth and early twentieth century and contributed to the progress of social and cultural renewal.