ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0210.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: hydroxocobalamin; cyanocobalamin; thiolatocobalamins; thiol oxidation; ROS production; cytotoxicity
Online: 11 August 2022 (06:17:50 CEST)
Cobalamin is an essential nutrient required for the normal functioning of cells. Its deficiency can lead to various pathological states. Hydroxocobalamin (HOCbl) and cyanocobalamin (CNCbl) are the forms of vitamin B12 that are most commonly used for supplementation. There is substantial evidence indicating that cobalamins can both suppress and promote oxidative stress; however, the mechanisms underlying these effects are poorly understood. Here, it was shown that the oxidation of thiols catalyzed by HOCbl and CNCbl is accompanied by ROS production and induces, under certain conditions, oxidative stress and cell death. The form of vitamin B12 and the structure of thiol play a decisive role in these processes. It was found that the mechanisms and kinetics of thiol oxidation catalyzed by HOCbl and CNCbl differ substantially. It was discussed how these differences may explain different levels of ROS production and cytotoxicity induced by combinations of thiols with HOCbl and CNCbl. On the whole, the data obtained provide a new insight into the redox processes in which cobalamins are involved and might be helpful in developing new approaches to the treatment of some cobalamin-responsive disorders in which oxidative stress is an important component. In addition, these data may be useful for a better understanding of mechanisms underlying induction of different types of death of cancer cells and in a search for new targets for anticancer therapy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0473.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Organic Chemistry Keywords: heptamethine cyanine; protein labeling; thiol labeling; cancer targeting; vimentin
Online: 22 October 2018 (05:54:24 CEST)
Convenient labeling of proteins is important for observing its function under physiological conditions. In tissues particularly, heptamethine cyanine dyes (Cy-7) are valuable because they absorb in near infrared (NIR) region (750 – 900 nm) where light penetration is maximal. In this work, we found Cy-7 dyes with a meso-Cl functionality covalently binding to proteins with free Cys residues under physiological conditions (aqueous environments, at near neutral pH, and 37 °C). It transpired that the meso-Cl of the dye was displaced by free thiols in protein, while nucleophilic side-chains from amino acids like Tyr, Lys, and Ser did not react. This finding shows a new possibility for convenient and selective labeling of proteins with near-IR fluorescent probes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0012.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Secretory Phospholipase A2, Bothrops jararacussu, Oxidative Stress, Edema, Myonecrosis and Thiol Dependent Antioxidant
Online: 3 May 2021 (16:15:40 CEST)
Background: Clinical cases reports with snake accidents show that venom bite induces increased oxidative stress including several markers of lipid peroxidation and other oxidative stress marker in plasma. Methods: The main findings of this work were performed with BthTx-II on paw edema of animals treated with the toxin and biochemical measurement of COX-2, PGE2, MDA and the effects of peroxiredoxin inhibitors on edema and myotoxicity were also evaluated. Results: The results show that edema and myotoxocity induced by PLA2 (BthTx-II) induces a strong mobilization of arachidonic acid and an increase in cellular oxidative stress as measured by increased malondialdehydo (MDA) concentration and protein carbonylation. Thus, these findings establish the strong link between oxidative stress, arachidonic acid mobilization and that these events may explain the presence of oxidative stress markers in snake-bitten patients. Experiments performed with animals previously treated with commercially purchased inhibitors showed enzymes such as thioredoxin (TXN), thioredoxin reductase (TXNRD) and other glutathione (GSH)-related antioxidant defenses could play an essential role controlling and defining the end of edema on the late phase of PLA2 BthTx-II-induced process. Conclusion. This study showed that thioate-dependent antioxidant enzymes play an important role in resolving the edema induced by BthTx-II.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0527.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: Gold Nanoparticles; Hyaluronate-Thiol; In vitro; In vivo; Peritumoral; Cancer; Cytotoxicity; ICP-OES; Biodistribution
Online: 1 October 2021 (11:12:31 CEST)
Biofouling is the unwanted adsorption of cells, proteins, or intracellular and extracellular bio-molecules that can spontaneously occur on the surface of metal nanocomplexes. It represents a major issue in bioinorganic chemistry because it leads to the creation of a protein corona, which can destabilize a colloidal solution and result in undesired macrophage-driven clearance, consequently causing failed delivery of a targeted drug-cargo. Hyaluronic acid (HA) is a bioactive, natural mucopolysaccharide with excellent antifouling properties, arising from its hydrophilic and polyanionic characteristics in physiological environments which prevent opsonization. In this study, hyaluronate-thiol (HA-SH) (MW 10 kDa) was used to surface-passivate gold nanoparticles (GNPs) synthesized using a citrate reduction method. HA functionalized GNP complexes (HA-GNPs) were characterized using absorption spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, zeta potential, and dynamic light scattering. GNP cellular uptake and potential dose-dependent cytotoxic effects due to treatment were evaluated in vitro in HeLa cells using ICP-OES and Trypan blue and MTT assays. Further, we quantified the in vivo biodistribution of intratumorally injected HA functionalized GNPs in Lewis Lung carcinoma (LLC) solid tumors grown on the flank of C57BL/6 mice and compared localization and retention with nascent particles. Our results reveal that HA-GNPs show overall greater peritumoral distribution (**p<0.005, 3 days post-intratumoral injection) than citrate-GNPs with reduced biodistribution in off-target organs. This property represents an advantageous step forward in localized delivery of metal nano-complexes to the infiltrative region of a tumor, which may improve the application of nanomedicine in the diagnosis and treatment of cancer.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0342.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: cathepsin; chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD); cigarette smoke; cysteine; cysteine protease; emphysema; oxidation; proteolysis; ROS; thiol
Online: 24 February 2020 (02:48:00 CET)
Besides their primary involvement in the recycling and degradation of proteins in endo-lysosomal compartments but also in specialized biological functions, cysteine cathepsins are pivotal proteolytic contributors of various deleterious diseases. While the molecular mechanisms of regulation by their natural inhibitors have been exhaustively studied, less is currently known about how their enzymatic activity is modulated during the redox imbalance associated with an oxidative stress and their exposure resistance to oxidants. More specifically, there is only patchy information on the regulation of lung cysteine cathepsins, while the respiratory system is directly exposed to countless exogenous oxidants contained in dust, tobacco, combustion fumes, and industrial or domestic particles. Papain-like enzymes (clan CA, family C1, subfamily C1A) encompass a conserved catalytic thiolate-imidazolium pair (Cys25-His159) in their active site. Despite the sulfhydryl group (with a low acidic pKa) is a potent nucleophile highly susceptible to chemical modifications, some cysteine cathepsins reveal an unanticipated resistance to oxidative stress. Beside an introductory chapter and a peculiar attention to lung cysteine cathepsins, the purpose of this review is to afford a concise update of the current knowledge on molecular mechanisms associated to the regulation of cysteine cathepsins by redox balance and by oxidants (e.g. Michael acceptors, reactive oxygen and nitrogen species).