REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0273.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: RNA therapeutics; cardiovascular disease; mRNA therapeutics; siRNA therapeutics; antisense oligonucleotide therapeutics
Online: 16 December 2021 (14:07:05 CET)
Abstract Purpose of review: RNA therapeutics are a new and rapidly expanding class of drugs to prevent or treat a wide spectrum of diseases. We discuss the defining characteristics of the diverse family of molecules under the RNA therapeutics umbrella. Recent findings:RNA therapeutics are designed to regulate gene expression in a transient manner. For example, depending upon the strategy employed, RNA therapies offer the versatility to replace, supplement, correct, suppress, or eliminate the expression of a targeted gene. RNA therapies include antisense nucleotides, microRNAs and small interfering RNAs, RNA aptamers, and messenger RNAs. Further, we discuss the mechanism(s) by which different RNA therapies either reduce or increase the expression of their targets. Summary: We review the RNA therapeutics approved (and those in trials) to treat cardiovascular indications. RNA-based therapeutics are a new, rapidly growing class of drugs that will offer new alternatives for an increasing array of cardiovascular conditions.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0429.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dermatology Keywords: RNA therapeutics; skin; mRNA therapeutics; siRNA therapeutics; antisense oligonucleotide ther-apeutics; ASO; melanoma; hypertrophic scars; wound healing; dermatology
Online: 27 February 2023 (01:53:06 CET)
Despite being under development for decades, RNA therapeutics have only recently emerged as viable platform technologies. The COVID-19 mRNA vaccines have demonstrated the promise and power of the platform technology. In response, novel RNA drugs are entering clinical trials at an accelerating rate. As the skin is the largest and most accessible organ, it has always been a preferred target for drug discovery. This holds true for RNA therapies as well, and multiple candidate RNA-based drugs are currently in development for an array of skin conditions. In this mini review, we catalog the RNA therapies currently in clinical trials for different dermatological diseases. We summarize the main types of RNA-related drugs and use examples of drugs currently in development to illustrate their key mechanism of action.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1818.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: Alternative Splicing; two-colour (GFP/RFP) Fluorescent Reporter; MAPT; Exon-Skipping; FTDP-17; High Content Screening; siRNA; Nucleic Acids Therapeutics; Drug discovery
Online: 26 June 2023 (13:55:26 CEST)
Nucleic acid therapeutics are witnessing an impressive acceleration in recent years. They work through multiple mechanisms of action, including downregulation of gene expression and modulation of RNA splicing. While several drugs based on the former mechanism have been approved, few target the latter, despite the promise of RNA splicing modulation. To improve our ability to discover novel RNA splicing-modulating therapies, we developed HCS-Splice, a robust cell-based High-Content Screening (HCS) assay. By implementing the use of a two-colour (GFP/RFP) fluorescent splicing reporter plasmid, we developed a versatile, effective, rapid, and robust high-throughput strategy for the identification of potent splicing-modulating molecules. The HCS-Splice strategy can also be used to functionally confirm splicing mutations in human genetic disorders or to screen drug candidates. As a proof-of-concept, we introduced a dementia-related splice-switching mutation in Microtubule-Associated Protein Tau (MAPT) exon 10 splicing reporter. We applied HCS-Splice to the wild-type and mutant reporters and measured the functional change in exon 10 inclusion. To demonstrate the applicability of the method to cell-based drug discovery, HCS-Splice was used to evaluate the efficacy of an exon 10-targeting siRNA, which was able to restore the correct alternative splicing balance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0052.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: RNAi; drug delivery; siRNA delivery; DsiRNA delivery; RNAi delivery; Chol-DsiRNA polymer micelles; Chol-siRNA polymer micelles
Online: 3 September 2021 (08:56:48 CEST)
RNA interference (RNAi) molecules have tremendous potential for cancer therapy but are limited by insufficient potency after i.v. administration. We previously found that polymer complexes (polyplexes) formed between 3’-cholesterol-modified siRNA (Chol-siRNA) or DsiRNA (Chol-DsiRNA) and the cationic diblock copolymer PLL-PEG[5K] greatly increase RNAi potency against stably expressed LUC mRNA in primary syngeneic murine breast tumors after daily i.v. dosing. Chol-DsiRNA Polyplexes, however, maintain LUC mRNA suppression ~48 h longer after the final dose than Chol-siRNA Polyplexes, suggesting they are a better candidate formulation. Here, we directly compared the activities of Chol-siRNA and Chol-DsiRNA Polyplexes in primary murine 4T1 breast tumors against STAT3, a therapeutically relevant target gene overexpressed in many solid tumors including breast cancer. We found that Chol-siSTAT3 Polyplexes suppressed STAT3 mRNA in 4T1 tumors with similar potency (half-maximal ED50 0.3 mg/kg) and kinetics over 96 hours as Chol-DsiSTAT3 Polyplexes but with slightly lower activity against total Stat3 protein (29% vs. 42% suppression) and tumor growth (11.5% vs. 8.6% rate-based T/C ratio) after repeated i.v. administration of tumor-saturating doses every other day. Thus, both Chol-siRNA Polyplexes and Chol-DsiRNA Polyplexes may be suitable clinical candidates for RNAi therapy of breast cancer and other solid tumors.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1923.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Materials Science And Technology Keywords: Dendritic Mesoporous Organisilica Nanoparticles; siRNA; FVIII Factor
Online: 26 May 2023 (10:47:14 CEST)
Dendritic Mesoporous Organosilica Nanoparticles (DMON) are a new class of biodegradable nanoparticles suitable for biomolecules delivery. In order to escape from the endosomes-lysosomes and to deliver biomolecules in the cytoplasm of cells, we studied photochemical internalization (PCI) and photodynamic therapy (PDT) of DMON. We added photosensitizers in the framework of DMON. DMON were also loaded with siRNA or FVIII factor protein. We made four formulations with four different photosensitizers, The photosensitizers allowed to perform imaging of DMON in cancer cells, but the presence of the tetrasulfide bond in the framework of DMON quenched the formation of singlet oxygen. Fortunately one formulation allowed to efficiently deliver proapoptotic siRNA in MCF-7 cancer cells leading to 31% of cancer cell death, without irradiation. For FVIII protein, it was loaded in two formulations with drug loading capacities (DLC) up to 25%. In conclusion DMON are versatile nanoparticles which allowed to load siRNA and to deliver it in cancer cells, and to load FVIII protein with good DLC. Due to the presence of tetrasulfide, it was not possible to perform PDT and PCI.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0430.v1
Online: 25 August 2022 (10:00:27 CEST)
The COVID-19 pandemic initiated a race to determine the best measures to control the disease and to save as many people as possible. Efforts to implement social distancing, the use of masks, and massive vaccination programs turned out to be essential in reducing the devastating effects of the pandemic. Nevertheless, the high mutation rates of SARS-CoV-2 challenge the vaccination strategy and maintain the threat of new outbreaks due to the risk of infection surges and even lethal variations able to resist the effects of vaccines and upset the balance. Most of the new therapies tested against SARS-CoV-2 came from already available formulations developed to treat other diseases, so they were not specifically developed for SARS-CoV-2. In parallel, the knowledge produced regarding the molecular mechanisms involved in this disease was vast due to massive efforts worldwide. Taking advantage of such a vast molecular understanding of virus genomes and disease mechanisms, a targeted molecular therapy based on siRNA specifically developed to reach exclusive SARS-CoV-2 genomic sequences was tested in a non-transformed human cell model. Since coronavirus can escape from siRNA by producing siRNA inhibitors, a complex strategy to simultaneously strike both the viral infectious mechanism and the capability of evading siRNA therapy was developed. The combined administration of the chosen produced siRNA proved to be highly effective in successfully reducing viral load and keeping virus replication under control, even after many days of treatment, unlike the combinations of siRNAs lacking this anti-anti-siRNA capability. Additionally, the developed therapy did not harm the normal cells, which was demonstrated because, instead of testing the siRNA in nonhuman cells or in transformed human cells, a non-transformed human thyroid cell was specifically chosen for the experiment. The proposed siRNA combination deeply reduced the viral load throughout the experiment and allowed cellular recovery, thus representing a potential innovation, to be considered as an additional weapon for therapy of COVID-19 and even other infectious diseases.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0445.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: Colorectal cancer; CD133; siRNA; Oxaliplatin; combination therapy
Online: 19 July 2020 (21:01:21 CEST)
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is considered as one of the leading types of cancer in the world. CD133, as a cancer stem cell marker, has a pivotal role in the development of drug resistance, migration, and stemness properties of CRC cells. This study designed to check the combined effect of CD133siRNA and Oxaliplatin on proliferation, migration, apoptosis, and stemness properties of CRC cells in HT-29 cell line.MTT assay was performed to define the combined effect of CD133siRNA and Oxaliplatin on the viability of HT-29 cells. In order to figure out the effect of this combination therapy on CD133 expression at the gene and protein level, qRT-PCR and western blot were exploited, respectively. The ability of cell migration was tested by wound healing assay as well. Also, colony formation and sphere formation were conducted to assess the stemness properties in the combination group. Flow cytometry was conducted to investigate the apoptosis, cell cycle, and surface expression of CD133 in different groups. Finally, the expression of migration-, and stemness-associated genes were measured by qRT-PCR. We indicated that silencing of CD133 reduces the migration and stemness properties of colorectal cancerous cells. This suppression makes HT-29 cells more sensitive to Oxaliplatin and reduces the effective dose of this chemical drug. Therefore, the suppression of CD133 in combination with Oxaliplatin treatment might be a promising therapeutic approach in the treatment of colorectal cancer.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1643.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Medicine And Pharmacology Keywords: metastasis treatment; small molecules; tyrosine kinase inhibitors; integrins; siRNA
Online: 22 June 2023 (16:10:15 CEST)
Metastasis is the main cause of anti-cancer therapies failure, leading to unfavorable prognosis for patients. The true challenge to increase cancer patient life expectancy by making cancer a chronic disease with periodic but manageable relapses, relies on the development of efficient therapeutic strategies specifically directed against key targets in the metastatic process. Traditional chemotherapy with classical alkylating agents, microtubule inhibitors and antimetabolites has demonstrated its limited efficacy against metastatic cells due to their capacity to select chemo-resistant cell populations that undergo epithelial to mesenchymal transition (ETM) thus promoting the colonization of distant sites that in turn sustain the initial metastatic process. This scenario has prompted efforts aimed at discovering a wide variety of small molecules as potential anti-metastatic drugs directed against more specific targets known to be involved in the various stages of metastasis. In this short reviews we will give an overview of the most recent advances related to three main large families of antimetastatic small molecules: intracellular tyrosine kinase inhibitors, integrin antagonists and small interfering (siRNAs). Although the majority of these small molecules are not yet approved and not available in the drug market, any information related to their stage of development could represent a precious and valuable tool to identify new targets in the endless fight against metastasis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0254.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: siRNA; ionizable lipids; nanoparticles; in vivo; QSAR; machine learning
Online: 11 August 2021 (11:12:00 CEST)
In silico prediction of the in vivo efficacy of siRNA ionizable-lipid nanoparticles is desirable yet never achieved before. This study aims to computationally predict siRNA nanoparticles in vivo efficacy, which saves time and resources. A data set containing 120 entries was prepared by combining molecular descriptors of the ionizable lipids together with two nanoparticles formulation characteristics. Input descriptor combinations were selected by an evolutionary algorithm. Artificial neural networks, support vector machines and partial least squares regression were used for QSAR modeling. Depending on how the data set is split, two training sets and two external validation sets were prepared. Training and validation sets contained 90 and 30 entries respectively. The results showed the successful predictions of validation set log(dose) with R2val = 0.86 – 0.89 and 0.75 – 80 for validation sets one and two respectively. Artificial neural networks resulted in the best R2val for both validation sets. For predictions that have high bias, improvement of R2val from 0.47 to 0.96 was achieved by selecting the training set lipids lying within the applicability domain. In conclusion, in vivo performance of siRNA nanoparticles was successfully predicted by combining cheminformatics with machine learning techniques.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0115.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: nanodiamond; tritium; biodistribution; Ewing sarcoma; drug delivery; siRNA; nanomedicine
Online: 9 February 2020 (17:37:11 CET)
Nanodiamonds of detonation origin are promising delivery agents of anti-cancer therapeutic compounds in a whole organism like mouse, owing to their versatile surface chemistry and ultra-small 5 nm average primary size compatible with natural elimination routes. However, to date, little is known about tissue distribution, elimination pathways and efficacy of nanodiamonds-based therapy in mice. In this report, we studied the capacity of cationic hydrogenated detonation nanodiamonds to carry active small interfering RNA (siRNA) in a mice model of Ewing sarcoma, a bone cancer of young adult due in the vast majority to the EWS-Fli1 junction oncogene. Replacing hydrogen gas by its radioactive analog tritium gas led to the formation of labeled nanodiamonds and allowed us to investigate their distribution throughout mouse organs and their excretion in urine and feces. We also demonstrated that siRNA directed against EWS-Fli1 inhibited this oncogene expression in tumor xenografted on mice. This work is a significant step to establish cationic hydrogenated detonation nanodiamond as an effective agent for in vivo delivery of active siRNA.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0976.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: mycoviruses; dsRNA; Totivirus; Geotrichum; high throughput sequencing; siRNA; RNA interference
Online: 14 September 2023 (11:55:38 CEST)
Mycoviruses are widespread across the major taxa of fungi including yeasts. Mycoviruses in the yeast fungus Geotrichum candidum are not well studied with three G. candidum-associated viral species characterized to date, all of which belong to the Totiviridae genus Totivirus. In this study, we report the molecular characteristics of another two totiviruses co-infecting isolate Gc6 of G. candidum. The two totiviruses were tentatively named Geotrichum candidum totivirus 2 (GcTV2-Gc6) and GcTV4-Gc6). Both viruses have typical genome organization of totiviruses comprising two ORFs encoding capsid protein (CP) and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) at the N and C termini, respectively. Genomes of GcTV2-Gc6 and GcTV4-Gc6 are 4592 and 4530 bp long, respectively. Both viruses contain the -1 frameshifting elements and their proteins could be expressed as a single fusion protein. GcTV2-Gc6 is closely related to a totivirus isolated from the same host whereas GcTV4-Gc6 is related to insect-associated totiviruses. The phylogenetic analysis indicated that GcTV2-Gc6 and GcTV4-Gc6 belong to two different sister clades, I-A and I-B, respectively. It is interesting that all viruses identified from G. candidum belong to the genus Totivirus. It is possible that the RNA interference (RNAi) mechanism is not active to suppress totivirus accumulation in isolate Gc6.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0256.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Medicinal Chemistry Keywords: siRNA prodrug; selective cancer targeting; red light activation; photoreduction; RNAi; azobenzene
Online: 4 May 2023 (10:22:20 CEST)
RNA interference (RNAi) using small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) is a powerful tool to target any protein of interest and is becoming more implementable for in vivo applications due to recent developments in RNA delivery systems. To exploit RNAi for cancer treatment, it is expedient to increase its selectivity by e.g. a prodrug approach to activate the siRNAs upon external triggering, e.g. by using light. Red light is especially well suitable for in vivo applications due to its low toxicity and higher tissue penetration. Known molecular (not nanoparticle based) red light activatable siRNA prodrugs rely on singlet oxygen (1O2) mediated chemistry. 1O2 is highly cytotoxic. Additionally one of the side products in the activation of the known siRNA prodrugs is anthraquinone, which is also toxic. We here report on an improved red light activatable siRNA prodrug, which do not require 1O2 for their activation. The 5’ terminus of its antisense strand is protected with an electron-rich azobenzene promoiety. It gets reduced and cleaved upon red light exposure in the presence of Sn(IV)(pyropheophorbide a)dichloride acting as a catalyst and ascorbate required as a bulk reducing agent producing active siRNAs.
OPINION | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0016.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: parallel DNA; antiparallel DNA; PCR; CRISPR; nucleic acid hybridization; microarray; siRNA
Online: 2 August 2016 (10:42:27 CEST)
Many fundamental molecular techniques (PCR, Microarray, Southern and northern hybridization, siRNA, CRISPR/Cas9 etc.) developed so far shows errors. I wish to highlight these molecular techniques are developed on basis of Watson-Crick DNA model, ignoring the concept of parallel stranded DNA. Through this opinion article, I wish to highlight specificity and accuracy of these molecular techniques can be enhanced by considering both parallel and anti parallel hybridization of DNA. Hopefully my views will also solve issue of irreproducibility in life science research.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0420.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: PEDV; porcine innate immunity; pattern recognition receptor (PRR); signaling adaptors; knockout; siRNA
Online: 6 July 2023 (11:50:52 CEST)
Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) has caused great damage to the global pig industry. The innate immunity plays a significant role in resisting viral infection, however, the exact role of innate immunity in the anti-PEDV response has not been fully elucidated. In this study, we observed that various porcine innate immune signaling adaptors are involved in the anti-PEDV activity. Among these, TRIF and MAVS showed the strongest anti-PEDV activity. The endogenous TRIF, MAVS and STING were selected for further examination of anti-PEDV activity. Agonist stimulation experiments showed that TRIF, MAVS and STING signaling all have obvious anti-PEDV activity. The siRNA knockdown assay showed that TRIF, MAVS and STING are also all involved in anti-PEDV response, and their remarkable effects on PEDV replication were confirmed in TRIF-/-, MAVS-/- and STING-/- Vero cells. For further verification, the anti-PEDV activity of TRIF, MAVS and STING could be reproduced in porcine IPEC-DQ cells. In summary, this study reveals that multiple pattern recognition receptor (PRR) signaling pathways of porcine innate immunity play an important role in the anti-PEDV infection, providing new and useful antiviral knowledge for prevention and control of PEDV spreading.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0038.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: allele specific expression; 6-BA; DNA methylation; long noncoding RNA; siRNA; poplar
Online: 4 February 2020 (05:22:28 CET)
The cytokinins play important roles in plant growth and development by regulating gene expression at genome wide level. DNA methylation is responsive to the external environment, but whether DNA methylation changes in response to cytokinin treatment to regulate gene expression is still unclear. Here, we used bisulfite sequencing and RNA sequencing to examine genome-wide DNA methylation and gene expression patterns in poplar (Populus tomentosa) after treatment with the synthetic cytokinin 6-benzylaminopurine (6-BA). We identified 566 significantly differentially methylated regions (DMRs) in response to 6-BA treatment. Transcriptome analysis showed that 501 protein-coding genes, 262 long non-coding RNAs, and 15,793 24-nt small interfering RNAs were differentially expressed under 6-BA treatment. Among these, 79% were differentially expressed between alleles in P. tomentosa. Combined DNA methylation and gene expression analysis demonstrated that DNA methylation plays an important role in regulating allele-specific gene expression. To further investigate the relationship between these 6-BA-responsive genes and phenotypic variation, we performed SNP analysis of 507 6-BA-responsive DMRs via re-sequencing using a natural population of P. tomentosa and identified 206 SNPs that were significantly associated with growth and wood properties. Association analysis indicated that 53% of loci with allele-specific expression had primarily dominant effects on poplar traits. Our comprehensive analyses of P. tomentosa DNA methylation and the regulation of allele-specific gene expression suggest that DNA methylation is an important regulator of imbalanced expression between allelic loci.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0372.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: gene therapy; non-viral vectors; gene delivery; cancer; nucleic acid delivery; nanoparticles; lipids; lipid nanoparticles; mRNA; siRNA
Online: 25 January 2022 (09:01:41 CET)
The research and development of non-viral gene therapy has been extensive over the past decade and has received a big push thanks to the successful approval of non-viral gene therapy products in recent times. Despite these developments, gene therapy applications in cancer have been limited. One of the main causes of this has been the imbalance in development of delivery vectors as compared to nucleic acid payloads. This paper reviews non-viral vectors that can be used to deliver nucleic acids for cancer treatment. It discusses various types of vectors and highlights their current applications. Additionally, it also discusses perspective on regulatory landscape to facilitate commercial translation of gene therapy.