COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0275.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: Africa; ecologically based rodent management; field rodents; pest management; rodent control; rodenticides; rodents; synanthropic rodents.
Online: 16 January 2023 (07:54:30 CET)
The use of synthetic chemical rodenticides is the most commonly practiced rodent management method in sub-Saharan Africa which results in health and environmental risks without any significant improvement in terms of reducing rodent pest populations sustainably. In this paper, which is a second part of a diptych, we advocate for better control of the use of synthetic chemical rodenticides in urban and agricultural settings in sub-Saharan Africa, as well as a shift towards more sustainable and environment-friendly rodent management approaches, such as the Ecologically-Based Rodent Management (EBRM), as a realistic alternative to synthetic rodenticides. The EBRM approach relies on a solid knowledge of pest rodent biology, ecology and behavior as well as the use of a pool of rodent management actions implemented through community-based interventions to ensure sustained reduction of rodent pest populations down to economically and sanitary acceptable levels. EBRM is expected not only to ensure reducing the social impacts of pest rodents in cost-beneficial ways, but also the risks of rodents and synthetic rodenticides to human health and the environment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0192.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: naturally infected; hantavirus detection; urine; rodent; tissue
Online: 11 January 2021 (12:45:21 CET)
The natural hosts regarding Orthohantaviruses are rodents, soricomorphs and bats, and it is well known they may cause serious or even fatal diseases among humans worldwide. The virus is persistent among animals and it is shed via urine, saliva and feces, throughout the entirety of their lives. We aim to identify the effectiveness regarding hantavirus detection from rodent tissue samples and urine originating from naturally infected rodents. Initially, animals were trapped at five distinct locations throughout the Transdanubian region in Hungary. Lung, liver, kidney and urine samples were obtained from 163 perished animals. All organs and urine were tested using nested reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (nRT-PCR). Furthermore, sera were examined for IgG antibodies against DOBV and PUUV viruses by Western Blot assay. IgG antibodies against hantaviruses and/or nucleic acid were detected in 25 (15.3%) cases. Among Apodemus, Myodes, and Microtus rodent species, DOBV, PUUV, TULV were all clearly identified. The virus nucleic acid was detected most effectively from the kidney (100%), while only 55% of screened lung tissues were positive. Interestingly, only 3 out of 20 rodent urine samples were positive regarding nRT-PCR. Moreover, five rodents were seropositive without detectable virus nucleic acid from any of the tested organs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0071.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pharmacology & Toxicology Keywords: lysophospholipids; lysophosphatidic acids; cardiovascular diseases; HPLC-MS/MS; rodent models; pulmonary hypertension; chronic heart failure; hypertension
Online: 3 September 2021 (15:19:54 CEST)
Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are the leading cause of premature death and disability in humans. Increasing data suggest that CVD is closely related to lipid metabolism and signaling. This study aimed to assess whether circulating lysophospholipids (LPL), lysophosphatidic acids (LPA) and monoacylglycerols (MAG) may be considered as biomarkers of CVD. For this objective, the evolution of the plasma levels of 22 compounds (13 LPL, 6 LPA and 3 MAG) was monitored by liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC/MS²) in different rat models of CVD, i.e. angiotensin-II-induced hypertension (HTN), ischemic chronic heart failure (CHF) and sugen/hypoxia(SuHx)-induced pulmonary hypertension (PH). On one hand, there was modest changes on the monitored compounds in HTN (LPA 16:0, 18:1 and 20:4), LPC 16:1) and CHF (LPA 16:0, LPC 18:1 and LPE 16:0 and 18:0) models compared to control rats but these changes were no longer significant after correction for multiple testing. On the other hand, PH was associated with important changes in plasma LPA with a significant increase in the 16:0, 18:1, 18:2, 20:4 and 22:6 species. A deleterious impact of LPA was confirmed on isolated human pulmonary smooth muscle cells with an increase in their proliferation. This study demonstrates that circulating LPA species are increased in rats with PH and may contribute to the pathophysiology of this disease. Additional experiments are needed to assess whether the modulation of LPA signaling in PH may be of interest.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0053.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: thalamocortical loop; thalamus; microcircuit; modeling; reticular nucleus; somatosensory system; ventral posteromedial nucleus; ventral posterolateral nucleus; posterior nucleus; thalamic relay cells; thalamic interneurons; rodent
Online: 5 July 2020 (07:45:16 CEST)
As our understanding of the thalamocortical system deepens, the questions we face become more complex. Their investigation requires the adoption of novel experimental approaches complemented with increasingly sophisticated computational modeling. In this review, we take stock of current data and knowledge about the circuitry of the somatosensory thalamocortical loop in rodents, discussing common principles across modalities and species whenever appropriate. We review the different levels of organization, including the cells, synapses, neuroanatomy, and network connectivity. We provide a complete overview of this system that should be accessible for newcomers to this field while nevertheless being comprehensive enough to serve as a reference for seasoned neuroscientists and computational modelers studying the thalamocortical system. We further highlight key gaps in data and knowledge that constitute pressing targets for future experimental work. Filling these gaps would provide invaluable information for systematically unveiling how this system supports behavioral and cognitive processes.