REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0262.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: Fusarium graminearum; color; pigments; polyketides; carotenoids
Online: 14 September 2018 (11:20:34 CEST)
Several studies explore in depth the biochemistry and genetics of the pigments present in Fusarium graminearum but there is a need to discuss about their relationship with the mold’s observable surface color pattern variation throughout its lifecycle. Furthermore, they require basic cataloguing and description of their major features known so far. Colors are a viable alternative to size measurement in growth studies. When grown on yeast extract agar (YEA) at 25 °C, F. graminearum initially exhibits a whitish mycelium, developing into a yellow-orange mold by the sixth day and then turning into wine-red. The colors are likely due to accumulation of the golden yellow polyketide aurofusarin and the red rubrofusarin, but the carotenoid neurosporaxanthin possibly play also a major role in the yellow or orange coloration. Torulene might contribute for red tones but it perhaps ends up being converted into neurosporaxanthin. Culmorin is also present but it does not contribute for the color, though it was initially isolated in pigment studies, and there is the 5-deoxybostrycoidin-based melanin, but it occurs mostly in the teleomorph’s perithecium. There is still a need to chemically quantify the pigments throughout the lifecycle, analyze their relationships and how much each impacts F. graminearum surface color.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0214.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Microbiology Keywords: Streptomyces; polyketides; secondary metabolite; polyketide synthases (PKSs)
Online: 15 May 2018 (08:58:00 CEST)
Polyketides are large group of secondary metabolites that have notable variety in their structure and function. Polyketides exhibit a wide range of bioactivities such as antibacterial, antifungal, anticancer, antiviral, immune-suppressing, anti-cholesterol and anti-inflammatory activity. Naturally, they are found in bacteria, fungi, plants, protists, insects, mollusks and sponges. Streptomyces is a genus of Gram-positive bacteria that has a filamentous form like fungi. This genus is best known as one of polyketides producers. Some examples of polyketides produced by Streptomyces are rapamycin, oleandomycin, actinorhodin, daunorubicin and caprazamycin. Biosynthesis of polyketides involves a group of enzyme activities called polyketide synthases (PKSs). There are three types of PKSs (type I, type II, and type III) in Streptomyces that responsible for producing polyketides. This paper focuses on biosynthesis of polyketides in Streptomyces with three structurally different types of PKSs.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0051.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Organic Chemistry Keywords: lactones; lactames; isoindolinones; non-enzymatic biosynthesis; benzophenones; polyketides; reactive natural products; SAHA; aniline, hydroxamic acids
Online: 6 November 2019 (02:53:57 CET)
The structures of recently discovered primarolides A and B suggest their non-enzymatic formation from a common 2-formylbenzophenone precursor. This hypothesis is based on the experimentally proven facile conversion of pestalone (also a 2-formyl-benzophenone) either into the isomeric lactone pestalalactone or the structurally related isoindolinone pestalachloride A. In a related fashion, the racemic isoindolinone natural product mariline A is supposed to biosynthetically originate from the corresponding keto-aldehyde and an aniline, as experimentally supported by model studies. Due to the close structural relationship with known systems, it appears highly probable that primarolides A and B were generated under the fermentation conditions from a massarinin-related 2-formylbenzophenone (proprimarolide) by reaction either with aniline or a nucleophilic catalyst, respectively. Suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA), used as an additive during the fermentation, is supposed to act both as a source of aniline and as a nucleophilic catalyst.